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首页 *新书上架*【查尔斯·泰勒】世俗时代

*新书上架*【查尔斯·泰勒】世俗时代.pdf

*新书上架*【查尔斯·泰勒】世俗时代

九月虺
2009-08-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【查尔斯·泰勒】世俗时代pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

asecularageASecularAgecharlestaylorTheBelknapPressofHarvardUniversityPressCambridge,Massachusetts,andLondon,England•Copyright©byCharlesTaylorAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaDesignbyAnnamarieMcMahonWhyPoemsbyRobinsonJeffersarequotedfromTheCollectedPoetryofRobinsonJeffers,edTimHunt(StanfordUniversityPress,)Copyright©,byRobinsonJefferscopyrightJeffersLiteraryPropertiesAllrightsreservedUsedwiththepermissionofStanfordUniversityPress“RockandHawk,”copyrightandrenewedbyDonnanJeffersandGarthJeffers,isquotedfromSelectedPoetryofRobinsonJeffersbyRobinsonJeffersUsedbypermissionofRandomHouse,IncLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataTaylor,Charles,–AsecularageCharlesTaylorpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(alkpaper)ISBN:(alkpaper)SecularismReligionandcultureITitleBLT�dcTomydaughterGrettaContentsPrefaceixIntroductionpartiTheWorkofReformTheBulwarksofBeliefTheRiseoftheDisciplinarySocietyTheGreatDisembeddingModernSocialImaginariesTheSpectreofIdealismpartiiTheTurningPointProvidentialDeismTheImpersonalOrderpartiiiTheNovaEffectTheMalaisesofModernityTheDarkAbyssofTimeTheExpandingUniverseofUnbeliefNineteenthCenturyTrajectoriespartivNarrativesofSecularizationTheAgeofMobilizationTheAgeofAuthenticityReligionTodaypartvConditionsofBeliefTheImmanentFrameCrossPressuresDilemmasDilemmasUnquietFrontiersofModernityConversionsEpilogue:TheManyStoriesNotesIndexviiicontentsPrefaceThisbookemergesfrommyGiffordLecturesatEdinburghinthespringof,entitled“LivinginaSecularAge”It’sbeenquitesometimesincethen,andinfactthescopeoftheworkhasexpandedBasically,thelecturesofcoveredPartsI–IIIofthepresentbook,andPartsIVandVdealwithmattersIwantedtodiscussthen,butlackedthetimeandcompetencetotreatproperly(Ihopethepassingyearshavehelpedinthisregard)Thebookhasgrownsince,andalsoincreaseditsscopeButthefirstprocesshasn’tkeptpacewiththesecond:ThelargerscopewouldhavedemandedamuchbiggerbookthanIamnowofferingtothereaderIamtellingastory,thatofwhatweusuallycall“secularization”inthemodernWestAndindoingso,Iamtryingtoclarifywhatthisprocess,ofteninvoked,butstillnotveryclear,amountstoTodothisproperly,Ishouldhavehadtotelladenserandmorecontinuousstory,somethingIhaveneitherthetimenorthecompetencetodoIaskthereaderwhopicksupthisbooknottothinkofitasacontinuousstoryandargument,butratherasasetofinterlockingessays,whichshedlightoneachother,andofferacontextofrelevanceforeachotherIhopethegeneralthrustofmythesiswillemergefromthissketchytreatment,andwillsuggesttoothersfurtherwaysofdeveloping,applying,modifying,andtransposingtheargumentIwanttothanktheGiffordLecturesCommitteeatEdinburghforgivingmetheinitialimpetustostartonthisprojectIalsooweadebtofgratitudetotheCanadaCouncilforanIsaacKillamFellowshipduring–,whichallowedmetogetstartedandtotheSocialScienceandHumanitiesResearchCouncilofCanadafortheirGoldMedalAwardofIbenefitedgreatlyfromvisitstotheInstitutfürdieWissenschaftenvomMenscheninViennainandTheWissenschaftskollegzuBerlingavemeafellowshipin–thatallowedmetocompletetheprojectinthebestpossibleconditions,includingdiscussionswithJoséCasanovaandHansJoas,whohavebeenworkingonparallelprojectsImustalsoexpressmygratitudetothemembersofthenetworkaroundtheCentreforTransculturalStudiesSomeofthekeyconceptsIuseinthisworkhaveemergedduringourexchangesInproducingthebook,IwasgreatlyhelpedbyBryanSmyth,whomadeordiscoveredmanyofthetranslationsaswellaspreparingtheindexUnmarkedtranslationsarealmostalwaysbyhim,occasionallymodifiedbymyselfxprefaceasecularageIntroductionWhatdoesitmeantosaythatweliveinasecularageAlmosteveryonewouldagreethatinsomesensewedo:Imeanthe“we”wholiveintheWest,orperhapsNorthwest,orotherwiseput,theNorthAtlanticworldalthoughsecularityextendsalsopartially,andindifferentways,beyondthisworldAndthejudgmentofsecularityseemshardtoresistwhenwecomparethesesocietieswithanythingelseinhumanhistory:thatis,withalmostallothercontemporarysocieties(eg,Islamiccountries,India,Africa),ononehandandwiththerestofhumanhistory,Atlanticorotherwise,ontheotherButit’snotsoclearinwhatthissecularityconsistsTherearetwobigcandidatesforitscharacterizationorperhaps,better,familiesofcandidateThefirstconcentratesonthecommoninstitutionsandpracticesmostobviously,butnotonly,thestateThedifferencewouldthenconsistinthis,thatwhereasthepoliticalorganizationofallpremodernsocietieswasinsomewayconnectedto,basedon,guaranteedbysomefaithin,oradherencetoGod,orsomenotionofultimatereality,themodernWesternstateisfreefromthisconnectionChurchesarenowseparatefrompoliticalstructures(withacoupleofexceptions,inBritainandtheScandinaviancountries,whicharesolowkeyandundemandingasnotreallytoconstituteexceptions)ReligionoritsabsenceislargelyaprivatematterThepoliticalsocietyisseenasthatofbelievers(ofallstripes)andnonbelieversalikePutinanotherway,inour“secular”societies,youcanengagefullyinpoliticswithouteverencounteringGod,thatis,comingtoapointwherethecrucialimportanceoftheGodofAbrahamforthiswholeenterpriseisbroughthomeforcefullyandunmistakablyThefewmomentsofvestigialritualorprayerbarelyconstitutesuchanencountertoday,butthiswouldhavebeeninescapableinearliercenturiesinChristendomThiswayofputtingitallowsustoseethatmorethanthestateisinvolvedinthischangeIfwegobackafewcenturiesinourcivilization,weseethatGodwaspresentintheabovesenseinawholehostofsocialpracticesnotjustthepoliticalandatalllevelsofsociety:forinstance,whenthefunctioningmodeoflocalgovernmentwastheparish,andtheparishwasstillprimarilyacommunityofprayerorwhenguildsmaintainedarituallifethatwasmorethanproformaorwhentheonlymodesinwhichthesocietyinallitscomponentscoulddisplayitselftoitselfwerereligiousfeasts,like,forinstance,theCorpusChristiprocessionInthosesocieties,youcouldn’tengageinanykindofpublicactivitywithout“encounteringGod”intheabovesenseButthesituationistotallydifferenttodayAndifyougobackevenfartherinhumanhistory,youcometoarchaicsocietiesinwhichthewholesetofdistinctionswemakebetweenthereligious,political,economic,social,etc,aspectsofoursocietyceasestomakesenseIntheseearliersocieties,religionwas“everywhere”,wasinterwovenwitheverythingelse,andinnosenseconstitutedaseparate“sphere”ofitsownOneunderstandingofsecularitythenisintermsofpublicspacesThesehavebeenallegedlyemptiedofGod,orofanyreferencetoultimaterealityOrtakenfromanotherside,aswefunctionwithinvariousspheresofactivityeconomic,political,cultural,educational,professional,recreationalthenormsandprincipleswefollow,thedeliberationsweengagein,generallydon’treferustoGodortoanyreligiousbeliefstheconsiderationsweactonareinternaltothe“rationality”ofeachspheremaximumgainwithintheeconomy,thegreatestbenefittothegreatestnumberinthepoliticalarea,andsoonThisisinstrikingcontrasttoearlierperiods,whenChristianfaithlaiddownauthoritativeprescriptions,oftenthroughthemouthsoftheclergy,whichcouldnotbeeasilyignoredinanyofthesedomains,suchasthebanonusury,ortheobligationtoenforceorthodoxyButwhetherweseethisintermsofprescriptions,orintermsofritualorceremonialpresence,thisemptyingofreligionfromautonomoussocialspheresis,ofcourse,compatiblewiththevastmajorityofpeoplestillbelievinginGod,andpractisingtheirreligionvigorouslyThecaseofCommunistPolandspringstomindThisisperhapsabitofaredherring,becausethepublicsecularitywasimposedtherebyadictatorialandunpopularrégimeButtheUnitedStatesisratherstrikinginthisregardOneoftheearliestsocietiestoseparateChurchandState,itisalsotheWesternsocietywiththehigheststatisticsforreligiousbeliefandpracticeAndyetthisistheissuethatpeopleoftenwanttogetatwhentheyspeakofourtimesassecular,andcontrastthem,nostalgicallyorwithrelief,withearlieragesoffaithorpietyInthissecondmeaning,secularityconsistsinthefallingoffofreligiousbeliefandpractice,inpeopleturningawayfromGod,andnolongergoingtoChurchInthissense,thecountriesofwesternEuropehavemainlybecomeseculareventhosewhoretainthevestigialpublicreferencetoGodinpublicspaceNowIbelievethatanexaminationofthisageassecularisworthtakingupinaasecularagethirdsense,closelyrelatedtothesecond,andnotwithoutconnectiontothefirstThiswouldfocusontheconditionsofbeliefTheshifttosecularityinthissenseconsists,amongotherthings,ofamovefromasocietywherebeliefinGodisunchallengedandindeed,unproblematic,tooneinwhichitisunderstoodtobeoneoptionamongothers,andfrequentlynottheeasiesttoembraceInthismeaning,asagainstsense,atleastmanymilieuxintheUnitedStatesaresecularized,andIwouldarguethattheUnitedStatesasawholeisClearcontrastcasestodaywouldbethemajorityofMuslimsocieties,orthemilieuxinwhichthevastmajorityofIndiansliveItwouldn’tmatterifoneshowedthatthestatisticsforchurchsynagogueattendanceintheUS,orsomeregionsofit,approachedthoseforFridaymosqueattendancein,say,PakistanorJordan(orthis,plusdailyprayer)ThatwouldbeevidencetowardsclassingthesesocietiesasthesameinsenseNevertheless,itseemstomeevidentthattherearebigdifferencesbetweenthesesocietiesinwhatitistobelieve,stemminginpartfromthefactthatbeliefisanoption,andinsomesenseanembattledoptionintheChristian(or“postChristian”)society,andnot(ornotyet)intheMuslimonesSowhatIwanttodoisexamineoursocietyassecularinthisthirdsense,whichIcouldperhapsencapsulateinthisway:thechangeIwanttodefineandtraceisonewhichtakesusfromasocietyinwhichitwasvirtuallyimpossiblenottobelieveinGod,tooneinwhichfaith,evenforthestaunchestbeliever,isonehumanpossibilityamongothersImayfinditinconceivablethatIwouldabandonmyfaith,butthereareothers,includingpossiblysomeveryclosetome,whosewayoflivingIcannotinallhonestyjustdismissasdepraved,orblind,orunworthy,whohavenofaith(atleastnotinGod,orthetranscendent)BeliefinGodisnolongeraxiomaticTherearealternativesAndthiswillalsolikelymeanthatatleastincertainmilieux,itmaybehardtosustainone’sfaithTherewillbepeoplewhofeelboundtogiveitup,eventhoughtheymournitslossThishasbeenarecognizableexperienceinoursocieties,atleastsincethemidnineteenthcenturyTherewillbemanyotherstowhomfaithneverevenseemsaneligiblepossibilityTherearecertainlymillionstodayofwhomthisistrueSecularityinthissenseisamatterofthewholecontextofunderstandinginwhichourmoral,spiritualorreligiousexperienceandsearchtakesplaceBy‘contextofunderstanding’here,Imeanbothmattersthatwillprobablyhavebeenexplicitlyformulatedbyalmosteveryone,suchasthepluralityofoptions,andsomewhichformtheimplicit,largelyunfocussedbackgroundofthisexperienceandsearch,its“preontology”,touseaHeideggeriantermAnageorsocietywouldthenbesecularornot,invirtueoftheconditionsofexperienceofandsearchforthespiritualObviously,whereitstoodinthisdimensionwouldhavealottodowithhowsecularitwasinthesecondsense,whichturnsonintroductionlevelsofbeliefandpractice,butthereisnosimplecorrelationbetweenthetwo,asthecaseoftheUSshowsAsforthefirstsense,whichconcernspublicspace,thismaybeuncorrelatedwithboththeothers(asmightbearguedforthecaseofIndia)ButIwillmaintainthatinfact,intheWesterncase,theshifttopublicsecularityhasbeenpartofwhathelpedtobringonasecularageinmythirdsenseArticulatingtheconditionsofexperienceturnsouttobeharderthanonemightthinkThisispartlybecausepeopletendtobefocussedonbeliefitselfWhatpeopleareusuallyinterestedin,whatarousesalotoftheanguishandconflict,isthesecondissue:whatdopeoplebelieveandpracticeHowmanybelieveinGodInwhichdirectionisthetrendgoingConcernforpublicsecularityoftenrelatestotheissueofwhatpeoplebelieveorpractice,andofhowtheyaretreatedinconsequence:doesoursecularistrégimemarginalizebelievingChristians,assomeclaimintheUSAOrdoesitstigmatizehithertounrecognizedgroupsAfricanAmericans,HispanicsorelsegaysandlesbiansButinoursocieties,thebigissueaboutreligionisusuallydefinedintermsofbeliefFirstChristianityhasalwaysdefineditselfinrelationtocredalstatementsAndsecularisminsensehasoftenbeenseenasthedeclineofChristianbeliefandthisdeclineaslargelypoweredbytheriseofotherbeliefs,inscience,reason,orbythedeliverancesofparticularsciences:forinstance,evolutionarytheory,orneurophysiologicalexplanationsofmentalfunctioningPartofmyreasonforwantingtoshiftthefocustotheconditionsofbelief,experienceandsearchisthatI’mnotsatisfiedwiththisexplanationofsecularism:sciencerefutesandhencecrowdsoutreligiousbeliefI’mdissatisfiedontwo,relatedlevelsFirst,Idon’tseethecogencyofthesupposedargumentsfrom,say,thefindingsofDarwintotheallegedrefutationsofreligionAndsecondly,partlyforthisreason,Idon’tseethisasanadequateexplanationforwhyinfactpeopleabandonedtheirfaith,evenwhentheythemselvesarticulatewhathappenedinsuchtermsas“DarwinrefutedtheBible”,asallegedlysaidbyaHarrowschoolboyinthesOfcoursebadargumentscanfigureascrucialinperfectlygoodpsychologicalorhistoricalexplanationsButbadargumentslikethis,whichleaveoutsomanyviablepossibilitiesbetweenfundamentalismandatheism,cryoutforsomeaccountwhytheseotherroadswerenottravelledThisdeeperaccount,Ithink,istobefoundatthelevelI’mtryingtoexploreIwillreturntothisshortlyInordertogetalittlebitcleareronthislevel,Iwanttotalkaboutbeliefandunbelief,notasrivaltheories,thatis,waysthatpeopleaccountforexistence,ormorality,whetherbyGodorbysomethinginnature,orwhateverRatherwhatIwanttoasecularagedoisfocusattentiononthedifferentkindsoflivedexperienceinvolvedinunderstandingyourlifeinonewayortheother,onwhatit’sliketoliveasabelieveroranunbelieverAsafirstroughindicationofthedirectionI’mgropingin,wecouldsaythatthesearealternativewaysoflivingourmoralspirituallife,inthebroadestsenseWeallseeourlives,andorthespacewhereinweliveourlives,ashavingacertainmoralspiritualshapeSomewhere,insomeactivity,orcondition,liesafullness,arichnessthatis,inthatplace(activityorcondition),lifeisfuller,richer,deeper,moreworthwhile,moreadmirable,morewhatitshouldbeThisisperhapsaplaceofpower:weoftenexperiencethisasdeeplymoving,asinspiringPerhapsthissenseoffullnessissomethingwejustcatchglimpsesoffromafaroffwehavethepowerfulintuitionofwhatfullnesswouldbe,werewetobeinthatcondition,eg,ofpeaceorwholenessorabletoactonthatlevel,ofintegrityorgenerosityorabandonmentorselfforgetfulnessButsometimestherewillbemomentsofexperiencedfullness,ofjoyandfulfillment,wherewefeelourselvesthereLetoneexample,drawnfromtheautobiographyofBedeGriffiths,standformany:OnedayduringmylasttermatschoolIwalkedoutaloneintheeveningandheardthebirdssinginginthatfullchorusofsong,whichcanonlybeheardatthattimeoftheyearatdawnoratsunsetIremembernowtheshockofsurprisewithwhichthesoundbrokeonmyearsItseemedtomethatIhadneverheardthebirdssingingbeforeandIwonderedwhethertheysanglikethisallyearroundandIhadnevernoticeditAsIwalkedIcameuponsomehawthorntreesinfullbloomandagainIthoughtthatIhadneverseensuchasightorexperiencedsuchsweetnessbeforeIfIhadbeenbroughtsuddenlyamongthetreesoftheGardenofParadiseandheardachoirofangelssingingIcouldnothavebeenmoresurprisedIcamethentowherethesunwassettingovertheplayingfieldsAlarkrosesuddenlyfromthegroundbesidethetreewhereIwasstandingandpouredoutitssongabovemyhead,andthensankstillsingingtorestEverythingthengrewstillasthesunsetfadedandtheveilofduskbegantocovertheearthIremembernowthefeelingofawewhichcameovermeIfeltinclinedtokneelontheground,asthoughIhadbeenstandinginthepresenceofanangelandIhardlydaredtolookonthefaceofthesky,becauseitseemedasthoughitwasbutaveilbeforethefaceofGodInthiscase,thesenseoffullnesscameinanexperiencewhichunsettlesandbreaksthroughourordinarysenseofbeingintheworld,withitsfamiliarobjects,activitiesandpointsofreferenceThesemaybemoments,asPeterBergerputsit,describingtheworkofRobertMusil,when“ordinaryrealityis‘abolished’andintroductionsomethingterrifyinglyothershinesthrough”,astateofconsciousnesswhichMusildescribesas“derandereZustand”(theothercondition)Buttheidentificationoffullnessmayhappenwithoutalimitexperienceofthiskind,whetherupliftingorfrighteningTheremayjustbemomentswhenthedeepdivisions,distractions,worries,sadnessesthatseemtodragusdownaresomehowdissolved,orbroughtintoalignment,sothatwefeelunited,movingforward,suddenlycapableandfullofenergyOurhighestaspirationsandourlifeenergiesaresomehowlinedup,reinforcingeachother,insteadofproducingpsychicgridlockThisisthekindofexperiencewhichSchillertriedtounderstandwithhisnotionof“play”Theseexperiences,andothersagainwhichcan’tallbeenumeratedhere,helpustosituateaplaceoffullness,towhichweorientourselvesmorallyorspirituallyTheycanorientusbecausetheyoffersomesenseofwhattheyareof:thepresenceofGod,orthevoiceofnature,ortheforcewhi

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  • gtiee 楼主应该注明是英文版

    2009-11-18 18:15:53

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*新书上架*【查尔斯·泰勒】世俗时代

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