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首页 *新书上架*道德和政治暴力

*新书上架*道德和政治暴力.pdf

*新书上架*道德和政治暴力

九月虺
2009-09-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*道德和政治暴力pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

P:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:iiThispageintentionallyleftblankP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:MoralityandPoliticalViolencePoliticalviolenceintheformofwars,insurgencies,terrorism,andviolentrebellionconstitutesamajorhumanchallengetodayasithassoofteninthepastItisachallengenotonlytolifeandlimb,butalsotomoralityitselfInthisbook,CAJCoadybringsaphilosophicalandethicalperspectivetothesubjectHeplacestheproblemsofwarandpoliticalviolenceintheframeofreflectiveethicsInclearandaccessiblelanguage,CoadyreexaminesarangeofurgentproblemspertinenttopoliticalviolenceagainstthebackgroundofacontemporaryapproachtojustwarthinkingTheproblemsexaminedincludetherighttomakewar,therightwaytoconductwar,terrorism,revolution,humanitarianism,mercenarywarriors,conscientiousobjection,combatantandnoncombatantstatus,theidealofpeaceandtherightwaytoendwar,pacifism,weaponsofmassdestruction,andsupremeemergencyexemptionsfromjustwarprohibitionCoadyattemptstovindicatetherelevanceofthejustwartraditiontocontemporaryproblemswithoutapplyingthetraditioninamerelymechanicaloruncriticalfashionCAJCoadyisanAustralianphilosopherwithaninternationalreputationforhisresearchinbothepistemologyandpoliticalandappliedphilosophyInadditiontohisacademicwork,heisaregularcontributortopublicdebateontopicshavingtodowithethicalandphilosophicaldimensionsofcurrentaffairsAprofessorofphilosophyattheUniversityofMelbourne,hehasservedasthefoundingdirectoroftheCentreforPhilosophyandPublicIssuesandthedeputydirectoroftheCentreforAppliedPhilosophyandPublicEthicsandheadofitsUniversityofMelbournedivisionIn,hegavetheUehiroLecturesonpracticalethicsatOxfordUniversityiP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:iiP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:MoralityandPoliticalViolenceCAJCOADYUniversityofMelbourneiiiCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBN©CambridgeUniversityPressInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgeBook(NetLibrary)hardbackP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:Formyparents,PhyllisandJack,ingratitudevP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:Theairisloudwithdeath,Thedarkairspurtswithfire,TheexplosionsceaselessareIsaacRosenberg,“DeadMan’sDump”viP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:ContentsPrefacepageixStaringatArmageddonTheIdeaofViolenceViolenceandJusticeAggression,Defence,andJustCauseJusticewithPrudenceTheRightWaytoFightTheProblemofCollateralDamageTheMoralityofTerrorismTheImmunitiesofCombatantsMoralityandtheMercenaryWarriorObjectingMorallyWeaponsofMassDestructionTheIdealofPeaceTheIssueofStringencyBibliographyIndexviiP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:viiiP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:PrefaceMyinterestinwarandrelatedformsofpoliticalviolencedatesbacktomyearlychildhood,when,beforeconscriptionwasinstituted,myfathervolunteeredforserviceinWorldWarIIIrecallbeingshockedwhenIrealisedthatwarinvolvedpeoplewhodidn’tknoweachotherandhadnodirectgrievanceagainsteachothertryingdesperatelytokilleachotherbecausetheywereonopposite“sides”MyshockwasofcourseallthegreaterandmorepersonalfortherealisationthatmyfathermightkillorbekilledHewasnotkilledorphysicallywounded,asithappens,thoughhetookpartinoneofthebloodiestbattlesoftheAustralianinvolvementinthePacificwaragainsttheJapaneseontheislandofTarakanofftheBorneocoastIdon’tknowwhatpartheplayedinthekillingofenemysoldiers,since,likemanycombatsoldiers,hewasmostreluctanttospeaktohisfamilyofhiswarserviceSincethen,myconvictionthatthereissomethingaffronting,evenabsurd,andcertainlymorallyproblematicabouttheresorttowarhasbeenstrengthenedbyreadingandreflectionaboutwar’srealityIhavenevermyselfexperiencedwhatKeeganoncecalled“thefaceofbattle,”andhopenevertodosoMynearestbrushwithmilitaryrealitieswaswhenIhadacommissionfromtheBritish(and,sadly,stillAustralian)queenasacadetlieutenantinmyschoolcadetcorpsandlearnedthearcaneskillsoffiringtheBrengun,therifle,andtheantitanksixpounderAlltheseweaponswere,eventhen,antiquated,andarenowalmostantique,soIhardlyqualifyas“atrainedkiller,”butIgotawhiffoftheatmosphereofmilitarytraining,anditdidnothingtopromotetheromanceofwarformeIwillnothereelaboratemypositiononpoliticalviolence,sincewhatfollowsisanattempttodothat,butIwillforeshadowmyattitudeIamsympathetictosomestrandsinthejustwartradition,butalsotosomecentralelementsinthepacifisttraditionIndeed,IthinkthatthereismoreconvergencebetweenthetwotraditionsthanisusuallyacknowledgedThethirdtraditionofteninvokedinthediscussionofwarandpoliticalviolencemoreixP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:xPrefacegenerallyistheoneknownasrealism,andagainIthinkthatthereismoreaffinitybetweencentralelementsinrealism(understoodasthecreationofpoliticaltheoristslikeMorgenthau)andthejustwartraditionthanisusuallyallowedButtosaythismuchisonlytogestureatapositionmydefenceofitistobefoundinwhatfollowsIowethankstomanypeopleandmanyinstitutionsInthecourseofresearchingandwritingthisbookoverfartoomanyyears,Ihavepublishedarticlesonthethemesofanumberofitschaptersinlearnedjournals,andImustthankvariousjournalpublishersforallowingmetomakeuseofrewrittenversionsofthosearticlesorextractsfromthemThejournalsareEthics,Inquiry,Philosophy,TheAmericanCatholicPhilosophicalQuarterly,TheJournalofAppliedPhilosophy,andTheJournalofEthicsIthankJeffRossforpermissiontousesomematerialinChapterthatIwroteforourjointpublicationinTheAmericanCatholicPhilosophicalQuarterly(),“StAugustineandtheIdealofPeace”Ihavealsodrawnuponworkofminethathasappearedineditedbooks,mostnotablyinTheEncyclopediaofEthics,secondedition,edLaurenceandCharlotteBecker(Routledge,)TerrorismandJustice:MoralArgumentinaThreatenedWorld,edCAJCoadyandMichaelO’Keefe(MelbourneUniversityPress,)ACompaniontoAppliedEthics,edRGFreyandKWellman(Blackwell,)EthicsandForeignIntervention,edDeenKChatterjeeandDonScheid(CambridgeUniversityPress,)Terrorism:ThePhilosophicalIssues,edIgorPrimoratz(Palgrave,)EthicsandWeaponsofMassDestruction,edSohailHashmiandStevenLee(CambridgeUniversityPress,)EthicsofTerrorismandCounterTerrorism,edGeorgMeggle(OntosVerlag,)andRighteousViolence:TheEthicsandPoliticsofMilitaryIntervention,edTonyCoadyandMichaelO’Keefe(MelbourneUniversityPress,)MythankstothepublishersforpermissiontodrawuponthesewritingsIhavebeensupportedinmyresearchbytheUniversityofMelbourneanditsPhilosophyDepartmentandbytheCentreforPhilosophyandPublicIssues(CPPI)andlatertheCentreforAppliedPhilosophyandPublicEthics(CAPPE)attheUniversityofMelbourneIalsogratefullyacknowledgeseveralgrantsandaSeniorFellowshipfromtheAustralianResearchCouncil,andFellowshipsattheUniversityCenterforHumanValuesatPrincetonUniversity(–),CorpusChristiCollegeOxford(),andtheUnitedStatesInstituteofPeaceinWashington,DC(–)IlearnedfrommyparticipationinavarietyofworkshopsandseminarsonissuestodowiththethemesofthisbookattheUniversityofMelbourne,theCenterforInternationalSecurityandCooperation(CISAC)atStanfordUniversity,theInstituteforPhilosophyandPublicPolicyattheUniversityofMaryland,thePhilosophyDepartmentattheUniversityofArizonainTucson,theJeanBeerBlumenfeldCentreforEthicsatGeorgiaStateUniversity,PrincetonUniversity(boththeCenterforHumanValuesandthePhilosophyDepartment),OxfordUniversity,andLeipzig,Bonn,Berlin,andBielefeldUniversitiesP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:PrefacexiIhavereceivedparticularlyhelpfulcommentsandcriticismontopicsdiscussedinthebookfromtoomanypeopletomentionhere,butspecialthanksareduetoAndrewAlexandra,RobertFullinwider,MarkJohnston,ArthurKuflik,JohnLangan,DavidLewis,JudithLichtenberg,DavidLuban,JeffMcMahan,IgorPrimoratz,DavidRodin,DebraSatz,HenryShue,andJannaThompsonMythanksalsotoDavidCoadyfordiscussionofsomeissuesinvolvedincausationthatarerelevanttothediscussionofCDBroad’spositioninChapterandofsomeproblemsconcerningintentionandterrorisminChapterIhavealsolearnedfrommanywhohavepublishedonthesetopics,especiallyAnthonyCoates,RobertFullinwider,RobertHolmes,JeffMcMahan,RichardNorman,DavidRodin,HenryShue,andJennyTeichman,tonameonlyafew(Othersarecitedinthetext)ItisunlikelythatanyonewhowritesonthecentraltopicsdealtwithinthisbookcanfailtobeindebtedtoMichaelWalzer’srestatementandrecastingoftraditionaljustwarthinkinginhisbookJustandUnjustWars,andIamhappytoacknowledgethestimulationIreceivedfromhisworkMuchofthishasbeenstimulationtodisagreement,forphilosophersaredisagreeing,ifnotdisagreeable,peopleIwouldalsoliketothankanumberofpeoplewhohelpedmewithresearchassistanceovertheyears,especiallyWillBarrett,MiannaLotz,AndrewSchaap,JeffRoss,ToniMorton,AnnaGoppel,JessicaWolfendale,and,mosthelpfully,NedDobos,whowasinatthedeath,sotospeak,andwhoworkedveryhardtohelporganisethefinalpresentationofthemanuscriptHealsoprovidedinvaluablehelpincompilingtheindexMywife,Margaret,deservesmorethantheusualritualofthankstoalifepartner,forshehassupportedmethroughthethickandthinofmyworkonthesethemes,eventhoughIsuspectthatshehasneverfullyacceptedmyobsessionalinterestinthisratherdepressingtopicItiscertainlyverydepressingatthetimeofthiswriting,thougharecentreportmarshalingstatisticstoshowthatthenumberandintensityofwarshasdeclineddramaticallysinceofferssomeencouragementthatthestubborncapacityofhumanbeingstofailtolearnfromhistorymaybesufferingsomeslighterosionFinally,thetopicsaddressedinthisbookarediscussedfromaphilosophicalpointofview,butsinceeveryonehas,orshouldhave,aninterestinthebearingofmoralityuponpoliticalviolence,IhaveattemptedtowriteinawaythatavoidsphilosophicaltechnicalitieswherepossibleMyhopeisthatmuchoftheargumentwillbeaccessibletothoseindisciplinesbeyondphilosophyandtointerestednonspecialistsIadmirephilosophythatisclearandembodiesstandardsofrigorousargument–standardsthatIaimtoemulatehere–butontopicshavingtodowithpoliticalviolence,IhavelittlesympathywiththoughtthatisenclosedinhousesofintellectlockedandshutteredagainsttheworldOctober,P:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:xiiP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:MoralityandPoliticalViolencexiiiP:KNPpreCUNYCoadyAugust,:xivP:KNPcCUNYCoadyAugust,:StaringatArmageddonmythoughtswerepowerlessagainstanunhappinesssohugeIcouldn’talterEuropeanhistory,orordertheartillerytostopfiringIcouldstareattheWarasIstaredatthesultrysky,longingforlifeandfreedomandvaguelyaltruisticaboutmyfellowvictimsButasecondlieutenantcouldattemptnothing–excepttosatisfyhissuperiorofficersandaltogether,Iconcluded,ArmageddonwastooimmenseformysolitaryunderstandingSiegfriedSassoonSassoon’sironicarticulationoftheenormityofwaranditscapacitytoreachbeyondunderstandingorindividualcontrolcapturessomethingthathasbeenechoedinthethoughtsandwritingsofmanyparticipants,observers,andtheoristsofwarfareIndeed,theimpotenceandblanknessthatSassoondescribesisoneoftheperceptionsthatliesbehindafamousdictumpropoundedbythephilosopherThomasHobbesintheseventeenthcenturyAlwaysafoeofeuphemismandevasion,Hobbessuccinctlyposedacentralissuewithwhichmuchofthisbookwillbeconcerned:“Wherethereisnocommonpower,thereisnolaw:wherenolaw,noinjusticeForceandfraud,areinwarthetwocardinalvirtues”Amongstotherthings,weshallexaminewhetherthisbleakviewistrueandwhatwouldfollowifitwereInitially,theexistenceoflawsofwar,justwartheories,andcodesofmilitaryethicswouldseemtogivethelietoHobbes,anditisinterestingthathemakesvirtuallynoreferencetotheextensivebodyofwritingonsuchmattersthatexistedatthetimehewrote,thoughhemusthavebeenfamiliarwithitHobbesmayhavethoughtmostofthistobe“merewords,”andwemustaskwhetheritissoWemustalsoaskwhetherthe“forceandfraud”outlook,iftrue,couldformthebasisofargumentsforthetotalrejectionofwar(“pacifism”)orfortheremovalofwaraltogetherfromthescopeofmorality(someformsofSiegfriedSassoon,MemoirsofanInfantryOfficer(London:FaberandFaber,),pp–ThomasHobbes,Leviathan,edCBMacpherson(Harmondsworth:Penguin,),pP:KNPcCUNYCoadyAugust,:MoralityandPoliticalViolence“realism”)BothoftheseoptionshaveinfactbeenurgedbypeopleimpressedwithwhattheyseeasthetruthinsuchanoutlookasHobbes’sHobbes’scomment,whileitposesachallengetoanytreatmentoftheethicsofwar,isfirstofalladdressedtothequestionofwhethertherearemoralconstraintsuponhowawarshouldbeconducted,uponthewaysandmeansofwagingwarThisquestionhasbeendiscussedinthejustwartraditionundertheheadingofthejusinbello(orasIshallhereafterrefertoit,theJIB)Butthequestionthatis,insomesense,priortothisisthequestionofwhethermoralityhasanythingtosayaboutgoingtowarinthefirstplace(Injustwarterminology,thisisthematterofthejusadbellum,orasIshallabbreviateit,theJAB)Hobbes,infact,thoughtthatresorttowarwasoftenmorallylegitimate,anexerciseofnaturalrightbythestate,butheinsistedthatrebellionwasalwaysimmoralInkeepingwithhisgenerally“tough”outlookonthepowerofthestateandhistheoryofabsolutesovereignty,Hobbesmightbethoughttogivecarteblanchetothesovereignstate’srighttogotowar,buthisdiscussionsofwarbetweenstates,thoughnotfullydeveloped,suggestotherwiseThesovereigncannotbecalledtoaccountbythecitizens,buthascertainobligationsasarulertopreservethepeaceandisboundbeforeGodtoconformtothetenetsofNaturalLawConsequently,manyresortstowarwouldberuledoutonprudentialandmoralgrounds(insofarasthisdistinctioncanbemadeinHobbesiantheory–and,inacomplexway,Ithinkitcan)Moreover,Hobbes,atleastsometimes,allowsforsome,admittedlyminimal,restrictionsonhowwarriorsshouldconductthemselvesinthecourseofawarInTheElementsofLaw,forinstance,herejectstheresorttounnecessaryviolenceorcrueltyAftermentioningwithapprovaltheideathatlawsaresilentaboutwar(capturedintheLatinsayingthathecites,interarmasilentleges),Hobbesdrawsbackfromthisterrifyingbrinkbyadding:“Yetthusmuchthelawofnaturecommandethinwar:thatmensatiatenotthecrueltyoftheirpresentpassions,wherebyintheirownconsciencetheyforeseenobenefittocomeForthatbetrayethnotanecessitybutadispositionofthemindtowar,whichisagainstthelawofnature”Hecontinuesbynotingthateveninthosetimeswhen“rapinewasatradeoflife,”somerestraintinkillinganddispossessingvictimswasnonethelessexercised,bothinobediencetothelawofnatureandasamatterofhonourHeconcludes“thatthoughtherebeinwarnolaw,thebreachwhereofisinjury,yettherearethoselaws,thebreachwhereofisdishonourInoneword,therefore,theonlylawofactionsinwarishonourandtherightofwarprovidence”Inthisdiscussion,heechoessomeoftheviewsofmedievaltheologiansaboutproportionalityintheuseofmilitaryviolenceandalsoseemstohaveinmindsomeofthemilitarycodesofhonour,butheThomasHobbes,TheElementsofLaw:NaturalandPolitic,edFerdinandTonnies(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),Part,Chapter,section,pIbidP:KNPcCUNYCoadyAugust,:StaringatArmageddonalsolooksforwardtothedoctrineof“militarynecessity,”which,asweshallsee,canbeusedbothtorestrictcertainformsofimmoralactivityinwarandtolicenseothersIhavebegunwithHobbesandwar,butthekeyterminthetitleofthisbookis“politicalviolence”ratherthan“war,”andthisrequiresaterminologicalexplanation,sincethechoiceoftermsraisessubstantialissuesMyuseoftheexpression“politicalviolence”includeswarastheprimaryinstanceofsuchviolence,butitisalsomeanttocoverotherviolentactivitiesthatsomewouldnotincludeundertheheadingofwarSuchactivitiesencompassterrorism,armedintervention(for“humanitarian”orotherpurposes),armedrevolution,violentdemonstrationsorattacksbycitizensaimedatlessthantheoverthrowoftheirgovernment,andthedeploymentofmercenarycompaniesorindividualsItcouldalsoincludeotheractivities,which,forreasonsofspace,Iwillnotdiscussingreatdepth,suchascertain

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