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首页 *新书上架*德勒兹:电影与哲学

*新书上架*德勒兹:电影与哲学.pdf

*新书上架*德勒兹:电影与哲学

九月虺
2009-09-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*德勒兹:电影与哲学pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PARALLAX••REVISIONSOFCULTUREANDSOCIETY'JPdWendSteinerStephenGNichols,Geralurmee,an'JSERIESEDITORSGillesDeleuzeCinemaandPhilosophyPaolaMarratiTranslatedbyAlisaHartzTheJohnsHopkinsUniversity�ressBaltImoreThisbookhasbeenbroughtropublicationwiththegenerousassistanceoftheHumanitiesCenterandtheKtiegerSchoolofArtsandSciencesattheJohnsHopkinsUniversicyOriginallypublishedasGillesDeleuze:Cinemaetphilosophie,©PressesUniversitairesdeFrance©TheJohnsHopkinsUniversityPressAllrightsreservedPublishedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperTheJohnsHopkinsUniversicyPressNorthCharlesStreetBaltimore,MarylandwwwpressjhueduMarrati,PaolaGillesOeleuze:cinemaandphilosophyPaolaMarratitranslatedbyAlisaHartzpcm(Parallax,revisionsofcultureandsociety)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNI:I(hardcover:alkpaper)ISBN:(hardcover:alkpaper)IMotionpicturesPhilosophyDeleuze,Gilles,TitlePNI·MIOIdcAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrarySpecialdiscountsal·eavailableforbulkpurchasesofthisblJokFormon:information,pleasecontactSpecialSalesatOIorspecialsalespressjhueduTheJohnsHopkinsUniversityPressusesenvironmentallyfriendlybookmaterials,includingrecycledtextpaperthatiscomposedofatleastpercentpostconsumerwaste,wheneverpossibleAllofourbookpapersareacidfree,andourjacketsandcoversareprintedonpaperwithrecycledcontentToLeoandHentIContentsPrefacetotheEnglishlanguageEditioniXAcknowledgmentsXVllFrequentlyCitedTextsXiXIntroductionImagesinMovementandMovementImagesCinemaandPerceptionTheMontageoftheWholePostwarCinemaTheTimeImageImagesandImmanence:TheProblemoftheWorldConclusionAppendixALostEveryday:DeleuzeandCavellonHollywoodNotesIIWorksCitedIndexIPrefacetotheEnglishlanguageEditionDeleuze'stwobooksoncinema,CinemaI:TheMovementImageandCinema:TheTimeImage,evenmorethanhisotherworks,callfordifferentaudiencesanddifferentreadingsTheyobviouslyareofin­teresttostudentsandscholarsoffilmandmedia,aswellastophi­losophersandcriticaltheoristsengagedwithDeleuze'sthinkingButtheyalsogetattentionacrossdisciplinaryboundariesCinemaIandofferchallenginganalysesofmodesofperceptionTheydescribeapluralityofequallycompellingwaysoflinkingpast,present,andfuture,waysthatmayexcludeeachother,butthat,moreoftenthannot,overlapandcoexist,givingtotime,andtoourexperienceofit,athick,layeredfabricTogetherthesebooksprovideinnovativeconceptstohelpusthinkaboutthepowerofimages,affects,andbeliefs,aboutthepowerofthemindandofthebodyallofwhichweknow,infact,solittleaboutItdoesnotcomeasasurprise,then,thatbothbooksincreasinglyfindreadersinallthefieldsofthehu­manitiesandsocialsciencesNoonecansaywhether"thecenturywillbeDeleuzian,"asFoucaultsomehowironicallypredicted,butthereceptionofDeleuze'sworkingeneral,andoncinemainparticular,isinthisregardonlyatitsbeginningCinemaIandaredifficultbooks,however,andtheircrossdisci­plinaryappealmakesitallthemoreimportantthattheirdensephil­osophicalargumentsandunderpinningsshouldbecloselyanalyzedandunpackedIhopethatthisstudycontributestosuchataskandthatitwillprovehelpfultoallreadersofDeleuzeMyaiminthisprefaceisnottomapouttherecentreceptionofDeleuze'sworkoncinemaacrossdisciplinesSuchareceptionisstillinthemaking,and,tomymind,itistooearlytoattemptageneralIXPrefocetotheEnglishlanguageEditionoverviewofitsinfluenceFurther,suchanenterprise,nomatterhowimportantandusefulitmightbe,belongstothefieldofintellectualhistoryandisthereforeataskIamnotpreparedtoundertakeNoristhisprefacemeanttobeadescriptionofthecontentofthebooktheintroductionfulfillsthatnecessaryfunctionMyaimisrathertoadvanceaclaimthat,assuch,isnotexplicitlymadeinthebookforthecompellingreasonthatitwasnotoneoftheguidinghypothesesofmystudybut,rather,imposeditselfuponmewhileIwaswriting,asaconsequenceoftheanalysesundertakenTheclaimisthis:CinemaIandarethekeytextsinwhichDeleuzedevelopshispoliticalphilosophyThisisnottodenytheim­portanceofthemoreopenlypoliticalbookssuchasAntiOedipusorAThousandPlateaus,norisittodenythesignificanceofDeleuze'scollaborationwithFelixGuattariItisevenlesstoarguethatcinemaisnottherealobjectofthebooksbutonlyapretexttowriteaboutpoliticsAsIhopetoshow,DeleuzetakesabsolutelyseriouslytheBergsonianinjunctionthatphilosophyneedsprecisionandhastoelaboratesingularconceptsthatfitsingularobjects,andthemalone,ifitwantstoavoidbuildinggeneralsystemsofexplanationthatcanbe,indeed,appliedtoeverythingbutonlybecauseoftheirempti­nessMyhypothesisisadifferentone:itisthatpreciselybecauseDeleuzeaimstograspthespecificityofcinema,itsnovelty,aswellasthenoveltyofitsdifferentinstances,thatheisledtoanalyzeindetailformsofactionandagencyandtheirtransformationsItissuchacloseanalysisofagencythatconstitutes,tomymind,thepoliticalcontri­butionofCinemaIandWhiletheregimeofmovementimages,asDeleuzeunderstandsit,isnotreducibletotheactionimageform,itisundeniablethatCinemaIdwellsextensivelyonfilmsthatmakeoftheactionimagetheirorganizingcenterAffectionimagesandperceptionimagesarealwayspresent,buttheyrarelyconstitutetheorganizingprincipleofafilmThisiswhyclassiccinemamostlyprivilegestheactionformandtheactivemontagebeitorganic,asinGriffith,ordialectic,asinEisensteinTheriseofmoderncinemaintheaftermathofWorldWarII,inDeleuze'sanalyses,marksthedemiseoftheactionforminxPrefocetotheEnglishlanguageEditionfavorofdifferentformsofmontagethatundotheprimacyofactionandpresentotherlinksamongperceptions,affections,andagencySuchamoderncinemaistheexplicitobjectofCinema,whichex­plorestheupsurgeoffilmsthatnolongersubordinatetimetomove­mentoractionbutratheraimatmakingtime,assuch,perceptibleIfthisisthemostrecognizable,andrecognized,moveofthebooks,someofitsimplicationshavenotbeensufficientlyspelledoutnamelywhattheanalysesoftheactionimageformhastosayaboutbothliberalandMarxistinspiredpoliticaltheoriesandwhattheanalysisofthetimeimageregimeshavetosayaboutthepoliticalconsequencesoftheprimacyof"time"over"movement"Iwouldliketoarguethattheactionform,asDeleuzedescribesit,correspondstoliberalandhistoricistnotionsofsubjectivityandagency,whiletheriseoftimeimages,inthesenseDeleuzegivestotheterm,shouldnotbeunderstoodasthesimple,andeasy,claimthatthereisnofu­turefor(political)actionbut,onthecontrary,asanefforttothinkagencyanew,alongdifferentlinesthanthoseprescribedbyliberalismandhistoricismSuchaDeleuzianapproachtoagencyisgroundedonanunderstandingofmodernitythat,fornotbeingmainstream,deservesattentionifonewantstofullygraspitTheinsistencewithwhichDeleuzehighlightsthesimilaritybe­tweenGriffith'sandEisenstein'sconceptandpracticeofmontageissignificantinthisregardCertainly,EisensteinhasaverydifferentnotionofthelawsthatgovernthelifeofahumansocietythanGrif­fithhas,buttheybothunderstanditasanorganicunitywhoseele­mentsareheldtogetherbynecessary,andcoherent,tiesEisenstein'scriticismofGriffith's"bourgeois"formofmontageisgroundedpre­ciselyonsuchasharedassumptionGriffithdoesnotgraspthedia­lecticnatureofthelawsthatgovernthelifeofthesocialorganism,itsgrowth,tensions,andcriseshewronglyassumesthattheelementsoftheorganismarenaturallygiveninsteadofbeinghistoricallypro­duced,andhefailstoseethatwhatthreatensitsunityorrecomposesitatahigherlevelisnotoftheorderofindividualpassions,desires,orbetrayalsInbothcases,however,whatsetsinmotionthelifeoftheorganismareactionsWhatgivessignificancetoaffects,ideas,XlPrefacetotheEnglishlanguageEditiondesires,andvaluesistherealmofpossibleactionsAsBergsonwrites:"perceptionismasterofspaceintheexactmeasureinwhichactionismasteroftime"!Timeitself,personalorhistorical,becomessignificantonlyastheframeinwhichactionsunfoldThedefinitionoftimeas"measureofmovement"goesbacktoAristotle,butifDeleuzerepeatedlyrecallsitinhisCinemabooks,itisbecauseitalsoappliestomorerecentnotionsofsubjectivityandhistorystructuredaroundtheprimacyofactionSuchaprimacycurvestheuniverse,asBergsonwrites,givingtoitanorganizingcenter,andindoingso,actionshapesbothspaceandtimeTimetakesontheformofthelinearsequenceofthepast,present,andfutureoftheaction:itmeasuresthemovementsofanactingsubjectForDeleuze,suchalogicofactionpresentsapowerfulandcon­sistentwayofunderstandingthebondsthathumanscreatebetweenthem,theirsocialandnaturalmilieu,theirindividualandcollectivehistorySuchalogicofactionis,forDeleuze,whatsustainsaspecificformofsubjectivity,aswellasdominantconceptionsofpoliticsLib­eraltheoriesofdemocracybetheyRawlsianorHabermasianrelyon,explicitlyorimplicitly,thenotionofanindividualsubjectwhoserationalityisprimarilyunderstoodasacapacityforactionButpolit­icaltheories,Marxistorotherwiseoriented,thatfocusonacollectivesubjectivityalsodefineitmainlyintermsofactionTheindividualorhistoricalpoliticalsubjectisthesubjectofaction(inthesenseDeleuzegivestotheterm)Theactionimageisacinematographicdevice,butitspellsoutthecontinuityofindividualandcollectivewaysofunderstandingsocialandhisroricallifeasorientedbyandto­wardactionIwouldfurtherarguethatrecenttheoriesofsovereigntydonotquestiontheprimacyofactionbutonlydisplaceitsactor:thedecisiveactionisnolongercarriedoutbyanindividualorcollectivesubjectbutbyanalmightyandunfathomable"sovereignpower"Asiswellknown,classiccinema,forDeleuze,lostforusitspowerofconvictionlongago,and,arguably,thesameholdstrueofpo­liticalprojectsgroundedontheprimacyofactionandthespecifictemporalityitexpressesButcanpoliticsforgoactionCanweevenXliPrefocetotheEnglishlanguageEditionthinkofpolitics,atleastprogressivepolitics,nolongershapedbyhu­managencyandorientedtowarda(better)futureDeleuze'sanalysesofmoderncinemadwellextensivelyonthecomplex,layerednatureoftime,onthedifferentformsoftimeimagesheremainssilent,though,onnewpossibilitiesofagency,asifwewouldhavetoforgoaction,asifwecouldforgoactionHisfamousdescriptionsofItalianneorealismasacinemaoftheseer,wherethecharactersarenolongerabletoactinresponsetothesituationandaremorespectatorsthanagents,wouldseemtoconfirmtheideathat,forDeleuze,notonlyaspecificformofagencyislostforusbutagencyitselfThisreading,however,missesacrucialpointofDeleuze'sanaly­sesItisnotoutofpassivity,powerlessness,orresignationthatoneisnolongercapableofimmediatelyand"appropriately"respondingtoagivensituationoreventItisquitetheopposite:theresponseissuspendedbecauseonehasbecomeawarethatcertainactionsarepowerlessHabitsofconduct,patternsofbehavior,aredeemedtoex­pressweaknessorstrength,loveorcontempt,indignationorrevoltNottoengageintheappropriateresponse,nottoexpresstheappro­priateaffectmayseemtoimplypassivity,orworseDeleuze'spoint,though,isthatsometimes,perhapsevenoften,"actingintheap­propriateway"ispreciselythelackofresponseandtherefosaltoac­knowledgeourhelplessnessThedisplayofmilitarypowermaynotbethesolutiontonew,orold,dangers,butitcertainlyconveys,foratime,theillusionofbeingincontrol,oflmowingwhatthesitu­ationisaboutandknowingwhattodoaboutitFollowingthelogicofDeleuze'sargument,onecouldsaythattheseactionsarelikelytobeactsofdenial,hidingin"needforaction"boththeinabilitytotrulyrespondtothechallengeandtheawarenessofinadequacyDeleuzeinsistedontheimportanceoflearningtoperceiveinor­dertoperceiveandnotjusttoreact,onthepowerofcontemplation,andtheneedfortimeandthoughtisperfectlypertinentforpoli­ticsDeleuzedescribesmoderncinemaasacinemainsearchofmorethoughtThisisnottosaythatclassiccinemawasstupiditistosay,rather,thatnewsituationsrequirenewcinematicformsbecausetheoldoneshavelosttheirpowerofconvictionforusThesameholdsXUlPrefacetotheEnglishlanguageEditiontrueforpolitics:politicsneedmorethought(andcreativity)insteadofemptymimicriesofthepastAlongthesamelines,certainlythereisnopoliticswithoutagency,butagencyrequiresmorethanthefic­tionofaselftransparentandalmightysubjectDeleuze'sclaimthatmoderncinemasetstimefreefromitssubor­dinationtomovementdoesnotsaythatmovementsandactionsarefrozeninastilltimeitdoesnotsaythatfilmsbecome"slow"(evenifsomemay)Itsaysthatmovementsandactionsnolongershapebothtimeandspacebutratherthattheyoccurintimeandspace,whichisaverydifferentstatementThelineoftheuniverseisnolongerdescribedby,orcenteredon,ourpossibleactionsactionsalongwithaffects,perceptions,andthoughtstakeplace,respond,orfailtorespond,toeachother,reacttoeachother,ornotInshort:notonly"actions"haveagency,andtheagencytheydohavedoesnotgostraightfromoneactiontoanotheroneInDeleuze'sview,wecer­tainlyneedmorethoughttofollowthetracksofmultipleagencieswecertainlyneedmorethoughttocreate"newformsoflife"butwealsoneed,maybeinthefirstplace,toacknowledgethepowerofthoughtSuchaninsistenceontheimportanceofthinkingmayseemtrivial,especiallycomingfromaphilosopherAnditwouldbesoifDeleuze,followingHeidegger,didnotconstantlyremindushowdifficultitistothink,andthatinfact,mostofthetime,wedonotthinkCertainly,Deleuze'sanalysesofmoderncinemadonotproduceanewmodelofagencyendowedwiththeconsistencyandsimplicityoftheorganicandordialecticformoftheactionimageItmaybedifficulttorenouncetheimage'spowerandthebeliefintheredemp­tive(andtranscendent)functionofthefuturethatunderliesit,butthefactisthereisnothingwehavetorenounce:wenolongerbelieveinorganictiesordialecticallawsWecanact"asif"westillbelieveinthosetiesorlawstoavoidthecomplexitiesofthepresentwecandenythattheynolongercarryanypowerofconvictionforus,buttheseareonlyreactivemovesAnditisreactive,althoughinadif­ferentway,toturnback,inanostalgicmood,towarda(mythical)betterpastThecriticaltaskofthinking,forDeleuze,mustavoidXIVPrefacetotheEnglishlanguageEditionbothnostalgiaanddenialinordertobecreativeCinemaappearedtoDeleuzetobehighlyinnovativeinallregards(badfilmsnotwith­standing),andmoderncinemawasparticularlycapableofexploringnewformsofagencyfoldedintime,linkedinmorecomplexwaystoperceptions,affects,andthoughtsIthadlostacertain"realism"andthesimplicityoftheclassicform,butindoingso,itgaineddeeperlayersofrealityandsubjectivityInthisregard,onemaysaythatcin­ema,forDeleuze,wasinadvanceofphilosophyandpolitics,which,mostofthetime,overplaythesovereigntyoftheactionAnditex­plains,Ibelieve,whythebestpoliticalphilosophyofGillesDeleuzecanbefoundinhisCinemabooksxvIAcknowledgmentsIamdeeplyindebtedtothosewhoheightenedmyinterestinDeleuze:DenisGuenoun,becauseofourconversations,andGhis­laineGlassonDeschaumes,becausesheinvitedmetotalkaboutmi­noritiestoacomplexaudienceatadifficulttimegraduatestudentsfromalltheBalkancountriesduringthewar:Ifoundmyselfataloss,andIstartedreadingAThousandPlateausontheconceptofbecoming"minoritarian"ThankstothatoccasionIfoundawayofengagingwithaphilosopherwhohadbeenutterlyalientomeforalongtimeIamequallyindebtedtothosewithwhomIhavewatchedsomanymovies:HentdeVries,mydaughterLeo,andseveralotherfriendsThankstotheircompany,Ihavecometodiscover,andoftenenjoy,filmsandgenrestowhichIwouldnotspontaneouslyhavebeendrawnIbelievenowthatbeingexposedtoawiderangeofstylesandregistersfromcontemporaryAsiancinematoHarryPot­ter,forinstanceconstitutesmymostpreciouscinematographiceducationAlthoughtheseexperiencesandthethoughtstheyhaveprovokedarenotexplicitlypresentinthisstudy,theywereconstantlyonmymindwhenIwaswritingitand,Iamconvinced,playanim­portantroleintheanalysesthebookdevelopsThebookisalso,accordingtoadifferenttemporality,deeplyin­debtedtothosewithwhomIhavebeenandhopetocontinuetobeinconversationinmorerecentyearsFriends,colleagues,andstudentsInamethemhere,foutedemieux,inalphabeticalorder:JaneBennett,JayBernstein,JudithButler,WilliamConnolly,VeenaDas,AaronGoodfellow,DenisGuenoun,AlexLefebvre,ToddMey­ers,EricMichaud,AlessiaRicciardi,MatthewScherer,NilsSchott,XVllAcknowledgmentsHentdeVriesAndtoLeo,whocontinuestoteachmesomuchIwouldalsoliketothankmycolleaguesattheHumanitiesCenterandotherdepartmentsattheJohnsHopkinsUniversity:itisdifficulttoimagineamorechallengingandcongenialintellectualcontextAlltheseconversationsareprecious,andinspiring,tomyintellectualandemotionallifeAspecialacknowledgmentgoestoFrans:oisZourabichvili,whodecidedtoendhislifeinthespringofIcannotjudgehisactno­bodycan:IonlywanttosayhowmuchImisshim,asaphilosopher­oneoftherarewhorigorouslyreadDeleuzeandasafriendXVlIFrequentlyCitedTextsFrequentlycitedtextsappearinparenthesesandarereferencedbythefollowingabbreviationsForfullbibliographicalreferences,seeWorksCitedPagenumbersseparatedwithavirgulereferfirsttotheEnglishtranslationandthentotheoriginalByGillesDeleuzeCICinemaI:TheMovementImageCCinema:TheTimeImageByGillesDeleuzeandFelixGuattariWPhWhatIsPhilosophyByHenriBergsonCECreativeEv

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