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首页 *新书上架*民主试验:美国政治史的新方向

*新书上架*民主试验:美国政治史的新方向.pdf

*新书上架*民主试验:美国政治史的新方向

九月虺
2009-09-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*民主试验:美国政治史的新方向pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEDEMOCRATICEXPERIMENTThispageintentionallyleftblankTHEDEMOCRATICEXPERIMENTNEWDIRECTIONSINAMERICANPOLITICALHISTORYEditedbyMEGJACOBSWILLIAMJNOVAKJULIANEZELIZERPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPRINCETONANDOXFORDCopyrightbyPrincetonUniversityPressPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,WilliamStreet,Princeton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,MarketPlace,Woodstock,OxfordshireOXSYAllRightsReservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataThedemocraticexperiment:newdirectionsinAmericanpoliticalhistoryEditedbyMegJacobs,WilliamJNovak,andJulianEZelizerpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)ISBN(pbk:alkpaper)UnitedStatesPoliticsandgovernmentHistoriographyUnitedStatesPoliticsandgovernmentPoliticalcultureUnitedStatesHistoryDemocracyUnitedStatesHistoryFederalgovernmentUnitedStatesHistoryIJacobs,Meg,–IINovak,WilliamJ,–IIIZelizer,JulianEEDdcBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataisavailableThisbookhasbeencomposedinSabonPrintedonacidfreepaper∞wwwpupressprincetoneduPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaToAbigailHelenandSophiaMiriamThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSCONTRIBUTORSixACKNOWLEDGMENTSxiiiCHAPTERONETheDemocraticExperiment:NewDirectionsinAmericanPoliticalHistoryMegJacobsandJulianEZelizerCHAPTERTWOExplainingtheUnexplainable:TheCulturalContextoftheSeditionActJoanneBFreemanCHAPTERTHREEAffairsofOffice:TheExecutiveDepartments,theElectionof,andtheMakingoftheDemocraticPartyRichardRJohnCHAPTERFOURTheLegalTransformationofCitizenshipinNineteenthCenturyAmericaWilliamJNovakCHAPTERFIVEBringingtheConstitutionBackIn:Amendment,Innovation,andPopularDemocracyduringtheCivilWarEraMichaelVorenbergCHAPTERSIXDemocracyintheAgeofCapital:ContestingSuffrageRightsinGildedAgeNewYorkSvenBeckertCHAPTERSEVENDomesticityversusManhoodRights:Republicans,Democrats,and“FamilyValues”Politics,–RebeccaEdwardsCHAPTEREIGHTTheCaseforCourts:LawandPoliticalDevelopmentintheProgressiveEraMichaelWillrichviiiCONTENTSCHAPTERNINE“MirrorsofDesires”:InterestGroups,Elections,andtheTargetedStyleinTwentiethCenturyAmericaBrianBaloghCHAPTERTENPocketbookPolitics:DemocracyandtheMarketinTwentiethCenturyAmericaMegJacobsCHAPTERELEVENTheUneasyRelationship:Democracy,Taxation,andStateBuildingsincetheNewDealJulianEZelizerCHAPTERTWELVEAllPoliticsIsLocal:ThePersistenceofLocalisminTwentiethCenturyAmericaThomasJSugrueCHAPTERTHIRTEENSuburbanStrategies:TheVolatileCenterinPostwarAmericanPoliticsMatthewDLassiterCHAPTERFOURTEENFromHartztoTocqueville:ShiftingtheFocusfromLiberalismtoDemocracyinAmericaJamesTKloppenbergCHAPTERFIFTEENThePossibilitiesofAnalyticalPoliticalHistoryIraKatznelsonINDEXCONTRIBUTORSBrianBaloghisAssociateProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofVirginiaandcodirectoroftheAmericanPoliticalDevelopmentProgramattheMillerCenterofPublicAffairsHeistheauthorofChainReaction:ExpertDebateandPublicParticipationinAmericanNuclearPower()andiscompletingtwoworksabouttheriseofbiggovernment:BeforetheState:ReconcilingPublicandPrivateinNineteenthCenturyAmerica(tobepublishedbyCambridgeUniversityPress)and“BuildingaModernState:GiffordPinchotandtheTangledRootsofModernAdministrationintheUnitedStates”SvenBeckertisDunwalkeAssociateProfessoratHarvardUniversity,whereheteachesnineteenthcenturyUnitedStateshistoryHeistheauthorofTheMoniedMetropolis:NewYorkCityandtheConsolidationoftheAmericanBourgeoisie()BeckertwrotetheessayinthisvolumewhilebeingafellowattheCenterforScholarsandWritersinNewYorkCityCurrently,heisatworkonabookontheglobalconnectionsfosteredbynineteenthcenturycapitalism,TheEmpireofCotton:AGlobalHistory,tobepublishedbyAlfredAKnopfRebeccaEdwardsisAssociateProfessorofHistoryatVassarCollegeandtheauthorofAngelsintheMachinery:GenderinAmericanPartyPoliticsfromtheCivilWartotheProgressiveEra()SheisworkingonanarrativehistoryofthelatenineteenthcenturyUnitedStatesandabiographyofPopulistoratorMaryElizabethLeaseJoanneBFreemanisProfessorofHistoryatYaleUniversityandauthorofAffairsofHonor:NationalPoliticsintheNewRepublic(),andAlexanderHamilton:Writings()HernextbookwillexplorethecultureofCongressinantebellumAmericaMegJacobsisAssistantProfessorofHistoryatMITSheiscompletingabook,PocketbookPoliticsinTwentiethCenturyAmerica,tobepublishedwithPrincetonUniversityPressShehaspublishedarticlesintheJournalofAmericanHistoryandInternationalLaborandWorkingClassHistoryHernextbookwillexplorethepoliticaleconomyofpostwarAmericaRichardRJohnisAssociateProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofChicagoatIllinoisHeistheauthorofSpreadingtheNews:TheAmericanPostalSystemfromFranklintoMorse()HeiscurrentlywritingxCONTRIBUTORSMakingConnections:InventingAmericanTelecommunications,–,whichwillbepublishedbyHarvardUniversityPressHewastheLloydLewisFellowattheNewberryLibraryin–andthecowinneroftheHaroldFWilliamsonPrizefromtheBusinessHistoryConferenceIraKatznelsonisRugglesProfessorofPoliticalScienceandHistoryatColumbiaUniversityHisbooksincludeBlackMen,WhiteCities(),CityTrenches(),SchoolingforAll(,coauthoredwithMargaretWeir),MarxismandtheCity(),Liberalism’sCrookedCircle(),andDesolationandEnlightenment:PoliticalKnowledgeafterTotalWar,Totalitarianism,andtheHolocaust()JamesTKloppenbergisProfessorofHistoryatHarvardUniversityHeistheauthorofUncertainVictory:SocialDemocracyandProgressivisminEuropeanandAmericanThought,–(),awardedtheMerleCurtiPrizebytheOrganizationofAmericanHistoriansandTheVirtuesofLiberalism()andiscoeditor,withRichardWightmanFox,ofACompaniontoAmericanThought()CurrentprojectsincludeahistoryofdemocracyinEuropeandAmericaandastudyofhistoryandcriticaltheoryMatthewDLassiterisAssistantProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofMichigan,specializinginthepolitical,social,andmetropolitanhistoryofthetwentiethcenturyUnitedStatesHeisthecoeditorofTheModerates’Dilemma:MassiveResistancetoSchoolDesegregationinVirginia()andtheauthorofTheSilentMajority:SuburbanPoliticsintheSunbeltSouth,whichwillbepublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPressWilliamJNovakisAssociateProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofChicagoandResearchFellowattheAmericanBarFoundationHeistheauthorofThePeople’sWelfare:LawandRegulationinNineteenthCenturyAmerica()ThomasJSugrueisBicentennialClassofProfessorofHistoryandSociologyattheUniversityofPennsylvaniaHispublicationsincludeTheOriginsoftheUrbanCrisis(),winneroftheBancroftPrizeandseveralotherawardsWEBDuBois,Race,andtheCity(withMichaelBKatz,)andmorethantwentyfivearticlesontopicssuchasliberalism,urbanhistory,racerelations,affirmativeaction,labor,andpublicpolicyHeiscurrentlyfinishingabookonthehistoryofcivilrightspoliticsintheurbannorthandwritingahistoryofAmericainthetwentiethcenturyCONTRIBUTORSxiMichaelVorenbergisAssistantProfessorofHistoryatBrownUniversityHeistheauthorofFinalFreedom:TheCivilWar,theAbolitionofSlavery,andtheThirteenthAmendment(),andheiscurrentlyworkingonabookabouttheimpactoftheCivilWaronAmericannotionsofcitizenshipMichaelWillrichisAssistantProfessorofHistoryatBrandeisUniversityAformerjournalist,WillrichwritesaboutthehistoryofAmericanlawandsocietyHehasjustpublishedhisfirstbook,CityofCourts:SocializingJusticeinProgressiveEraChicago()HisarticleshaveappearedintheJournalofAmericanHistory,LawandHistoryReview,andtheJournalofUrbanHistoryJulianEZelizerisAssociateProfessorofPublicPolicy,PublicAdministrationandPoliticalScienceattheStateUniversityofNewYorkatAlbanyHeistheauthorofTaxingAmerica:WilburDMills,Congress,andtheState,–(),whichwasawardedtheDBHardemanPrizeandtheEllisHawleyPrizeZelizer,whohasauthorednumerousarticlesandbookchaptersonAmericanpoliticalhistory,iscurrentlycompletingahistoryofcongressionalreformsince,whichwillbepublishedwithCambridgeUniversityPress,andeditingTheReader’sCompaniontotheAmericanCongress,whichwillbepublishedwithHoughtonMifflinZelizerisacoeditorofthePoliticsandSocietyinTwentiethCenturyAmericabookseriesofPrincetonUniversityPressHiswritinghasalsoappearedintheNewYorkTimes,LosAngelesTimes,andAlbanyTimesUnionZelizerreceivedhisPhDinhistoryfromtheJohnsHopkinsUniversityThispageintentionallyleftblankACKNOWLEDGMENTSAllbooksrelyonthehelpofmanyindividualsandorganizations,andthatisespeciallythecasewithaneditedcollectionlikethisThisvolumegrewoutoftwoconferencesheldatMITinSeptemberandMayWewouldliketothankMIT’sProvostFund,Dean’sFund,andHistoryFacultyfortheirgenerousfundingofthoseconferencesTheCenterforComparativeLegalHistoryattheUniversityofChicagoalsoprovidedadditionalsupportWewouldliketothankallthecontributorsformakingthisarewardingcollaborativeexperienceandforworkinghardontheirmanydraftsElizabethSanders,DavidKing,JimMorone,andSidMilkisreadandcommentedontheessays,andforthatwearethankfulNelsonLichtensteinandGaryGerstleprovidedhelpfulfeedbackonthevolume’sintroductionAllofthereaders’reportsforthisvolumewereextremelyconstructiveWewanttothankespeciallyJimKloppenbergandIraKatznelsonfortheirintegralinvolvementfrombeginningtoendWearealsodeeplygratefultoBrigittavanRheinbergatPrincetonUniversityPressforherenthusiasmandsupportofthisprojectWewouldalsoliketothankWilliamHivelyforhisgreatworkasourcopyeditorFinally,thebookisdedicatedtoMeg’sdaughterAbigailandJulian’sdaughterSophia,bothofwhomwerebornduringthecourseofthisprojectTheyareourproudestaccomplishmentsThispageintentionallyleftblankTHEDEMOCRATICEXPERIMENTThispageintentionallyleftblankChapterOneTHEDEMOCRATICEXPERIMENTNEWDIRECTIONSINAMERICANPOLITICALHISTORYMEGJACOBSANDJULIANEZELIZERWEARENOWinamomentwhenAmericanpoliticalhistoryisflourishingThecontributorsinthisvolume,whoareallpartofthisexcitingrevitalizationofthefield,focusontwocentralquestionsThefirstconcernstherelationshipofcitizenstothegovernmentinacontextwheresuspicionofapowerfulstatehasbeentheoverridingthemeofAmericanpoliticalcultureThesecondaddressesthecontinuallyevolvingmechanismsofdemocraticparticipationAsthisvolumeshows,democracyinAmericahascomealiveinpoliticalcontestsoverthesetwoissuesMostmoderndemocraticpolitieshaveconfrontedtheneedtolegitimatetheexerciseofpoliticalauthority,butthatfactposesparticularproblemsintheUnitedStates,whereafearofcentralizedpowerhasleftadistinctivemarkonAmericanpoliticalcultureandinstitutionalarrangementsFromthebeginning,AmericanshavefoughtprotractedstrugglesovertheexerciseofstrongcentralstateauthorityGiventheinstitutionalandculturalmanifestationsofantistatism,constructingastrongfederalgovernmentwasnevereasyAtthesametime,thebasicquestionsofwhowouldbegrantedrepresentationandhowremainedupforgrabsDespitethefactthatAmericaistheoldestdemocracyintheworld,themeansandextentofparticipationhaveneverbeensettledAlthoughthefoundersarticulatedclearideasaboutwhatrepresentativegovernmentshouldbe,theformspoliticalpowerwouldtakewereconstantlycontestedandtransformedThemechanismslinkingenfranchisedcitizenstopoliticalleadersandtherighttorepresentationremainedfluidInessaysthatgofromthefoundingthroughthelatetwentiethcentury,theauthorsofferafreshhistoricalexaminationofthepoliticalproblemsposedbydemocraticgovernmentandtheircomplexresolutionsAntistatismhasoperatedasapowerfulforceinthehistoryofAmericandemocracyHavingalongAngloAmericantradition,antistatismbecameconcreteandinstitutionalizedintheUnitedStatesinbattlesoverslavery,theriseofindustrializedcapitalism,andthecentralizingandstandardizJACOBSANDZELIZERingimpulsesoftheProgressive–NewDealmomentAstheseessaysexplore,itsmultiplemanifestationsincludetheenduranceoffragmentedandlocallybasedpoliticalinstitutions,adevotiontorigidconstitutionalism,arelianceonpoliticalpatronageoverbureaucraticadministration,thefearofinterestgroupscorruptingpoliticians,ahostilitytofederaltaxation,andmoreAntistatismderivesitsstrengthinpartbecauseithastakenonsomanydifferentformsYetthisbookisnotataleabouthowamultifacetedantistatismpreventedthegrowthofthefederalgovernmentinAmericaRather,manyoftheauthorsshowhowantistatismshapedthestructureofthefederalgovernmentinparticularwaysTheresultwasnotsimplyastatethatwasweakbyEuropeanstandards,althoughthiswasoneeffectinmanyareasofpubliclife,butastatethatcommandedsignificantpoliticalstrengthinnumerouspolicydomainsandonethatsubstantiallyinfluencedAmericanlifeFurthermore,theauthorssuggestthattheAmericanstatedidnotdevelopinalinearfashionThisisnotastoryofanationthatstartswithnofederalgovernmentandendsthetwentiethcenturywithastrongfederalgovernmentRather,thepatternofstategrowthinAmericawasoneoffitsandstartsTheauthorsalsoexplorethechangingmeaningandmechanismsofrepresentativegovernmentTheessaysconsidertherelationshipofpoliticalelitestothevotingpublic,thepoliticalandvoluntaryinstitutionsthroughwhichAmericansgainedtheirpoliticalstanding,andmediatinginstitutionsthatconnectedcitizenstoelectedofficialsVoluntaryassociations,politicalparties,interestgroups,andotherinstitutionalizedformsofpoliticalrepresentationhavehelpedgovernmentactorsenlargethegovernmentthatantistatismkeptsmallThroughout,fundamentalquestionsofcitizenshiphaveservedasananimatingforceofAmericandemocracyByexploringhowstrugglesovertheroleofthecentralstateandthecharacterofrepresentativedemocracyshapedpubliclife,theworkinthisvolumerevealsarevitalizationofAmericanpoliticalhistorywellunderwaywithexcitingpossibilitiesforthefutureTheessaysexaminepivotalmomentsandmanifestationsofthechallengetotranslatedemocraticpreferencesintopublicpolicyIntacklingcentralquestionsabouttheAmericandemocraticexperiment,thecontributorsallstrivetointegrateinstitutions,culture,andsocietyintofreshaccountsofthenation’spoliticalpast,startingwiththefoundingAshistorians,wefocusonspecifictimesandplacesandgroundouranalysisinnarrativesInfluencedbytwonewapproachestopoliticalhistorythathavearisensincethesthenewinstitutionalismaswellassocialandculturalpoliticalhistory(whichwelabelsocioculturalpoliticalhistory)wetakeseriouslytheinterplaybetweenspecificcontingentfactorsandlargestructuralforcesIntegratinganinstitutionalanalysiswiththestudyofsocialgroups,wedocumentthepreciseandchangingrelationshipsbetweenstateandsocietythathaveprofoundlyinfluenceddemocraticpoliticsforovertwohundredyearsTHEDEMOCRATICEXPERIMENTRECONCEIVINGAMERICANPOLITICALHISTORYInthelastthreedecades,scholarsworkingacrossdisciplinaryboundariesandsubfieldshavedevelopedexcitingnewapproachestostudyingAmerica’spubliclife,polity,andtheexerciseofpoliticalpowerDespitetheprofessionaldeclineofpoliticalhistorysincethes,warningsabouttheintellectualdeathofthefieldwere,inretrospect,greatlyexaggeratedHistorians,alongwithcolleaguesinpoliticalscience,economics,andsociology,fundamentallyreconceptualizedAmericanpoliticalhistoryThissectionfocusesontheemergenceoftwoimportantmethodologicalapproachestopoliticalhistorythenewinstitutionalism(whichiscomposedofthesubfieldsoftheorganizationalsynthesis,policyhistory,andAmericanPoliticalDevelopment)andsocioculturalpoliticalhistorytounderstandthevalueofeachandtheopportunitiescreatedbybringingthemtogetherIntheturbulents,agenerationofscholarsdevelopedastingingcritiqueofpoliticalhistoryasithadbeenpracticedAmidstrugglesovercivilrightsandVietnam,theNewLeftcriticizedtheliberalviewofAmericanhistory,whichsawlittleofthesocialconflictthatbesetEuropeannationsTheliberalviewadepictionofasharedideologicalconsensusthatrevolvedaroundindividualismandpropertyrightsleftlittleroomtoaccountforongoingbattlesoverracerelationsandsocialclassPoliticalhistorians,thenewgenerationsaid,hadfalselypresentedahandfulofpoliticalelites,particularlypresidents,asembodimentsofaprogressivenationalexperienceMoreover,thecycleofthepresidentialsynthesis,inthemindsofthesecritics,didnotaccuratelycapturetheevolutionofpoliticsYoungerhistorians,whocameofageinanerawhencollegestudentsrailedagainstPresidentLyndonJohnsonandhisfellowDemocraticleaders,alsodoubtedanoldergenerationofprogressivehistorianswhobelievedthattheexpansionofthefederalgovernmenthadstemmedfromadesiretoserve“thepeople,”resultingintheirtriumphovervestedinterestsTheywereconvincedbyagroupofmaverickhistoriansinthisdecadewhosaidthatliberalismhadbeenanideologythatservicedbigcorporations,whichdominatedtwentiethcenturygovernmentdespiteitsdemocraticrhetoricThosecritiquesledtotwoseeminglydivergentresponsesWithinthehistoricaldiscipline,asocialandculturalhistoryrevolutiontookplacethatpushedscholarstobroadentheircanvastoemphasizethestudyofAmericanhistoryfromthe“bottomup”andatthelocallevel,turningtoquestionssuchasclassformation,genderrelations,andculturalconsciousnessAtthesametime,otherscholars,inhistoryandinpoliticalscience,alsobroadenedtheirinquiries,butratherthanstudyingsocialgroups,theylookedathowinstitutionalforcesshapedandlimitedpoliticaldevelopmentandpublicpolicyevolutionJACOBSANDZELIZERReactingagainsttheliberal,presidentcenteredhistoryofmidcentury,newinstitutionalistsshiftedthei

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*新书上架*民主试验:美国政治史的新方向

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