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首页 *新书上架*【杜威】艺术即经验

*新书上架*【杜威】艺术即经验.pdf

*新书上架*【杜威】艺术即经验

九月虺
2009-09-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【杜威】艺术即经验pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ARTASEXPERIENCEBYJOHNDEWEYAWTOEVTEWPERIGEEBOOKCopyright©,byJohnDeweyAllrightsreservedSBNPerigeeBooksarepublishedbyGPPutnam'sSonsMadisonAvenueNewYork,NewYorkFirstPerigeePrinting,rdImpressionLibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:MANUFACTUREDINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICATOALBERTCBARNESINGRATITUDEPREFACEINTHEwinterandspringof,wasinvitedtogiveaseriesoftenlecturesatHarvardUniversityThesubjectchosenwasthePhilosophyofArtthelecturesaretheoriginofthepresentvolumeTheLectureshipwasfoundedinmemoryofWilliamJamesandIesteemitagreathonortohavethisbookassociatedevenindirectlywithhisdistinguishednameItisapleasure,also,terecall,inconnectionwiththelectures,theunvaryingkindnessandhospitalityofmycolleaguesinthedepartmentofphilosophyatHarvardIamsomewhatembarrassedinanefforttoacknowledgeindebtednesstootherwritersonthesubjectSomeaspectsofitmaybeinferredfromauthorsmentionedorquotedinthetextIhavereadonthesubjectformanyyears,however,moreorlesswidelyinEnglishliterature,somewhatlessinFrenchandstilllessinGerman,andIhaveabsorbedmuchfromsourceswhichIcannotnowdirectlyrecallMoreover,myobligationstoanumberofwritersaremuchgreaterthanmightbegatheredfromallusionstotheminthevolumeitselfMyindebtednesstothosewhohavehelpedmedirectlycanbemoreeasilystatedDrJosephRatnergavemeanumberofvaluablereferencesDrMeyerSchapirowasgoodenoughtoreadthetwelfthandthirteenthchaptersandtomakesuggestionswhichIhavefreelyadoptedIrwinEdmanreadalargepartofthebookinmanuscriptandIowemuchtohissuggestionsandcriticismSidneyHookreadmanyofthechapters,andtheirpresentformislargelytheresultofdiscussionswithhimthisstatementisespeciallytrueofthechaptersoncriticismandthelastchapterMygreatestindebtednessistoDrACBarnesThechaptershavebeengoneoveronebyonewithhim,andyetwhatIowetohiscommentsandsuggestionsonthisaccountisbutasmallmeasureofmydebtIhavehadthebenefitofconversationswithhimthroughaperiodofyears,manyofwhichoccurredinthepresenceoftheunrivaledcollectionofpictureshehasassembledTheinfluenceoftheseconversations,togetherwiththatofhisbooks,hasbeenachieffactorinshapingmyownthinkingaboutthephilosophyofestheticsWhateverissoundinthisvolumeisduemorethanIcansaytothegreateducationalworkcarriedonintheBarnesFoundationThatworkisofapioneerqualitycomparabletothebestthathasbeendoneinanyfieldduringthepresentgeneration,thatofsciencenotexceptedIshouldbegladtothinkofthisvolumeasonephaseofthewidespreadinfluencetheFoundationisexercisingIamindebtedtotheBarnesFoundationforpermissiontoreproduceanumberofillustrationsandtoBarbaraandWillardMorganforthephotographsfromwhichthereproductionsweremadeJDCONTENTSPREFACEviiITHELIVECREATUREnTHELIVECREATUREAND"ETHERIALTHINGS"IIIHAVINGANEXPERIENCEIVTHEACTOFEXPRESSION*VTHEEXPRESSIVEOBJECTVISUBSTANCEANDFORMxoVnTHENATURALHISTORYOFFORMVIIITHEORGANIZATIONOFENERGIESIXTHECOMMONSUBSTANCEOFTHEARTSXTHEVARIEDSUBSTANCEOFTHEARTSXITHEHUMANCONTRIBUTIONSXIITHECHALLENGETOPHILOSOPHYXIHCRITICISMANDPERCEPTIONXIVARTANDCIVILIZATION*INDEXiARTASEXPERIENCECHAPTERITHELIVECREATUREBYONEoftheironicperversitiesthatoftenattendthecourseofaffairs,theexistenceoftheworksofartuponwhichformationofanesthetictheorydependshasbecomeanobstructiontotheoryaboutthemForonereason,theseworksareproductsthatexistexternallyandphysicallyIncommonconception,theworkofartisoftenidentifiedwiththebuilding,book,painting,orstatueinitsexistenceapartfromhumanexperienceSincetheactualworkofartiswhattheproductdoeswithandinexperience,theresultisnotfavorabletounderstandingInaddition,theveryperfectionofsomeoftheseproducts,theprestigetheypossessbecauseofalonghistoryofunquestionedadmiration,createsconventionsthatgetinthewayoffreshinsightWhenanartproductonceattainsclassicstatus,itsomehowbecomesisolatedfromthehumanconditionsunderwhichitwasbroughtintobeingandfromthehumanconsequencesitengendersinactuallifeexperienceWhenartisticobjectsareseparatedfrombothconditionsoforiginandoperationinexperience,awallisbuiltaroundthemthatrendersalmostopaquetheirgeneralsignificance,withwhichesthetictheorydealsArtisremittedtoaseparaterealm,whereitiscutofffromthatassociationwiththematerialsandaimsofeveryotherformofhumaneffort,undergoing,andachievementAprimarytaskisthusimposedupononewhoundertakestowriteuponthephilosophyofthefineartsThistaskistorestorecontinuitybetweentherefinedandintensifiedformsofexperiencethatareworksofartandtheeverydayevents,doings,andsufferingsthatareuniversallyrecognizedtoconstituteexperienceMountainpeaksdonotfloatunsupportedtheydonotevenjustrestupontheearthTheyaretheearthinoneofitsmanifestoperationsItisthebusinessofthosewhoareconcernedwiththetheoryoftheearth,geographersandgeologists,tomakethisfactARTASEXPERIENCEevidentinitsvariousimplications,ThetheoristwhowoulddealphilosophicallywithfinearthasaliketasktoaccomplishIfoneiswillingtograntthisposition,evenifonlybywayoftemporaryexperiment,hewillseethattherefollowsaconclusionatfirstsightsurprisingInordertounderstandthemeaningofartisticproducts,wehavetoforgetthemforatime,toturnasidefromthemandhaverecoursetotheordinaryforcesandconditionsofexperiencethatwedonotusuallyregardasestheticWemustarriveatthetheoryofartbymeansofadetourFortheoryisconcernedwithunderstanding,insight,notwithoutexclamationsofadmiration,andstimulationofthatemotionaloutburstoftencalledappreciationItisquitepossibletoenjoyflowersintheircoloredformanddelicatefragrancewithoutknowinganythingaboutplantstheoreticallyButifonesetsouttounderstandthefloweringofplants,heiscommittedtofindingoutsomethingabouttheinteractionsofsoil,air,waterandsunlightthatconditionthegrowthofplantsBycommonconsent,theParthenonisagreatworkofartYetithasestheticstandingonlyastheworkbecomesanexperienceforahumanbeingAnd,ifoneistogobeyondpersonalenjoymentintotheformationofatheoryaboutthatlargerepublicofartofwhichthebuildingisonemember,onehastobewillingatsomepointinhisreflectionstoturnfromittothebustling,arguing,acutelysensitiveAtheniancitizens,withcivicsenseidentifiedwithacivicreligion,ofwhoseexperiencethetemplewasanexpression,andwhobuiltitnotasaworkofartbutasaciviccommemorationTheturningtothemisashumanbeingswhohadneedsthatwereademandforthebuildingandthatwerecarriedtofulfillmentinititisnotanexaminationsuchasmightbecarriedonbyasociologistinsearchformaterialrelevanttohispurposeTheonewhosetsouttotheorizeabouttheestheticexperienceembodiedintheParthenonmustrealizeinthoughtwhatthepeopleintowhoselivesitenteredhadincommon,ascreatorsandasthosewhoweresatisfiedwithit,withpeopleinourownhomesandonourownstreetsInordertounderstandtheestheticinitsultimateandapprovedforms,onemustbeginwithitintherawintheeventsandscenesthatholdtheattentiveeyeandearofman,arousinghisinterestandaffordinghimenjoymentashelooksandTHELIVECREATURElistens:thesightsthatholdthecrowdthefireenginerushingbythemachinesexcavatingenormousholesintheearththehumanflyclimbingthesteeplesidethemenperchedhighinairongirders,throwingandcatchingredhotboltsThesourcesofartinhumanexperiencewillbelearnedbyhimwhoseeshowthetensegraceoftheballplayerinfectstheonlookingcrowdwhonotesthedelightofthehousewifeintendingherplants,andtheintentinterestofhergoodmanintendingthepatchofgreeninfrontofthehousethezestofthespectatorinpokingthewoodburningonthehearthandinwatchingthedartingflamesandcrumblingcoalsThesepeople,ifquestionedastothereasonfortheiractions,woulddoubtlessreturnreasonableanswersThemanwhopokedthesticksofburningwoodwouldsayhedidittomakethefireburnbetterbutheisnonethelessfascinatedbythecolorfuldramaofchangeenactedbeforehiseyesandimaginativelypartakesinitHedoesnotremainacoldspectatorWhatColeridgesaidofthereaderofpoetryistrueinitswayofallwhoarehappilyabsorbedintheiractivitiesofmindandbody:"Thereadershouldbecarriedforward,notmerelyorchieflybythemechanicalimpulseofcuriosity,notbyarestlessdesiretoarriveatthefinalsolution,butbythepleasurableactivityofthejourneyitself"Theintelligentmechanicengagedinhisjob,interestedindoingwellandfindingsatisfactioninhishandiwork,caringforhismaterialsandtoolswithgenuineaffection,isartisticallyengagedThedifferencebetweensuchaworkerandtheineptandcarelessbunglerisasgreatintheshopasitisinthestudioOftentimestheproductmaynotappealtotheestheticsenseofthosewhousetheproductThefault,however,isoftentimesnotsomuchwiththeworkeraswiththeconditionsofthemarketforwhichhisproductisdesignedWereconditionsandopportunitiesdifferent,thingsassignificanttotheeyeasthoseproducedbyearliercraftsmenwouldbemadeSoextensiveandsubtlypervasivearetheideasthatsetArtuponaremotepedestal,thatmanyapersonwouldberepelledratherthanpleasediftoldthatheenjoyedhiscasualrecreations,inpartatleast,becauseoftheirestheticqualityTheartswhichtodayhavemostvitalityfortheaveragepersonarethingshedoesnottaketobearts:forinstance,themovie,jazzedmusic,*ARTASEXPERIENCEthecomicstrip,and,toofrequently,newspaperaccountsoflovenests,murders,andexploitsofbanditsFor,whenwhatheknowsasartisrelegatedtothemuseumandgallery,theunconquerableimpulsetowardsexperiencesenjoyableinthemselvesfindssuchoutletasthedailyenvironmentprovidesManyapersonwhoprotestsagainstthemuseumconceptionofart,stillsharesthefallacyfromwhichthatconceptionspringsForthepopularnotioncomesfromaseparationofartfromtheobjectsandscenesofordinaryexperiencethatmanytheoristsandcriticspridethemselvesuponholdingandevenelaboratingThetimeswhenselectanddistinguishedobjectsarecloselyconnectedwiththeproductsofusualvocationsarethetimeswhenappreciationoftheformerismostrifeandmostkeenWhen,becauseoftheirremoteness,theobjectsacknowledgedbythecultivatedtobeworksoffineartseemanemictothemassofpeople,esthetichungerislikelytoseekthecheapandthevulgarThefactorsthathaveglorifiedfineartbysettingituponafaroffpedestaldidnotarisewithintherealmofartnoristheirinfluenceconfinedtotheartsFormanypersonsanauraofmingledaweandunrealityencompassesthe"spiritual"andthe"ideal"while"matter"hasbecomebycontrastatermofdepreciation,somethingtobeexplainedawayorapologizedforTheforcesatworkarethosethathaveremovedreligionaswellasfineartfromthescopeofthecommonorcommunitylifeTheforceshavehistoricallyproducedsomanyofthedislocationsanddivisionsofmodernlifeandthoughtthatartcouldnotescapetheirinfluenceWedonothavetotraveltotheendsoftheearthnorreturnmanymillenniaintimetofindpeoplesforwhomeverythingthatintensifiesthesenseofimmediatelivingisanobjectofintenseadmirationBodilyscarification,wavingfeathers,gaudyrobes,shiningornamentsofgoldandsilver,ofemeraldandjade,formedthecontentsofestheticarts,and,presumably,withoutthevulgarityofclassexhibitionismthatattendstheiranaloguestodayDomesticutensils,furnishingsoftentandhouse,rugs,mats,jars,pots,bows,spears,werewroughtwithsuchdelightedcarethattodaywehuntthemoutandgivethemplacesofhonorinourartmuseumsYetintheirowntimeandplace,suchthingswereenhancementsoftheprocessesofeverydaylifeInsteadofbeingelevatedtoanicheapart,theybelongedtodisplayofprowess,theTHELIVECREATUREmanifestationofgroupandclanmembership,worshipofgods,feastingandfasting,fighting,hunting,andalltherhythmiccrisesthatpunctuatethestreamoflivingDancingandpantomime,thesourcesoftheartofthetheater,flourishedaspartofreligiousritesandcelebrationsMusicalartaboundedinthefingeringofthestretchedstring,thebeatingofthetautskin,theblowingwithreedsEveninthecaves,humanhabitationswereadornedwithcoloredpicturesthatkeptalivetothesensesexperienceswiththeanimalsthatweresocloselyboundwiththelivesofhumansStructuresthathousedtheirgodsandtheinstrumentalitiesthatfacilitatedcommercewiththehigherpowerswerewroughtwithespecialfinenessButtheartsofthedrama,music,painting,andarchitecturethusexemplifiedhadnopeculiarconnectionwiththeaters,galleries,museumsTheywerepartofthesignificantlifeofanorganizedcommunityThecollectivelifethatwasmanifestedinwar,worship,theforum,knewnodivisionbetweenwhatwascharacteristicoftheseplacesandoperations,andtheartsthatbroughtcolor,grace,anddignity,intothemPaintingandsculpturewereorganicallyonewitharchitecture,asthatwasonewiththesocialpurposethatbuildingsservedMusicandsongwereintimatepartsoftheritesandceremoniesinwhichthemeaningofgrouplifewasconsummatedDramawasavitalreenactmentofthelegendsandhistoryofgrouplifeNoteveninAthenscansuchartsbetornloosefromthissettingindirectexperienceandyetretaintheirsignificantcharacterAthleticsports,aswellasdrama,celebratedandenforcedtraditionsofraceandgroup,instructingthepeople,commemoratingglories,andstrengtheningtheircivicprideUndersuchconditions,itisnotsurprisingthattheAthenianGreeks,whentheycametoreflectuponart,formedtheideathatitisanactofreproduction,orimitationTherearemanyobjectionstothisconceptionButthevogueofthetheoryistestimonytothecloseconnectionofthefineartswithdailylifetheideawouldnothaveoccurredtoanyonehadartbeenremotefromtheinterestsoflifeForthedoctrinedidnotsignifythatartwasaliteralcopyingofobjects,butthatitreflectedtheemotionsandideasthatareassociatedwiththechiefinstitutionsofsociallifePlatofeltthisconnectionsostronglythatitledhimARTASEXPERIENCEtohisideaofthenecessityofcensorshipofpoets,dramatists,andmusiciansPerhapsheexaggeratedwhenhesaidthatachangefromtheDorictotheLydianmodeinmusicwouldbethesureprecursorofcivicdegenerationButnocontemporarywouldhavedoubtedthatmusicwasanintegralpartoftheethosandtheinstitutionsofthecommunityTheideaof"artforart'ssake"wouldnothavebeenevenunderstoodTheremustthenbehistoricreasonsfortheriseofthecompartmentalconceptionoffineartOurpresentmuseumsandgalleriestowhichworksoffineartareremovedandstoredillustratesomeofthecausesthathaveoperatedtosegregateartinsteadoffindingitanattendantoftemple,forum,andotherformsofassociatedlifeAninstructivehistoryofmodernartcouldbewrittenintermsoftheformationofthedistinctivelymoderninstitutionsofmuseumandexhibitiongalleryImaypointtoafewoutstandingfactsMostEuropeanmuseumsare,amongotherthings,memorialsoftheriseofnationalismandimperialismEverycapitalmusthaveitsownmuseumofpainting,sculpture,etc,devotedinparttoexhibitingthegreatnessofitsartisticpast,and,inotherpart,toexhibitingthelootgatheredbyitsmonarchsinconquestofothernationsforinstance,theaccumulationsofthespoilsofNapoleonthatareintheLouvreTheytestifytotheconnectionbetweenthemodernsegregationofartandnationalismandmilitarismDoubtlessthisconnectionhasservedattimesausefulpurpose,asinthecaseofJapan,who,whenshewasintheprocessofwesternization,savedmuchofherarttreasuresbynationalizingthetemplesthatcontainedthemThegrowthofcapitalismhasbeenapowerfulinfluenceinthedevelopmentofthemuseumastheproperhomeforworksofart,andinthepromotionoftheideathattheyareapartfromthecommonlifeThenouveauxriches,whoareanimportantbyproductofthecapitalistsystem,havefeltespeciallyboundtosurroundthemselveswithworksoffineartwhich,beingrare,arealsocostlyGenerallyspeaking,thetypicalcollectoristhetypicalcapitalistForevidenceofgoodstandingintherealmofhigherculture,heamassespaintings,statuary,andartisticbijoux,ashisstocksandbondscertifytohisstandingintheeconomicworldNotmerelyindividuals,butcommunitiesandnations,puttheirculturalgoodtasteinevidencebybuildingoperahouses,THELIVECREATUREgalleries,andmuseumsTheseshowthatacommunityisnotwhollyabsorbedinmaterialwealth,becauseitiswillingtospenditsgainsinpatronageofartIterectsthesebuildingsandcollectstheircontentsasitnowbuildsacathedralThesethingsreflectandestablishsuperiorculturalstatus,whiletheirsegregationfromthecommonlifereflectsthefactthattheyarenotpartofanativeandspontaneouscultureTheyareakindofcounterpartofaholierthanthouattitude,exhibitednottowardpersonsassuchbuttowardtheinterestsandoccupationsthatabsorbmostofthecommunity'stimeandenergyModernindustryandcommercehaveaninternationalscopeThecontentsofgalleriesandmuseumstestifytothegrowthofeconomiccosmopolitanismThemobilityoftradeandofpopulations,duetotheeconomicsystem,hasweakenedordestroyedtheconnectionbetweenworksofartandthegeniuslociofwhichtheywereoncethenaturalexpressionAsworksofarthavelosttheirindigenousstatus,theyhaveacquiredanewonethatofbeingspecimensoffineartandnothingelseMoreover,worksofartarenowproduced,likeotherarticles,forsaleinthemarketEconomicpatronagebywealthyandpowerfulindividualshasatmanytimesplayedapartintheencouragementofartisticproductionProbablymanyasavagetribehaditsMaecenasButnoweventhatmuchofintimatesocialconnectionislostintheimpersonalityofaworldmarketObjectsthatwereinthepastvalidandsignificantbecauseoftheirplaceinthelifeofacommunitynowfunctioninisolationfromtheconditionsoftheiroriginBythatfacttheyarealsosetapartfromcommonexperience,andserveasinsigniaoftasteandcertificatesofspecialcultureBecauseofchangesinindustrialconditionstheartisthasbeenpushedtoonesidefromthemainstreamsofactiveinterestIndustryhasbeenmechanizedandanartistcannotworkme*chanicallyf

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