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首页 【朱迪思·巴特勒】消解性别

【朱迪思·巴特勒】消解性别.PDF

【朱迪思·巴特勒】消解性别

九月虺
2009-08-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【朱迪思·巴特勒】消解性别pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

UNDOINGGENDERRTCqxd:PMPageiiUNDOINGGENDERJUDITHBUTLERROUTLEDGENEWYORKANDLONDONPublishedinbyRoutledgeMadisonAvenueNewYork,NYwwwroutledgenycomPublishedinGreatBritainbyRoutledgeParkSquareMiltonParkAbington,Oxfordshire,OXRN,UKwwwroutledgecoukCopyright©,byRoutledgeRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystemwithoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataButler,JudithUndoinggenderbyJudithButlerpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)–ISBN(pbk:alkpaper)SexroleGenderidentity,ITitleHQB–dcISBN(hb)ISBN(pb)RTCqxd:PMPageivForWendy,againandagainRTCqxd:PMPagevRTCqxd:PMPageviAcknowledgmentsMythanksgotoAmyJamgochianandStuartMurraywhohelpedatvariousstagestoeditandcompiletheseessaysIalsothankDeniseRileywhoseconversationovertheselastyearshasmovedmythinkinginwaystoomanyandtoointricatelytorecountIthankGayleSalamonaswellwhosedissertationonembodimentandmaterialityhaspromptedmyownrethinkingonsuchtopicsTheessay“BesideOneself”wasgivenaspartoftheAmnestyLectureSerieson“SexualRights”atOxfordinthespringofandwillappearinanOxfordpublicationofthoselectureseditedbyNicholasBamforthItcontainsmaterialpublishedin“Violence,Mourning,Politics,”whichfirstappearedinStudiesinGenderandSexuality:()“DoingJusticetoSomeone”appearedinadifferentforminGLQ(,no,)Inrevisingtheessay,IhaveincorporatedsuggestionsmadebyVernonRosarioandCherylChaseandamgratefultothembothfortheimportantperspectivestheyprovided“GenderRegulations”wascommissionedbyGilHerdtandCatharineStimpsonforaforthcomingvolumeon“Gender”withtheUniversityofChicagoPress“UndiagnosingGender”isalsoinTransgenderRights:Culture,Politics,andLaw,editedbyPaisleyCurrahandShannonMinter(Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,)“IsKinshipAlwaysAlreadyHeterosexual”appearedfirstindifferences(vol,no,spring)“LongingforRecognition”appearedfirstinStudiesinGenderRTCqxd:PMPageviiandSexuality(vol,no,)andsomepartsofthatessayappearedaswellas“Capacity”inRegardingSedgwick,editedbyStephenBarber(NewYork:Routledge,)“QuandariesoftheIncestTaboo”appearedinWhoseFreudThePlaceofPsychoanalysisinContemporaryCulture,editedbyPeterBrooksandAlexWoloch(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,)“BodilyConfessions”wasgivenasapaperattheAmericanPsychologicalDivisionMeetings(Division)inSanFranciscointhespringof“TheEndofSexualDifference”appearedindifferentforminFeministConsequences:TheoryforaNewCentury,editedbyMishaKavkaandElizabethBronfen(NewYork:ColumbiaUniveristyPress,)“TheQuestionofSocialTransformation”appearedinalongerversioninSpanishinMujeresytransformacionessociales,withLidiaPuigvertandElizabethBeckGernsheim(Barcelona:ElRoureEditorial,)“Canthe‘Other’ofPhilosophySpeak”waspublishedinSchoolsofThought:TwentyFiveYearsofInterpretiveSocialScience,editedbyJoanWScottandDebraKeates(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,)andappearedinaseparateversioninWomenandSocialTransformation(NewYork:PeterLangPublishing,)viiiUndoingGenderRTCqxd:PMPageviiiCONTENTSIntroduction:ActinginConcertBesideOneself:OntheLimitsofSexualAutonomyGenderRegulationsDoingJusticetoSomeone:SexReassignmentandAllegoriesofTranssexualityUndiagnosingGenderIsKinshipAlwaysAlreadyHeterosexualLongingforRecognitionQuandariesoftheIncestTabooBodilyConfessionsTheEndofSexualDifferenceTheQuestionofSocialTransformationCanthe“Other”ofPhilosophySpeakNotesWorksCitedIndexRTCqxd:PMPageixIntroduction:ActinginConcertTheessaysincludedhererepresentsomeofmymostrecentworkongenderandsexualityfocusingonthequestionofwhatitmightmeantoundorestrictivelynormativeconceptionsofsexualandgenderedlifeEqually,however,theessaysareabouttheexperienceofbecomingundoneinbothgoodandbadwaysSometimesanormativeconceptionofgendercanundoone’spersonhood,underminingthecapacitytopersevereinalivablelifeOthertimes,theexperienceofanormativerestrictionbecomingundonecanundoapriorconceptionofwhooneisonlytoinauguratearelativelyneweronethathasgreaterlivabilityasitsaimIfgenderisakindofadoing,anincessantactivityperformed,inpart,withoutone’sknowingandwithoutone’swilling,itisnotforthatreasonautomaticormechanicalOnthecontrary,itisapracticeofimprovisationwithinasceneofconstraintMoreover,onedoesnot“do”one’sgenderaloneOneisalways“doing”withorforanother,eveniftheotherisonlyimaginaryWhatIcallmy“own”genderappearsperhapsattimesassomethingthatIauthoror,indeed,ownButthetermsthatmakeupone’sowngenderare,fromthestart,outsideoneself,beyondoneselfinasocialitythathasnosingleauthor(andthatradicallyconteststhenotionofauthorshipitself)Althoughbeingacertaingenderdoesnotimplythatonewilldesireacertainway,thereisneverthelessadesirethatisconstitutiveofgenderRTINTqxd:PMPageitselfand,asaresult,noquickoreasywaytoseparatethelifeofgenderfromthelifeofdesireWhatdoesgenderwantTospeakinthiswaymayseemstrange,butitbecomeslesssowhenwerealizethatthesocialnormsthatconstituteourexistencecarrydesiresthatdonotoriginatewithourindividualpersonhoodThismatterismademorecomplexbythefactthattheviabilityofourindividualpersonhoodisfundamentallydependentonthesesocialnormsTheHegeliantraditionlinksdesirewithrecognition,claimingthatdesireisalwaysadesireforrecognitionandthatitisonlythroughtheexperienceofrecognitionthatanyofusbecomesconstitutedassociallyviablebeingsThatviewhasitsallureanditstruth,butitalsomissesacoupleofimportantpointsThetermsbywhichwearerecognizedashumanaresociallyarticulatedandchangeableAndsometimestheverytermsthatconfer“humanness”onsomeindividualsarethosethatdeprivecertainotherindividualsofthepossibilityofachievingthatstatus,producingadifferentialbetweenthehumanandthelessthanhumanThesenormshavefarreachingconsequencesforhowweunderstandthemodelofthehumanentitledtorightsorincludedintheparticipatorysphereofpoliticaldeliberationThehumanisunderstooddifferentiallydependingonitsrace,thelegibilityofthatrace,itsmorphology,therecognizabilityofthatmorphology,itssex,theperceptualverifiabilityofthatsex,itsethnicity,thecategoricalunderstandingofthatethnicityCertainhumansarerecognizedaslessthanhuman,andthatformofqualifiedrecognitiondoesnotleadtoaviablelifeCertainhumansarenotrecognizedashumanatall,andthatleadstoyetanotherorderofunlivablelifeIfpartofwhatdesirewantsistogainrecognition,thengender,insofarasitisanimatedbydesire,willwantrecognitionaswellButiftheschemesofrecognitionthatareavailabletousarethosethat“undo”thepersonbyconferringrecognition,or“undo”thepersonbywithholdingrecognition,thenrecognitionbecomesasiteofpowerbywhichthehumanisdifferentiallyproducedThismeansthattotheextentthatdesireisimplicatedinsocialnorms,itisboundupwiththequestionofpowerandwiththeproblemofwhoqualifiesastherecognizablyhumanandwhodoesnotIfIamacertaingender,willIstillberegardedaspartofthehumanWillthe“human”expandtoincludemeinitsreachIfIdesireincertainways,willIbeabletoliveWilltherebeaplaceformylife,UndoingGenderRTINTqxd:PMPageandwillitberecognizabletotheothersuponwhomIdependforsocialexistenceThereareadvantagestoremaininglessthanintelligible,ifintelligibilityisunderstoodasthatwhichisproducedasaconsequenceofrecognitionaccordingtoprevailingsocialnormsIndeed,ifmyoptionsareloathsome,ifIhavenodesiretoberecognizedwithinacertainsetofnorms,thenitfollowsthatmysenseofsurvivaldependsuponescapingtheclutchofthosenormsbywhichrecognitionisconferredItmaywellbethatmysenseofsocialbelongingisimpairedbythedistanceItake,butsurelythatestrangementispreferabletogainingasenseofintelligibilitybyvirtueofnormsthatwillonlydomeinfromanotherdirectionIndeed,thecapacitytodevelopacriticalrelationtothesenormspresupposesadistancefromthem,anabilitytosuspendordefertheneedforthem,evenasthereisadesirefornormsthatmightletoneliveThecriticalrelationdependsaswellonacapacity,invariablycollective,toarticulateanalternative,minorityversionofsustainingnormsoridealsthatenablemetoactIfIamsomeonewhocannotbewithoutdoing,thentheconditionsofmydoingare,inpart,theconditionsofmyexistenceIfmydoingisdependentonwhatisdonetomeor,rather,thewaysinwhichIamdonebynorms,thenthepossibilityofmypersistenceasan“I”dependsuponmybeingabletodosomethingwithwhatisdonewithmeThisdoesnotmeanthatIcanremaketheworldsothatIbecomeitsmakerThatfantasyofgodlikepoweronlyrefusesthewaysweareconstituted,invariablyandfromthestart,bywhatisbeforeusandoutsideofusMyagencydoesnotconsistindenyingthisconditionofmyconstitutionIfIhaveanyagency,itisopenedupbythefactthatIamconstitutedbyasocialworldIneverchoseThatmyagencyisrivenwithparadoxdoesnotmeanitisimpossibleItmeansonlythatparadoxistheconditionofitspossibilityAsaresult,the“I”thatIamfindsitselfatonceconstitutedbynormsanddependentonthembutalsoendeavorstoliveinwaysthatmaintainacriticalandtransformativerelationtothemThisisnoteasy,becausethe“I”becomes,toacertainextentunknowable,threatenedwithunviability,withbecomingundonealtogether,whenitnolongerincorporatesthenorminsuchawaythatmakesthis“I”fullyrecognizableThereisacertaindeparturefromthehumanthattakesplaceIntroduction:ActinginConcertRTINTqxd:PMPageinordertostarttheprocessofremakingthehumanImayfeelthatwithoutsomerecognizabilityIcannotliveButImayalsofeelthatthetermsbywhichIamrecognizedmakelifeunlivableThisisthejuncturefromwhichcritiqueemerges,wherecritiqueisunderstoodasaninterrogationofthetermsbywhichlifeisconstrainedinordertoopenupthepossibilityofdifferentmodesoflivinginotherwords,nottocelebratedifferenceassuchbuttoestablishmoreinclusiveconditionsforshelteringandmaintaininglifethatresistsmodelsofassimilationTheessaysinthistextareeffortstorelatetheproblematicsofgenderandsexualitytothetasksofpersistenceandsurvivalMyownthinkinghasbeeninfluencedbythe“NewGenderPolitics”