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首页 *新书上架*【康德研究】康德对偶然性的处理

*新书上架*【康德研究】康德对偶然性的处理.pdf

*新书上架*【康德研究】康德对偶然性的处理

九月虺
2009-09-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【康德研究】康德对偶然性的处理pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Kant'sTreatmentofCausalityByACEWINGARCHONBOOKSFirstPublishedReprintedwithpermissionRoutledgeKeganPaul,LtdinanunalteredandunabridgededitionSBN:LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaB,'",,,)"I"'·JI,,#'JF'r~('PREFACEWHILEthenumberofgeneralcommentariesonKantislegion,IknowofnoEnglishbookdevotedtoexpoundinghisthoughtonasinglecategoryabstractedfromtherestCausality,asthechiefofthecategoriesandthecentreofoneofthemainphilosophicalcontroversiesoftheperiod,seemsespeciallytoinvitetheattemptThesubJectis,inasense,averyspecialisedone,butKant'streatmentofcausalityisessentialtoone,atanyrate,ofthechiefsidesofhisthought,andappearstometoconveyaveryvaluablemessagethathasoftenbeenlostsightofinrecentphilosophyItwouldsurelybeofgreatphilosophicalimportanceifarealproofoftheprincipleofcausalitycouldbegiven,and,whileKant'sstatementofhisproofistoomuchboundupwithotherpartsofhisparticularsystemofphilosophytohavegivengeneralsatisfaction,itseemstomethatitmayberestatedinaforminwhichitcanstandbyitselfandmakeagoodclaimforacceptanceonallschoolsofthoughtAndthecloseconnectionof"causality"withmanyotherfundamentalproblemsmustbeobvioustothereaderTheintricacy,aswellastheimportance,ofthesubjectissuchastomakemefeelverydiffidentinsubmittingmyworktotheordealofpublication,butbythekindhelpofUniversity,OrielandMagdalenColleges(Oxford),whereIheldanopenexhibition,researchscholarshipandseniordemyshiprespectively,andtheCommitteeforAdvancedStudiesatOxford,Ihavebeenencouraged,aswellasenabled,todosoThebookwasacceptedasathesisforthedegreeofDoctorofPhilosophyatOxfordinMarch,,andhasbeenrevisedsince,butwithoutfundamentalalterationsInitscompositionIamindebted,aboveall,toProfKempSmith'sCommentaryonKanttheotherwriterswhomIfoundmostviPREFACEusefulforthepurposewereProfsCaird,Adamson,Cohen,Riehl,VaihingerandMrPrichardIamresponsibleforthetranslationsfromKantgiveninthetext,buthavemadefreeuseofthetranslationsofthethreeCritiquesbyMaxMiiller,AbbottandBernardrespectively,also,wherepossible,ofthetranslationsofvariouspassagesgivenbyProfKempSmithandMrPrichardintheircommentariesACEWINGOxfordMarch,CONTENTSCHAPPAGEICAUSALITYINKANT'SPREDECESSORSIIITHEDEVELOPMENTOFKANT'SCONCEPTIONOFCAUSALITYUPTOTHECRITIQUEOFPUREREASONIIITHETRANSCENDENTALDEDUCTIONIVTHESECONDANALOGYVSUBSTANCEANDRECIPROCITYVITHEApPLICATIONOFTHECATEGORIESTOTHEEMPIRICALSELF•VIICAUSEANDGROUNDTHEFIRSTCAUSEANTINOMYVIIITHEPROBLEMOFFREEDOM,ORMECHANICALversusPURPOSIVECAUSALITYCONCLUSIONINDEXABBREVIATIONSA=OriginalpagesinthefirsteditionoftheCritiqueofPUf'eReasonB=OriginalpagesinthesecondeditionoftheCf'itiqueofPUf'eReasonH=Hartenstein'seditionofKant'sworksBerl=BerlineditionofKant'slettersG=Gerhardt'seditionofLeibniz'sworksKANT'STREATMENTCAUSALITYCHAPTERICausalityinKant'sPredecessorsOFFORKanttheproblemofcausalityconstitutedthecrucialtestofhisphilosophyItwasHume'sattackoncausalitythatfirstarousedKantfromhis"dogmaticslumber"itisinregardtothecategoryofcausalityalonethattheallimportantargumentfromobjectivitytonecessityisworkedoutindetail,and,ifcausalityisnot,asSchopenhauerheld,thesolitaryanduniqueformofunderstanding,itseemsatanyratemuchthemostimportantoftheKantiancategoriesAstheclearestandmostindispensableinstanceofasyntheticaprioriprinciplecausalitywastheobstaclebeforewhichbothempiricismandrationalismhadbeenbroughttoacompletestandstillTherationalistwassettheverydifficulttaskofdemonstratingaprinciplewhichisindispensableforscienceandpracticallife,andcannotbutbeassumedtobetrue,andyettheoppositeofwhichisnot,atanyrateprimafacie,selfcontradictory,andhewasfurtherconfrontedwiththeveryawkwardfactthattheparticularcausallawsinnaturewhichtogethermakeuponeoftheprincipalpartsofhumanknowledgearenotintelligibleordemonstrableapriori,butcanonlybediscoveredbymeansofinductionfromparticularexperiencesTheempiricist,ontheotherhand,ifhewishedtobeconsistentwithhisfirstprinciples,wasboundtosethimselfthestillmoredifficult,nayimpossible,taskofderivingtheuniversalandnecessaryprincipleofcausalityfromamereenumerationofparticulars,andsoderivingitwithoutassuminganyprincipleofinductionwhichcouldnotitselfbederivedbyinductionfromparticularsIfKant'sphilosophyfailshere,ithasfailedinwhattheKANT'STREATMENTOFCAUSALITYauthordeclarestobeitsmaintask,theproofofthosesyntheticaprioriprincipleswhichcannotberegardedasselfevident,andyetareindispensablefornaturalscienceIncausalityKanthadfoundaprinciplewhichcouldbeprovedneitherbytheempiricalnorbytherationalistphilosophy,butwhichbothwereboundtoassumeiftheyweretostandatallItwasKant'sclaimthathisphilosophyalonecouldprovethetruthofthisprinciple,thathisphilosophyalonecouldsolvetheantinomiestowhichthisprinciplegaveriseThemainquestionforustoaskissimplythisdoesKantsucceedinprovingthisprincipleCausalityisatestcaseinalargerissue"lHumeandLeibnizarethetwoprotagoniststhatdwarfallothersTheyrealised,asneitherMalebranche,Locke,norBerkeley,neitherReid,Lambert,Crusius,norMendelssohneverdid,thereallycrucialissueswhichmustultimatelydecidebetweenthecompetingpossibilitiesEachmaintained,inthemannerprescribedbyhisgeneralphilosophy,oneofwhatthenappearedtobetheonlytwopossibleviewsofthefunctionofthoughtThealternativeswerethese:(a)Thoughtismerelyapracticalinstrumentfortheconvenientinterpretationofourhumanexperienceithasnoobjectiveormetaphysicalvalidityofanykind(b)ThoughtlegislatesuniversallyitrevealsthewideruniverseoftheeternallypossibleandpriortoallexperiencecandeterminethefundamentalconditionstowhichthatexperiencemustconformOrtointerpretthisoppositioninlogicalterms:(a)Thefundamentalprinciplesofexperiencearesyntheticjudgmentsinwhichnorelationisdiscerniblebetweensubjectandpredicate,andwhichforthatreasoncanbejustifiedneitherapriorinorbyexperience(b)allprinciplesareanalytic,andcanthereforebejustifiedbypurethoughtTheproblemofKant'sCritique,broadlystated,consistsintheexaminationandcriticalestimateofthesetwoopposedviewsThereisnoproblem,scientific,moral,orreligious,whichisnotvitallyaffectedbythedecisionwhichofthesealternativeswearetoadopt,orwhatreconciliationoftheirconflictingclaimswehopetoachieve,Kantwasarationalistbyeducation,temperament,andconvictionConsequentlyhisproblemwastoreconcileLeibniz'sviewofthefunctionofthoughtwithHume'sproofofthesyntheticcharacterofthecausalprincipleHestrivestodeterminehowmuchofLeibniz'sbeliefinthelegislativepowerofpure'ProfKempSmith,IntroductiontoCommentaryXXXII,XXXIIICAUSALITYINKANT'SPREDECESSORSreasoncanberetainedafterfulljusticehasbeendonetoHume'sdamagingcritici:msThefundamentalprinciplesuponwhichallexperienceandallknowlengeultimatelyrestaresyntheticinnature:howisitpossiblethattheyshouldalsobeaprioriSuchis·theproblemthatwasKant'stroublousinheritancefromhisphilosophicalprogenitors,HumeandLeibniz"ToshowmorefullywhatKant's"troublousinheritance"inregardtotheproblemofcausalitywaswemustbeginwithashortsurveyoftheviewsofhischiefpredecessorsonthesubjectInsodoing,attheriskofseemingarbitrary,weshallpracticallyconfineourselvestotheLockeBerkeleyHumetraditionandtotheLeibnizianphilosophy,whichwerethetwomainstreamsofinfluencethataffectedKant'smetaphysicalthoughtLocke'saccountofcausalityisperhapstheleastLockesatisfactorypartofhisphilosophyInintroducingtheconceptionofcausehespeaksasthoughcausationwereapossibleobjectofperceptionlikecolourorshape,andsocouldbediscoveredbyobservation,withoutinferenceortheuseofageneralaprioriprinciple"Inthenoticethatoursensestakeoftheconstantvicissitudeofthingswecannotbutobservethatseveralparticulars,bothqualitiesandsubstances,begintoexist,andthattheyreceivethistheirexistencefromthedueapplicationandoperationofsomeotherbeingFromthisobservationwegetourideasofcauseandeffect"lYetheinsistsonthemysteriousandunknowablecharacterofthecausalnexusSincewecanonlyobservesensible"ideas"orqualitiesinexternalobjects,apowercanonlybeknownasthepotentialityofproducingorundergoingchangesinthesesensiblequalities,amysterioussomethingthatcanonlybedescribedintermsofitseffectsTherealgroundinnatureofevensuchfundamentallawsasthecohesionofmatterandthecommunicationofmotionbyimpactisunknowntousHencethemathematicalmethodmustgivewaytoempiricalinductionindealingwithpowers,whichpowersinfactconstitutethegreaterpartofourideaofthephysicalworldFor,apartfromtheprimaryqualitiesofextension,etc,revealedbyoursenses,wecannotattributetomatteranyqualitiessavethepowertoproducecertainsensationsinourmindandcertainchangesinotherbodieswhichintheirturnaffectourmind'EssayconcerningHumaaUnderstandingII,Ic•II',KANT'STREATMENTOFCAUSALITYHencetheideaofspiritisnomoreunintelligibletousthanthatofmatterinfact,asregardscausation,weacquireabetterideaofactivepowerfromintrospectionthanfromtheobservationofphysicalchanges,forinthelattermotionisonlytransmitted,notgenerated,asbythewill,andalsowecanacquirenoideaofthesecondactivepower,thought,fromourobservationofmatter(Thetwokindsofactivepoweraremotionandthought,inthewide,Cartesiansenseoftheword)PerhapsitisunfairtopresstoofarthewordsofLockequotedabove,butwemaypointoutthat,ifcausationcanassuchbeobserved,causalpowerscannothavetheunknowablecharacterascribedtothemTheviewthatwecanobserveonethingcausinganotherandnotonlyinferthatitdoessoseemstoinvolveaconfusionbetweensequenceandcausationweseeBfollowA,butwedonotseeAcauseBCausationisarelationofimplicationbetweeneventsandnotasensiblequalityToprovethevalidityofthegeneralprinciplethateverychangemusthaveacauseLockemakesuseoftheargumentthatitisobviouslyimpossiblefornothingtoproducesomething"Menknowbyanintuitivecertainty,thatbarenothingcannomoreproduceanyrealbeingthanitcanbeequaltotworightangles"·Thecircularcharacterofthisargumentispartlyconcealedbyconfusingcausalconnectionwithconnectionbylogicalidentity,tosaythatnothingissomethinginvolvesaflagrantviolationofthelawofnoncontradiction,tosaythatsomethingoccurredwithnothingprecedenttocauseitinvolvesnosuchcontradiction,foritisessentialtocausalitythatcauseandeffectshouldbedistinctandnotcapableoflogicalidentificationTheplausibilityoftheargumentdependspartlyonthisconfusion,partlyontheprinciplethat"nothing"assuchisincapableofbeingacauseThisprincipleistrueenough,butcannotbeappliedwithoutalreadyassuminguniversalcausalityForifthecausalprincipleisdeniedtheconclusionisnotthatthingsarecausedbynothing,butthattheyarenotcausedatallItisonlybecauseLockeassumestheuniversalityofthecausalprincipiethathecanassumethat,ifaneventisnotcausedbysomething,itmustbecausedby"nothing,"yetitisjustthisuniversalitythatheisseekingtoproveTheproblemoffreedomislesscloselyconnectedwiththatofcausationinLockethaninotherwriters,forhedoesnot'EssayconcerningHumanUnderstanding,II,,·IV,YO,CAUSALITYINKANT'SPREDECESSORSattempttosolvetheproblembyadistinctionbetweenmechanicalandspiritualcausationoradenialthatthecategoryofcauseisadequatewhenappliedtospiritualbeings,butbyacriticismofthecommonhabitofviewirigfacultieslikethewillasindependentagents,whichgivesrisetothemeaninglessquestion"Isthewillfree,"not"Isthemanfree"Thiscriticismisveryeffectiveandvaluableasfarasitgoes,butitcanhardlybesaidtoreachtherootoftheproblemHowfar,ifatall,canthecategoryofmechanicalcausationbeappliedtopsychicaldevelopmentBerkeley,whileassumingwithoutprooftheBerkeleygeneralprinciplethateverychangemusthaveacause,deniesthatcausalconnectionbetweenphysicalphenomenathenatureofwhichLockehadalreadyassertedtobeunknownHethusmakesanotherstepforwardinthedirectionofHumeBerkeley'sphilosophyleavesinexistenceonlyspiritsandtheirideasourideascannothavecausalefficacy,becausewecannotperceiveanysuchqualityinthem,andbyitsintrinsicnatureanideainmymindcannothaveanyqualitiesbeyondthoseIamconsciousofBut,sincewemustsupposethechangesinourideastohavesomecause,andtherearemanycasesinwhichwecam:otsupposethiscausetolieinourselves,wearedriventopostulateaspiritualbeing,infinitelymorepowerfulthanourselves,namelyGod,toaccountforthesechangessThusBerkeleymakesuseofhisnovelviewsofmattertoarriveatanewand,tohismind,moreconvincingproofofGodthananyyetdiscoveredIndealingwiththe"material"worldhesubstitutesfortherelationofcauseandeffecttherelationof"sign"and"thingsignified"Thus"thefirewhichIseeisnotthecauseofthepainIsufferuponmyapproachingit,butthemarkthatforewarnsmeofit"Wefindbyexperiencethatideassucceedeachotherinsucharegularmannerthatwemayframelawsofnatureandusetheselawsforpredictingfutureevents,butthisorderlysuccessionisnotdependentonanycausalinfluenceofoneideaonanother,butonnothingsavethedirectwillofGodNaturalscienceconsistsinthereductionofthemultitudinousobservedsequencestoafewsimpleanduniversallawsofsequence,notexplicablefurtherexceptbyanappealtofinalcauses,inthediscoveryofasimplealphabetofsignsfromwhichthewholecomplicatednatural'PrineofHumanKnowledge,'lb,'lb,KANT'STREATMENTOFCAUSALITYsystemisbuiltup,justasalanguagewithmanythousandsofwordsisultimatelyreducibletodifferentcombinationsoftwentysixlettersThemaininnovationliesinsuggestingthattheresultsofscienceexpressnottruthsaboutanobjectivephysicalworldexistingindependentlyofbeingperceived,buttruthsaboutthesensationsweshouldexperienceundergivenconditionsEvenifthematerialworldexistsasasystemofideasinGod'smind,BerkeleycouldnotadmitthatthisworldinGod'smindwaseithercausallyconnectedwithoursensations,whichareascribedtotheimmediateactionofthewillofGodwithouttheinterventionofparticular"ideas"inGod'smind,oranobjectofourperception,sinceitisacardinaldoctrineofhisphilosophythatwecannotperceiveanythingbutideasinourownmindItisthereforenottheworldwithwhichsciencedealsandwhichsurroundsusinoureverydaylife,butaworldsupposedtocorrespondtothatworld,anditselfinnowayconnectedwithusLockehadascribedcausationtounknown"powers,"Berkeleydeniedthatsuchunknowableandimperceptiblepowerscouldberealqualitiesandreducedallsocalledphysicalcausationtonecessitated,notnecessitating,sequenceSince,however,therewasno"activity"involvedinwhatweregardasphysicalcausation,hedeniedthetitleofcausationtothelatteraltogether,satisfyinghimselfbyascribingthenecessary"activity"toGodAswithsubstance,sowithcause,Lockedeclaredittobeunintelligibletous,Berkeleyrelegateditfromthephysicaltothepsychical,Humedeniedaltogetherthepossibilityofjustifyingit,KantjustifieditbutonlinesthatinvolvedafundamentalchangebothintheconceptionitselfandinthegeneralviewofobjectiverealityHume,incarryingtheprinciplesofLockeandBumeBerkeleytotheirlogicalconclusion,directshismainattackagainstcausality,asbeingthefoundationofknowledgeofaphysicalworldHeassumesasfirstprinciplesthatwecanbeimmediatelyconsciousofnothingsaveourownideas,andthatthereisnosimpleideanotderivedfromaprecedentimpressionofwhichitisanexactcopyTheformerwasadmittedbyallschools,beingbasedonthephysiologicalaccountofsensationandthedifficultyofexplainingthesubjectiveelementinperceptiononanyothertheorythelatterwasthecardinalprincipleofpure'AsBerkeleysuggestsinthenddialoguebetweenHylasandPhilonous(Everymaned•p)CAUSALITYINKANT'SPREDECESSORSempiricismOfneitherprincipledoesHumegiveanyproofwhateverInlayingdownthemaximthateverysimpleideamustbecopiedfromaprecedentimpressionhefirstchallengeshisopponentstoproduceasimpleideathathasnotacorrespondingimpressionorviceversa,andthenassertsthat,asnosuchideaorimpressioncanbefound,weareforcedtoexplaintheresemblancebysupposingtheideastobeallderivedfromtheircorrespondingimpressions,sinceexperiencetellsusthatitisalwaystheimpressionwhichprecedestheideaThisnodoubtfollowsifbyimpressionsareunderstoodsensationsandemotions,butthefirstpoint,thateverysimpleideahasacorrespondingimpression,isnothingbutanarbitraryassumptionToassert,asHumedoes,thevalidityoftheprincipleonthegroundoffailuretoproduceanideathatdoesnotconformtoit,andthen,laterintheargument,whensuchanidea,namelytheideaofcausality,isintroduced,todenythatitisarealidea,becauseitdoesnotconformtotheprinciple,isabreachofthemostelementaryrulesoflogicHume'streatmentofcausalityinhislargerworkresolvesitselfintofourmainparts:(),anattempttoshowthatthegeneralprincipleofcausalityisincapableofproof(),anattemptedreductionofreasoningonparticularcasesofcausationtomereassociationofideas,duetopastcontiguityinexperience(),acorrespondingtheoryofprobabilityand(),anattempttoreducethenecessarycharacterofthecausallaw,asconceivedbyus,toadeterminationofthemindbycustom,thefeelingofwhichwemisinterpretasrepresentingarealnecessaryconnectionintheobjectitselfO

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*新书上架*【康德研究】康德对偶然性的处理

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