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首页 【朱迪思·巴特勒】对自我的评价

【朱迪思·巴特勒】对自我的评价.pdf

【朱迪思·巴特勒】对自我的评价

九月虺
2009-08-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【朱迪思·巴特勒】对自我的评价pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

GivinganAccountofOneselfPAGEi$$$FM::PSPAGEii$$$FM::PSjudithbutlerGivinganAccountofOneselfFordhamUniversityPressNewYork,PAGEiii$$$FM::PSCopyright�FordhamUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeanselectronic,mechanical,photocopy,recording,oranyotherexceptforbriefquotationsinprintedreviews,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataButler,JudithGivinganaccountofoneselfJudithButlerstedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover)ISBN(pbk)Self(Philosophy)EthicsConductoflifeITitleBDB�dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaFirsteditionPAGEiv$$$FM::PScontentsAcknowledgmentsviiAbbreviationsixAnAccountofOneselfScenesofAddressFoucaultianSubjectsPostHegelianQueries‘‘WhoAreYou’’AgainstEthicalViolenceLimitsofJudgmentPsychoanalysisThe‘‘I’’andthe‘‘You’’ResponsibilityLaplancheandLevinas:ThePrimacyoftheOtherAdornoonBecomingHumanFoucault’sCriticalAccountofHimselfNotesIndexPAGEvv$CNTS::PSPAGEvi$CNTS::PSacknowledgmentsThechaptersofthisbookwereoriginallygivenastheSpinozaLecturesfortheDepartmentofPhilosophyattheUniversityofAmsterdaminthespringofIamgratefultoHentdeVriesforextendingthatgenerousinvitationandfortheopportunitytoworkthroughsomeofthismaterialwiththestudentsinAmsterdamThisworkbeganasthetopicofafacultyseminaratPrincetonUniversityinthefallof,whenIwasafellowattheHumanitiesCouncilIgainedanenormousamountfrommydiscussionswithfacultyandstudentsthereFinally,thematerialwasdeliveredinrevisedformastheAdornoLecturesfortheInstitutfu¨rSozialforschunginFrankfurtinthefallofIthankAxelHonnethfortheopportunitytorevisitandengageAdorno’sworkinanewwayIamequallygratefulfordiscussionstherewithnumerousindividualswhoofferedmeanintenseengagementwiththequestionsIraiseThistextappearedinanearlierandsubstantiallyabbreviatedformintheNetherlandsasGivinganAccountofOneself:ACritiqueofEthicalViolencewithVanGorcumPress()andsubsequentlyappeared,againinabbreviatedform,inGermanasKritikderEthischenGewaltwithSuhrkampVerlagin,ablytranslatedbyReinerAnsenPartsofChapterTwoappearedasanarticleentitled‘‘GivinganAccountofOneself’’inDiacritics:–Mygratitudeextendstoseveralpeoplewhoworkedthroughvariousideasinthismanuscriptwithme:FrancesBartkowski,JayBernPAGEviivii$$ACK::PSviiiAcknowledgmentsstein,WendyBrown,MichelFeher,BarbaraJohnson,DebraKeates,PaolaMarrati,BiddyMartin,JeffNunokawa,DeniseRiley,JoanWScott,AnnikaThiem,andNizaYanayIamalsogratefultothestudentsinmycomparativeliteratureseminarinthefallof,whoreadwithmemostofthetextsconsideredhere,challengingmyperspectivesandpromptingintensedebateonmanyofthetopicsIthankJillStaufferforshowingmetheimportanceofLevinasforethicalthinking,andColleenPearl,AmyJamgochian,StuartMurray,JamesSalazar,AmyHuber,andAnnikaThiemforeditorialassistanceandsuggestionsatvariousstagesAndlast,IthankHelenTartar,whoiswillingtowrestlewithmysentencesandtowhom,itappears,thisbookreturnsItisdedicatedtomyfriendandinterlocutorBarbaraJohnsonPAGEviii$$ACK::PSabbreviationsThefollowingabbreviationshavebeenusedinthetextDFEmmanuelLevinas,DifficultFreedom:EssaysonJudaismTransSeanHandBaltimore:TheJohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,FSMichelFoucault,FearlessSpeechEdJosephPearsonNewYork:Semiotext(e),GMFriedrichNietzsche,OntheGenealogyofMoralsTransWalterKaufmannNewYork:RandomHouse,HMichelFoucault,‘‘AbouttheBeginningoftheHermeneuticsoftheSelf,’’transThomasKeenanandMarkBlasiusInMichelFoucault,ReligionandCulture,edJeremyCarrette(NewYork:Routledge,),–HDSMichelFoucault,L’Herme´neutiquedusujet:CoursauColle`gedeFrance–(Paris:Gallimard,)HMMichelFoucault,‘‘HowMuchDoesItCostforReasontoTelltheTruth’’InFoucaultLive,edSylve`reLotringer,transJohnHonstonNewYork:Semiotext(e),OBEmmanuelLevinas,OtherwisethanBeing,orbeyondEssenceTransAlphonsoLingisTheHague:MartinusNijhoff,PMPTheodorWAdorno,ProblemsofMoralPhilosophyTransRodneyLivingstoneStanford:StanfordUniversityPress,S‘‘Substitution,’’originallypublishedinLaRevuePhilosophiqueduLouvain(),–,translatedbyPeterAtterton,SimonPAGEixix$ABBR::PSxAbbreviationsCritchley,andGrahamNoctorinEmmanuelLevinas,BasicPhilosophicalWritings,edAdriaanTPeperzak,SimonCritchley,andRobertBernasconi(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,),–SPMichelFoucault,‘‘Structuralismeetpoststructuralisme,’’inFoucault,DitsetEcrits,–,vol(Paris:Gallimard),–TranslationsthatreferdirectlytothistextinFrencharemyownUPMichelFoucault,TheUseofPleasure:TheHistoryofSexuality,VolumeTwoNewYork:RandomHouse,Inthisbook,Iusethenotionofthe‘‘other’’todenotethehumanotherinitsspecificityexceptwhere,fortechnicalreasons,thetermneedstomeansomethingslightlydifferentInLevinas,forinstance,‘‘theOther’’notonlyreferstothehumanotherbutactsasaplaceholderforaninfiniteethicalrelationInthelattercase,I’vecapitalizedthetermPAGEx$ABBR::PSGivinganAccountofOneselfPAGE$HFTL::PSPAGE$HFTL::PSoneAnAccountofOneselfThevalueofthoughtismeasuredbyitsdistancefromthecontinuityofthefamiliarAdorno,MinimaMoraliaIwouldliketobeginbyconsideringhowitmightbepossibletoposethequestionofmoralphilosophy,aquestionthathastodowithconductand,hence,withdoing,withinacontemporarysocialframeToposethisquestioninthiswayisalreadytoadmittoapriorthesis,namely,thatmoralquestionsnotonlyemergeinthecontextofsocialrelations,butthattheformthesequestionstakechangesaccordingtocontext,andeventhatcontext,insomesense,inheresintheformofthequestionInProblemsofMoralPhilosophy,asetoflecturesgiveninthesummerof,Adornowrites,‘‘Wecanprobablysaythatmoralquestionshavealwaysarisenwhenmoralnormsofbehaviourhaveceasedtobeselfevidentandunquestionedinthelifeofacommunity’’Inaway,thisclaimseemstogiveanaccountoftheconditionsunderwhichmoralquestionsarise,butAdornofurtherspecifiestheaccountThereheoffersabriefcritiqueofMaxScheler,wholamentstheZersetzungofethicalideas,bywhichhemeansthedestructionofacommonandcollectiveethicalethosPAGE$$CH::PSAnAccountofOneselfAdornorefusestomournthisloss,worryingthatthecollectiveethosisinvariablyaconservativeone,whichpostulatesafalseunitythatattemptstosuppressthedifficultyanddiscontinuityexistingwithinanycontemporaryethosItisnotthattherewasonceaunitythatsubsequentlyhascomeapart,onlythattherewasonceanidealization,indeed,anationalism,thatisnolongercredible,andoughtnottobeAsaresult,AdornocautionsagainsttherecoursetoethicsasacertainkindofrepressionandviolenceHewrites:nothingismoredegeneratethanthekindofethicsormoralitythatsurvivesintheshapeofcollectiveideasevenaftertheWorldSpirithasceasedtoinhabitthemtousetheHegelianexpressionasakindofshorthandOncethestateofhumanconsciousnessandthestateofsocialforcesofproductionhaveabandonedthesecollectiveideas,theseideasacquirerepressiveandviolentqualitiesAndwhatforcesphilosophyintothekindofreflectionsthatweareexpressinghereistheelementofcompulsionwhichistobefoundintraditionalcustomsitisthisviolenceandevilthatbringsthesecustomsSittenintoconflictwithmoralitySittlichkeitandnotthedeclineofmoralsofthekindlamentedbythetheoreticiansofdecadence(PMP,)Inthefirstinstance,AdornomakestheclaimthatmoralquestionsariseonlywhenthecollectiveethoshasceasedtoholdswayThisimpliesthatmoralquestionsdonothavetoariseonthebasisofacommonlyacceptedethostoqualifyassuchindeed,thereseemstobeatensionbetweenethosandmorality,suchthatawaningoftheformeristheconditionforthewaxingofthelatterInthesecondinstance,hemakesclearthatalthoughthecollectiveethosisnolongersharedindeed,preciselybecausethecollectiveethos,whichmustnowbeherdedbyquotationmarks,isnotcommonlyshareditcanimposeitsclaimtocommonalityonlythroughviolentmeansInthissense,thecollectiveethosinstrumentalizesviolencetomaintaintheappearanceofitscollectivityMoreover,thisethosbePAGE$$CH::PSAnAccountofOneselfcomesviolenceonlyonceithasbecomeananachronismWhatisstrangehistoricallyandtemporallyaboutthisformofethicalviolenceisthatalthoughthecollectiveethoshasbecomeanachronistic,ithasnotbecomepastitinsistsitselfintothepresentasananachronismTheethosrefusestobecomepast,andviolenceisthewayinwhichitimposesitselfuponthepresentIndeed,itnotonlyimposesitselfuponthepresent,butalsoseekstoeclipsethepresentandthisispreciselyoneofitsviolenteffectsAdornousesthetermviolenceinrelationtoethicsinthecontextofclaimsaboutuniversalityHeoffersyetanotherformulationoftheemergenceofmorality,whichisalwaystheemergenceofcertainkindsofmoralinquiry,ofmoralquestioning:‘‘thesocialproblemofthedivergencebetweentheuniversalinterestandtheparticularinterest,theinterestsofparticularindividuals,iswhatgoestomakeuptheproblemofmorality’’(PMP,)WhataretheconditionsunderwhichthisdivergencetakesplaceHereferstoasituationinwhich‘‘theuniversal’’failstoagreewithorincludetheindividualandtheclaimofuniversalityitselfignoresthe‘‘rights’’oftheindividualWecanimagine,forinstance,theimpositionofgovernmentsonforeigncountriesinthenameofuniversalprinciplesofdemocracy,wheretheimpositionofthegovernmenteffectivelydeniestherightsofthepopulationatissuetoelectitsownofficialsWemight,alongtheselines,thinkaboutPresidentBush’sproposalforthePalestinianAuthorityorhiseffortstoreplacethegovernmentinIraqIntheseinstances,touseAdorno’swords,‘‘theuniversalappearsassomethingviolentandextraneousandhasnosubstantialrealityforhumanbeings’’(PMP,)AlthoughAdornosometimesmovesabruptlybetweenethicsandmorality,heprefersthetermmorality,echoedlaterinMinimaMoralia,forhisprojectandinsiststhatanysetofmaximsorrulesmustbeappropriablebyindividuals‘‘inalivingway’’(PMP,)Whereasonemightreserveethicsforthebroadcontoursoftheserulesandmaxims,orfortherelationbetweenselvesthatisimpliedbysuchrules,AdornoinsiststhatanethicalnormthatfailstoofferPAGE$$CH::PSAnAccountofOneselfawaytoliveorthatturnsout,withinexistingsocialconditions,tobeimpossibletoappropriatehastobecomesubjecttocriticalrevision(PMP,)Ifitignorestheexistingsocialconditions,whicharealsotheconditionsunderwhichanyethicsmightbeappropriated,thatethosbecomesviolentInthisfirstchapterofwhatfollows,IwanttoindicatewhatItaketobeimportantaboutAdorno’sconceptionofethicalviolence,althoughIwillpostponeamoresystematicconsiderationuntilChapterThreeInmyintroductorysection,IwantsimplytopointouttheimportanceofhisformulationforcontemporarydebatesaboutmoralnihilismandtoshowhowchangesinhistheoreticalframeworkarenecessitatedbytheshiftinghistoricalcharacterofmoralinquiryitselfInasense,thisshiftbeyondAdornoisonehemighthavecondoned,givenhiscommitmenttoconsideringmoralitywithinthechangingsocialcontextsinwhichtheneedformoralinquiryemergesThecontextisnotexteriortothequestionitconditionstheformthatthequestionwilltakeInthissense,thequestionsthatcharacterizemoralinquiryareformulatedorstylizedbythehistoricalconditionsthatpromptthemItakeitthatAdorno’scritiqueofabstractuniversalityasviolentcanbereadinrelationtoHegel’scritiqueofthekindofabstractuniversalitycharacteristicofTheTerrorIhavewrittenaboutthatelsewhere,andwishonlytoremarkherethattheproblemisnotwithuniversalityassuchbutwithanoperationofuniversalitythatfailstoberesponsivetoculturalparticularityandfailstoundergoareformulationofitselfinresponsetothesocialandculturalconditionsitincludeswithinitsscopeofapplicabilityWhenauniversalpreceptcannot,forsocialreasons,beappropriatedorwhenindeed,forsocialreasonsitmustberefused,theuniversalpreceptitselfbecomesasiteofcontest,athemeandanobjectofdemocraticdebateThatistosay,itlosesitsstatusasapreconditionofdemocraticdebateifitdidoperatethereasaprecondition,asasinequanonofparticipation,itwouldimposeitsviolenceintheformofanexcluPAGE$$CH::PSAnAccountofOneselfsionaryforeclosureThisdoesnotmeanthatuniversalityisbydefinitionviolentItisnotButthereareconditionsunderwhichitcanexerciseviolenceAdornohelpsustounderstandthatitsviolenceconsistsinpartinitsindifferencetothesocialconditionsunderwhichalivingappropriationmightbecomepossibleIfnolivingappropriationispossible,thenitwouldseemtofollowthatthepreceptcanbeundergoneonlyasadeathlything,asufferingimposedfromanindifferentoutsideattheexpenseoffreedomandparticularityAdornoseemsnearlyKierkegaardianininsistingupontheplaceandmeaningoftheexistingindividualandthenecessarytaskofappropriatingmoralityaswellasopposingformsofethicalviolenceButofcoursehecautionsagainsttheerrortobefoundintheoppositeposition,whenthe‘‘I’’becomesunderstoodapartfromitssocialconditions,whenitisespousedasapureimmediacy,arbitraryoraccidental,detachedfromitssocialandhistoricalconditionswhich,afterall,constitutethegeneralconditionsofitsownemergenceHeisclearthatthereisnomoralitywithoutan‘‘I,’’butpressingquestionsremain:Inwhatdoesthat‘‘I’’consistAndinwhattermscanitappropriatemoralityor,indeed,giveanaccountofitselfHewrites,forinstance,‘‘itwillbeobvioustoyouthatallideasofmoralityorethicalbehaviormustrelatetoan‘I’thatacts’’(PMP,)Yetthereisno‘‘I’’thatcanfullystandapartfromthesocialconditionsofitsemergence,no‘‘I’’thatisnotimplicatedinasetofconditioningmoralnorms,which,beingnorms,haveasocialcharacterthatexceedsapurelypersonaloridiosyncraticmeaningThe‘‘I’’doesnotstandapartfromtheprevailingmatrixofethicalnormsandconflictingmoralframeworksInanimportantsense,thismatrixisalsotheconditionfortheemergenceofthe‘‘I,’’eventhoughthe‘‘I’’isnotcausallyinducedbythosenormsWecannotconcludethatthe‘‘I’’issimplytheeffectortheinstrumentofsomepriorethosorsomefieldofconflictingordiscontinuousnormsWhenthe‘‘I’’seekstogiveanaccountofitself,itcanstartwithPAGE$$CH::PSAnAccountofOneselfitself,butitwillfindthatthisselfisalreadyimplicatedinasocialtemporalitythatexceedsitsowncapacitiesfornarrationindeed,whenthe‘‘I’’seekstogiveanaccountofitself,anaccountthatmustincludetheconditionsofitsownemergence,itmust,asamatterofnecessity,becomeasocialtheoristThereasonforthisisthatthe‘‘I’’hasnostoryofitsownthatisnotalsothestoryofarelationorsetofrelationstoasetofnormsAlthoughmanycontemporarycriticsworrythatthismeansthereisnoconceptofthesubjectthatcanserveasthegroundformoralagencyandmoralaccountability,thatconclusiondoesnotfollowThe‘‘I’’isalwaystosomeextentdispossessedbythesocialconditionsofitsemergenceThisdispossessiondoesnotmeanthatwehavelostthesubjectivegroundforethicsOnthecontrary,itmaywellbetheconditionformoralinquiry,theconditionunderwhichmoralityitselfemergesIfthe‘‘I’’isnotatonewithmoralnorms,thismeansonlythatthesubjectmustdeliberateuponthesenorms,andthatpartofdeliberationwillentailacriticalunderstandingoftheirsocialgenesisandmeaningInthissense,ethicaldeliberationisboundupwiththeoperationofcritiqueAndcritiquefindsthatitcannotgoforwardwithoutaconsiderationofhowthedeliberatingsubjectcomesintobeingandhowadeliberatingsubjectmightactuallyliveorappropriateasetofnormsNotonlydoesethicsfinditselfembroiledinthetaskofsocialtheory,butsocialtheory,ifitistoyieldnonviolentresults,mustfindalivingplaceforthis‘‘I’’Thereareavarietyofwaystoaccountfortheemergenceofthe‘‘I’’fromthematrixofsocialinstitutions,waysofcontextualizingmoralitywithinitssocialconditionsAdornotendstounderstandanegativedialecticstobeatworkwhenclaimsofcollectivityturnoutnottobecollective,whenclaimsofabstractuniversalityturnoutnottobeuniversalThedivergenceisalwaysbetweentheuniversalandtheparticular,anditbecomestheconditionformoralquestioningTheuniversalnotonlydivergesfromtheparticular,butthisverydivergenceiswhattheindividualcomestoexperience,whatbecomesPAGE$$CH::PSAnAccountofOneselffortheindividualtheinauguralexperienceofmoralityInthissense,Adorno’stheoryresonateswithNietzsche,whounderscorestheviolenceof‘‘badconscience,’’whichbringsthe‘‘I’’intobeingasaconsequenceofapotentiallyannihilatingcrueltyThe‘‘I’’turnsagainstitself,unleashingitsmorallycondemningaggressionagainstitself,andthusreflexivityisinauguratedAtleastthisistheNietzscheanviewofbadconscienceIwouldsuggestthatAdornoalludestosuchanegativeviewofbadconsciencewhenhemaintainsthatanethicsthatcannotbeappropriatedin‘‘alivingway’’byindividualsundersociallyexistingco

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