thathasemergedinrecentyears,acombinationofmovementsconcernedwithtransgender,transsexuality,intersex,andtheircomplexrelationstofeministandqueertheoryIbelieve,however,thatitwouldbeamistaketosubscribetoaprogressivenotionofhistoryinwhichvariousframeworksareunderstoodtosucceedandsupplantoneanotherThereisnostorytobetoldabouthowonemovesfromfeministtoqueertotransThereasonthereisnostorytobetoldisthatnoneofthesestoriesarethepastthesestoriesarecontinuingtohappeninsimultaneousandoverlappingwaysaswetellthemTheyhappen,inpart,throughthecomplexwaystheyaretakenupbyeachofthesemovementsandtheoreticalpracticesConsidertheintersexoppositiontothewidespreadpracticeofperformingcoercivesurgeryoninfantsandchildrenwithsexuallyindeterminateorhermaphroditicanatomyinthenameofnormalizingthesebodiesThismovementoffersacriticalperspectiveontheversionofthe“human”thatrequiresidealmorphologiesandtheconstrainingofbodilynormsTheintersexcommunity’sresistancetocoercivesurgerymoreovercallsforanunderstandingthatinfantswithintersexedconditionsarepartofthecontinuumofhumanmorphologyandoughttobetreatedwiththepresumptionthattheirlivesareandwillbenotonlylivable,butalsooccasionsforflourishingThenormsthatgovernidealizedhumananatomythusworktoproduceadifferentialsenseofwhoishumanandwhoisnot,whichlivesarelivable,andwhicharenotThisdifferentialworksforawiderangeofdisabilitiesaswell(althoughanothernormisatworkforinvisibledisabilities)AconcurrentoperationofgendernormscanbeseenintheDSMIV’sGenderIdentityDisorderdiagnosisThisdiagnosisthathas,fortheUndoingGenderRTINTqxd:PMPagemostpart,takenovertheroleofmonitoringsignsofincipienthomosexualityinchildrenassumesthat“genderdysphoria”isapsychologicaldisordersimplybecausesomeoneofagivengendermanifestsattributesofanothergenderoradesiretoliveasanothergenderThisimposesamodelofcoherentgenderedlifethatdemeansthecomplexwaysinwhichgenderedlivesarecraftedandlivedThediagnosis,however,iscrucialformanyindividualswhoseekinsurancesupportforsexreassignmentsurgeryortreatment,orwhoseekalegalchangeinstatusAsaresult,thediagnosticmeansbywhichtranssexualityisattributedimpliesapathologization,butundergoingthatpathologizingprocessconstitutesoneoftheimportantwaysinwhichthedesiretochangeone’ssexmightbesatisfiedThecriticalquestionthusbecomes,howmighttheworldbereorganizedsothatthisconflictcanbeamelioratedTherecenteffortstopromotelesbianandgaymarriagealsopromoteanormthatthreatenstorenderillegitimateandabjectthosesexualarrangementsthatdonotcomplywiththemarriagenormineitheritsexistingoritsrevisableformAtthesametime,thehomophobicobjectionstolesbianandgaymarriageexpandoutthroughtheculturetoaffectallqueerlivesOnecriticalquestionthusbecomes,howdoesoneopposethehomophobiawithoutembracingthemarriagenormastheexclusiveormosthighlyvaluedsocialarrangementforqueersexuallivesSimilarly,effortstoestablishbondsofkinshipthatarenotbasedonamarriagetiebecomenearlyillegibleandunviablewhenmarriagesetsthetermsforkinship,andkinshipitselfiscollapsedinto“family”TheenduringsocialtiesthatconstituteviablekinshipincommunitiesofsexualminoritiesarethreatenedwithbecomingunrecognizableandunviableaslongasthemarriagebondistheexclusivewayinwhichbothsexualityandkinshipareorganizedAcriticalrelationtothisnorminvolvesdisarticulatingthoserightsandobligationscurrentlyattendantuponmarriagesothatmarriagemightremainasymbolicexerciseforthosewhochoosetoengageinit,buttherightsandobligationsofkinshipmaytakeanynumberofotherformsWhatreorganizationofsexualnormswouldbenecessaryforthosewholivesexuallyandaffectivelyoutsidethemarriagebondorinkinrelationstothesideofmarriageeithertobelegallyandculturallyrecognizedfortheenduranceandimportanceoftheirintimatetiesor,equallyimportant,tobefreeoftheneedforrecognitionofthiskindIntroduction:ActinginConcertRTINTqxd:PMPageIfadecadeortwoago,genderdiscriminationappliedtacitlytowomen,thatnolongerservesastheexclusiveframeworkforunderstandingitscontemporaryusageDiscriminationagainstwomencontinuesespeciallypoorwomenandwomenofcolor,ifweconsiderthedifferentiallevelsofpovertyandliteracynotonlyintheUnitedStates,butgloballysothisdimensionofgenderdiscriminationremainscrucialtoacknowledgeButgendernowalsomeansgenderidentity,aparticularlysalientissueinthepoliticsandtheoryoftransgenderismandtranssexualityTransgenderreferstothosepersonswhocrossidentifyorwholiveasanothergender,butwhomayormaynothaveundergonehormonaltreatmentsorsexreassignmentoperationsAmongtranssexualsandtransgenderedpersons,therearethosewhoidentifyasmen(iffemaletomale)orwomen(ifmaletofemale),andyetotherswho,withorwithoutsurgery,withorwithouthormones,identifyastrans,astransmenortranswomeneachofthesesocialpracticescarriesdistinctsocialburdensandpromisesColloquially,“transgender”canapplytotheentirerangeofthesepositionsaswellTransgenderedandtranssexualpeoplearesubjectedtopathologizationandviolencethatis,onceagain,heightenedinthecaseoftranspersonsfromcommunitiesofcolorTheharassmentsufferedbythosewhoare“read”astransordiscoveredtobetranscannotbeunderestimatedTheyarepartofacontinuumofthegenderviolencethattookthelivesofBrandonTeena,MathewShephard,andGwenAraujoAndtheseactsofmurdermustbeunderstoodinconnectionwiththecoerciveactsof“correction”undergonebyintersexedinfantsandchildrenthatoftenleavethosebodiesmaimedforlife,traumatized,andphysicallylimitedintheirsexualfunctionsandpleasuresAlthoughintersexandtranssexsometimesseemtobemovementsatoddswithoneanother,thefirstopposingunwantedsurgery,thesecondsometimescallingforelectivesurgery,itismostimportanttoseethatbothchallengetheprinciplethatanaturaldimorphismshouldbeestablishedormaintainedatallcostsIntersexactivistsworktorectifytheerroneousassumptionthateverybodyhasaninborn“truth”ofsexthatmedicalprofessionalscandiscernandbringtolightontheirownTotheextentthattheintersexmovementmaintainsthatgenderoughttobeestablishedthroughassignmentorchoice,butnoncoercively,itsharesapremisewithtransgenderedandtranssexualactivismThelatteropposesformsofunwantedcoercivegenderassignment,andUndoingGenderRTINTqxd:PMPageinthissensecallsforgreaterclaimsofautonomy,asituationthatparallelsintersexclaimsaswellWhatpreciselyautonomymeans,however,iscomplicatedforbothmovements,sinceitturnsoutthatchoosingone’sownbodyinvariablymeansnavigatingamongnormsthatarelaidoutinadvanceandpriortoone’schoiceorarebeingarticulatedinconcertbyotherminorityagenciesIndeed,individualsrelyoninstitutionsofsocialsupportinorde

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【朱迪思·巴特勒】消解性别

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