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首页 *新书上架*【波爱修斯】哲学的慰藉

*新书上架*【波爱修斯】哲学的慰藉.pdf

*新书上架*【波爱修斯】哲学的慰藉

九月虺
2009-09-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【波爱修斯】哲学的慰藉pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheConsolationofPhilosophyTheConsolationofPhilosophyAniciusManliusSeverinusBoethiusTranslatedbyDavidRSlavittharvarduniversitypressCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,EnglandCopyright©bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBoethius,dDeconsolationephilosophiaeEnglishTheconsolationofphilosophyAniciusManliusSeverinusBoethiustranslatedbyDavidRSlavittpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesisbn:(alkpaper)PhilosophyandreligionHappinessISlavitt,DavidR,–IITitlebdedcForJarmillaCONTENTSAcknowledgments•ixIntroductionbySethLererxiBookI•BookII•BookIII•BookIV•BookV•ixACKNOWLEDGMENTSPoemofBookVappearedinPerContra(Spring),andIamgratefultoitseditorsIshouldalsoliketoexpressmygratitudetotheoutsidereaderstowhomthepresssentthemanuscriptforreviewTheymadeanumberofveryhelpfulsuggestionsandofferedcorrectionsthatIhaveadoptedIwanttothankSethLererforcontributinganintelligentandusefulintroductionFinally,Iamdeeplyandalwaysgratefultomywifeforhercarefulproofreadingand,onoccasion,lineediting,mostofwhichshedidonherstationarybicycle!DavidSlavittxiINTRODUCTIONSethLererThebrilliant,brutallytruncatedlifeofAniciusManliusSeverinusBoethius(c–)straddledtheworldsofclassicalantiquityandearlyChristiancultureAsthescionofoneofItaly’smostinfluentialaristocraticfamilies,BoethiusreceivedaneducationbefittingafutureimperialofficialHestudiedGreekandLatinclassicsandreceivedhistraininginrhetoric,forensics,andthenicetiesofdiplomacyHepracticed,too,theChristianitythathadbecometheacceptedreligiouspracticeofthearistocracysincethefourthcentury,andhisfatherinlaw,Symmachus,hadbeenoneofthemostpowerfulfiguresinthedoctrinaldebatesthatrockedtheChurchduringthefifthcenturyOfcourse,bytheendofthatcentury,theinstitutionsoftheRomanEmpirehadbeenirrevocablychangedTheeasternendofempirehaditsseatinConstantinople,andthewesternremainswerenowgovernedbytheOstrogothsThereignofTheodoric,whichbeganin,incorporatedtheoldxii•introductionRomanofficesasacourtesytothesurvivingaristocracyInsuchaworld,ayoungmanlikeBoethiuscouldaspiretobeaprovincialgovernororaceremonialconsulItwasthislatterpositionthatheattainedin,andbyhehadrisentothepositionofMasterofOfficesatTheodoric’scourtinRavennaIntrigueandrivalry,thereasinallcourts,werethecurrencyofeverydayadvancement,andjustayearafterhisappointmentasMaster,Boethiusfoundhimselftraduced,denounced,strippedofhisposition,andunderhousearrestTheeasternandwesternChurcheswereinsharpdisagreementoverbasictenetsofbeliefTheodoricwasanArianChristian(holdingapositionontherelationshipofGodtheFathertotheSonthatdifferedfromwhatwouldbecomethemainstream,“Trinitarian”view),andhisreligiousandpoliticalallianceswereinfluxduringtheearlysRelationshipswiththeRomanpope,withtheeasternemperorinConstantinople,andwiththeoldRoman(butnowChristian)aristocracyweretenseItmaybenoexaggerationtosaythatthesewereyearsofparanoia,andTheodoricwasreceptivetowhateverrumorsflewabouthiscourtWhetherBoethiusreallysupportedtheByzantinesagainsttheGoths,andwhetherhisstaunchdefenseoftheoldRomanSenateirkedtheemperor,hisfateintroduction•xiiiwassealed,andinOctoberhewasimprisonedandexecutedinthetownofPavia,farfromtheseatofruleandfromhisfamilyLikemanycourtiersofsuccessivecenturies,BoethiuswasbothapoliticianandanintellectualHisearlylifewasspenttranslatingandadaptingtheinheritanceofGreekphilosophyforLatinreadersAsheoutlinedhisplaninhisCommentaryonAristotle’sPerihermeneias(probablywritteninhistwenties):IshalltranslateintoLatineveryworkofAristotle’sthatcomesintomyhands,andIshallwritecommentariesonallofthemanysubtletyoflogic,anydepthofmoralinsight,anyperceptionofscientifictruththatAristotlehassetdown,Ishallarrange,translate,andilluminatebythelightofacommentaryAndIshallalsotranslateandcommentuponallPlato’sdialoguesandputthemintoLatinformHavingcompletedthisnotunworthyproject,IshallbringthethoughtofAristotleandPlatosomehowintoharmony,andshowthatthesetwophilosophersarenotatoddsineverythingasagreatmanypeoplesupposexiv•introductionItmatterslittlethattheprojectneverreachedcompletionWhatmattersisthatthisyoungscholar,fromthestart,sawhiscareerasoneofreadingandtranslating,understandingandinterpretingEveninpartiallyrealizedform,theprojectmadehimfamousamonghisintellectualpeersWhenhisyoungercontemporaryCassiodoruswrotealetterofrecommendationforhim,hecouldpraise:“Inyourhands,GreekteachingshavebecomeRomandoctrine”InadditiontohisworkinGreekphilosophy,BoethiuscontributedtothegrowingdebatesemergingintheearlyCatholicChurchHisfourTheologicalTractatescarefullyanalyzethequestionsaboutthenatureofChristandtherelationshipsbetweenhishumanityanddivinityDeeplyindebtedtoNeoplatonicthoughtandtothewritingsofStAugustine,theTractatesalsowork,structurally,accordingtotheclassicaltechniquesofinnerdialogueandintellectualdebateItisnotsomuchthatBoethiusattemptedtosynthesizeclassicalandChristianidiomorideologyItisratherthathecouldadapttheformsoftheGreekandRomanphilosophicaldialoguetomattersoftheologicalinquiryTheConsolationofPhilosophy,writtenwhilehewasimprisoned,sustainsmanyofBoethius’searlierintellectualconcernsandliteraryaspirationsItoffersaconspectusofPlatonicphilosophyandAristotelianintroduction•xvmethodItdevelopsthepedagogicdialoguefoundintheworksofPlato,Cicero,andStAugustineintoadramaticnarrativeofselfawarenessIttakestheliteraryformoftheMenippiansatirealternatingpoetryandprosetocreateakindofparalleldialoguebetweenthediscoursesofliteraryandlogicalinquiryAndittransmutesthecentralmythsofclassicalpaganismtoprovideallegoriesofwandering,struggle,andrewardthattheprisonerandthereadermayusetolocatethemselvesinthespiritualworldThereadercomingtotheConsolationforthefirsttimeespeciallyinDavidSlavitt’suniquelyevocativetranslationshouldnotbedauntedbythedoctrinaldebatesorbythedetailsoflateantiquehistorythatshapeditsmakingInstead,thereadershouldsavortheresonancesofitsverse:fromtheruefulnessofitsopeningmetersinBookI,throughthepowerofitsnaturaldescriptionsinBookII,thepurviewofitscosmologyinBookIII,theaffectingretellingsofthetalesofmythicheroesinBooksIIIandIV,totheknowingserenityinBookVThesearepoemsdeeplyindebtedtothelyricanddramaticformsofRomanliteraryhistory:VirgilandOvidchimethroughoutSeneca’stragicheroesandheroinesbreakthroughThereadershouldattendaswelltotheprosedialoguethatframesthepoemsLadyPhilosophyremainsoneofthegreatestteachersinxvi•introductionWesternliterature,especiallywhentheprisonerremainsoneofthemostobtuseofstudentsTheConsolation’sreadershouldfindhimselforherselfintheprisoner:learningfromthemethodofdialecticalargument,movingfromtheavowalofopiniontotherecognitionoftruthAndyet,theConsolationdoesnotsimplyjuxtaposetwoformsofwritingforsimplecontrastBoththepoetryandprosearedeeplyfigurative,richwithmetaphorsoftravel,ofthehome,ofmusic,andofcraftBoth,too,aredeeplyallusive,bringingtogetherliteraryechoesandresonantrewritingsHomericandVirgilianepic,Ovidianlovepoetry,SenecantragedyalljostleinBoethius’sexquisiteLatinButthisallusivenessismorethanjustagreatscholar’sshowingoffItisaprincipleofform,aliterarymethod,asBoethiusmakesclearthatallexperienceisarereadingofthepast,thatlifeismadeupofthebookswehaveread,andthat,inparticular,theprogressofhisstudentprisonerrequireshimtolookbackoverhisownwritingsandtheearlysectionsofthisdialoguetoputasidepastdoubtsanddesiresandaspiretoanunderstandingofhistruehomeinthestarsIntheseways,theConsolationisaworkofliterateandliteraryunderstandingItisverymuchaworkabouttheplaceofbooksinculture,aboutlifeasintroduction•xviisomethingofalibraryoftheimagination“Iusedtowritecheerfulpoems,”theworkbegins,anditsfirstwordistheLatincarminaBoethiusmovesfromapoettoaphilosopherinthecourseoftheworkButheremainsgroundedintheavowalsofthewriter’slifeCarminaquiquondam,studioflorenteperegi:“ThesearethesongsIusedtosing”HowcanwenotrecalltheopeningofVirgil’sAeneid,wherethepoetannounces,Armavirumquecano,“Isingofarmsandofaman”ThemanofwhomBoethiussingswasnotthefounderoftheRomanworldbutoneofitslastvictimsHisexploitsarenotthoseofdiscovery,love,andmartialconquestbutofmoralgrowthMuchlikeAeneas,theprisoneroftheConsolationisatravelerbuthistravelstakehimtoapatriaofspiritualunderstandingHisviaisawayofreason(Indeed,BoethiusadoptstheLatinphraseviaetratio,“wayandreason,”totranslatetheGreekwordmethodos,“method”awordthathas,initsownetymology,thesenseofbeingontheroadtounderstanding)AndsoeachbookoftheConsolationchartshisjourneyBookIfindstheprisonerinselfpityinglament,andladyPhilosophyappearsbeforehimtoinitiateadialoguethatwilllocatehimsecurelyonthepathofmoralunderstandingPartofthatunderstandingliesinarejectionofthewilesofFortune,andBookIIpresentsoneofthebestknownimagesofworldlyxviii•introductionwellbeingthewheelofFortunetopresshometotheprisonerhisneedtorejectpower,wealth,andstatusinfavorofthetruegoodofwisdomBookIIIillustrateshowthatwisdomhasasourceinthedivineandthatsuchidealsasvirtue,goodness,andhappinessremaininextricablylinkedwiththedivinelyorderedcosmosBooksIVandVraisequestionsaboutdivineknowledgeandhumanfreewill,aboutcausalityandcontingency,andbytheConsolation’sendtheprisoner,andideallythereader,leavesthedialogueconvincedthatdivineomniscienceisnotabarriertohumanchoice:thatis,thatGod’sknowledgeofevents,existingasitdoesoutsidelineartime,doesnotinitselfcausethoseeventstohappenInthecourseofthesephilosophicaldiscussions,PhilosophyoffersupsomeofthemostmovingpoetryoflateLatinliteratureThepoemsonthechangingseasonsinBookIIlookbackoverthegenresofthepastoral,thegeorgic,andthelyrictowriteastoryofworldhistoryasliteraryhistoryThemagnificenthymntocreationinBookIII(poem),modeledonPlato’scosmologicalvisioninhisTimaeus,remainsoneofthegreatestpaeanstothedivineevercomposedThebrilliantlyallusivetrioofpoemsonthemajorfiguresofGreekmythologyOrpheusinBookIII,poemOdysseusinBookIV,poemintroduction•xixandHerculesinBookIV,poemsynthesizesepicsubjectmatterwithdramaticdeclamationThesepoemsarenotsimplymasterpiecesoflateantiqueversetheywerethestimulustoawholerangeoflaterliteraryimaginings,fromtheOldEnglishMetersofBoethius,throughtheOldFrenchallegoriesoftheRomandelaRose,toChaucer’sMiddleEnglishTroilusandCriseyde,andbeyondThisliteraryafterlifemarksTheConsolationofPhilosophyasoneofthemostinfluentialandmostwidelycopied,translated,andcommenteduponworksofliteratureinWesterncultureRecovered,perhapsbyCassiodorusdecadesafteritscomposition,theworkmadeitswaybytheeighthandninthcenturiesintothecentralEuropeofCharlemagneandsubsequentlytotheEnglandofAlfredtheGreatSomeofthemostmagnificentofmedievalillustratedmanuscriptsarethoseoftheConsolation:Boethiusinhisstudy,ladyPhilosophyinherletteredrobe,Fortuneandherwheel,andthetormentsandadventuresofthepoetry’smythologicalfiguresallbecamethesubjectsofilluminationInEnglandalone,theConsolationsurvivesintranslationsrangingfromthoseofKingAlfred’scourtinthelateninthcenturytothatofGeoffreyChaucerattheendofthefourteenthandthatofQueenElizabethattheendofthesixteenthChaucer’sBoece,asitwasknown,wasoneofxx•introductionthefirstbooksprintedbyWilliamCaxtonwhenhebroughtthenewtechnologyofmovabletypetoEnglandinthemids(hiseditiondatesfrom),andBoethiuswasclearlyinthemindofSirThomasMoreashereflectedonhisownimprisonmentinForthehistorianEdwardGibbon,twoandahalfcenturieslater,theConsolationremained“agoldenbook,worthyoftheleisureofPlatoorTullyie,Cicero”BoethiushasthusplayedauniqueroleinthehistoryofEnglishletters,andDavidSlavittbringstotheConsolationhisownuniquesensitivitytothenuancesofLatinpoetryandthemanyformsofEnglishverseScholarscomingtohistranslationwillfindmuchthatsparklesandsurprises:forexample,inthefrankcolloquialismsofsuchmomentsasBookV,prose,whenPhilosophyrespondstotheprisoner’srequesttoexplain“theapparentrandomnessofgoodandbadfortune”:“Thisisthegreatquestion,isn’tit”Theywillalsofindpoetryrestoredtoverseslongreducedtoprosaicparaphrase,asinthisexquisitealliterativemomentinBookIII,poem:OrpheuslongagosanghisdirgeforEuridyce’sdeathandrootedtreesrantohearandrunningriversstoppedtolistenintroduction•xxiPassagessuchasthisonewillenticethereadernewtotheConsolation,too,aswillmomentsinwhichSlavittjuxtaposescommonplaceandconundrumtogivelifetooldphrases:forexample,inBookI,poem,wheretheimageoftheprisoner’s“fairweatherfriends”looksaheadtothefoulstormsthatwillbesethismindinBookIIorinBookIV,poem,wheretheLatinlinevelaNeritiiducis(literally,“thesailsoftheIthacanleader”)generatesaphrasingevocativeoftheopeningofEzraPound’sCantos:TheIthacan’sblackshipandtherestofhiswanderingfleetthewindsdrovetotheislandwherethefairgoddessdwellsSlavitt’sConsolationisatranslation,then,thatreachesbacktohistoriesofclassicaltranslationandintroducesoneofthegreatworksofWesternliteraturetonewreadersatthestartofanewcenturySuggestedFurtherReadingChadwick,HenryBoethius:TheConsolationsofMusic,Logic,Theology,andPhilosophyOxford:ClarendonPress,Courcelle,PierreLaconsolationdephilosophiedanslatraditionlittéraireParis:EtudesAugustiniennes,xxii•introductionGibson,Margaret,edBoethius:HisLife,Thought,andInfluenceOxford:Blackwell,Lerer,SethBoethiusandDialogue:LiteraryMethodinTheConsolationofPhilosophyPrinceton:PrincetonUniversityPress,Marenbon,JohnBoethiusNewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,O’Daly,GerardThePoetryofBoethiusLondon:Duckworth,BOOK)I$IIusedtowritecheerfulpoems,happyandlifeaffirming,butmyeyesarewetwithtearsandthepoemsarethosethatonlygrievingMuseswouldpromptmetocompose,heartbreakingversefromasuffering,heartbrokenman,butthesewoefulsongsturnouttobemyconsolingcompanionsThosegloriesofmyyoungmanhoodhavelatelybecomethecomfortsofoldagethathascomeuponmetoosoonastheburdensofanguishaddtothoseofmyyearsMyhairisprematurelygrayandmyskinhangsloose•boethiusonapoor,precariousframeTotheyoung,Deathisathreattotheirpleasures,butnowthatIamworndownandoutanditoffersatlastaremissionofallmypains,itiscruel,payingnoheedtomyimploringcries,andwillnotdeigntoclosemyweepingeyesInmysaladdays,Iwasrich,andwhimsicalFortunesmiledforalittlewhile,butthensheturnedawaythatfaithlessfaceofhers,andmybitterlifedragsoutitslong,unwanteddaysMyfairweatherfriendsadmiredme,paidcompliments,andenviedmyluck,butnowtheyseehowmyfootholdwasalwaysuncertainIwaswritingthisinasilencebrokenonlybythescratchingsofmyquillasIrecordedthesegloomythoughtsandtriedtoimposeuponthemacertainformthatinitselfiscuriouslyanodyne,whentherewasapresenceofwhichIgraduallybecameawareloomingovermyhead,thefigureofawomanwhoselookfilledmewithaweHerburninggazewasindetheconsolationofphilosophy•scribablypenetrating,unlikethatofanyoneIhaveevermet,andwhilehercomplexionwasasfreshandglowingasthatofagirl,IrealizedthatshewasancientandthatnobodywouldmistakeherforacreatureofourtimeItwasimpossibletoestimateherheight,forsheseemedatfirsttobeofordinarymeasure,butthen,withoutseemingtochange,sheappearedtobeextraordinarilytall,sothatherheadallbuttouchedtheheavensIwascertainthatifshehadamindtostretchherneckjustalittle,herfacewouldpenetratetheskies,whereitwouldbeutterlylosttohumanviewHerdresswasamiracleoffineclothandmeticulousworkmanship,and,asIlaterlearned,shehadwovenitherselfButithaddarkenedlikeasmokeblackenedfamilystatueintheatriumasifthroughneglectandwasdingyandwornIcouldseeworkedintothebottombordertheGreeklettersΠ(piforpractice)andslightlyhigherΘ(thetafortheory)withstepsthatweremarkedbetweenthemtoformaladderbywhichonemightclimbfromthelowertotheupperSomeruffianshaddoneviolencetoherelegantdress,andclearlybitsofthefabrichadbeentornawayInherrighthandsheheldafewbooks,andinherleftshecarriedascepterAsshenoticedtheMusesofpoetrysurroundingmybed,helpingmefindthewordstoexpressmy•boethiusgrief,herexpressionchangedtooneofanger,andwithhereyesblazingshedemanded,“Wholetthesechorusgirlsinheretoapproachasickman’sbedsideTheyhavenocuresforwhatailshimIndeed,whattheyofferwillonlymakehisconditionworse!Whatwewantisthefruitsofreason,whilealltheyhaveistheuselessthornsofintemperatepassionIfhelistenstotheirnonsense,hewillaccustomhimselftodepres

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