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首页 【哈贝马斯】文化平等与后现代自由主义的局限

【哈贝马斯】文化平等与后现代自由主义的局限.pdf

【哈贝马斯】文化平等与后现代自由主义的局限

九月虺
2009-08-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【哈贝马斯】文化平等与后现代自由主义的局限pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

EqualTreatmentofCulturesandtheLimitsofPostmodernLiberalism*JürgenHabermasPhilosophy,UniversityofFrankfurtandNorthwesternUniversityICLASSICliberalism,goingbacktoLocke,usedthemechanismsandconceptsofmodernlawtotamepoliticalpowerandputitattheserviceofthepreeminentgoalofprotectingtheprepoliticalfreedomoftheindividualmemberofsocietyThecoreofaliberalconstitutionistheguaranteeofequalindividuallibertiesforeveryoneThiscorrespondstoKant’s“UniversalPrincipleofRight,”accordingtowhich,“thefreedomofchoiceofeachcancoexistwitheveryone’sfreedomaccordingtoauniversallaw”Eventhe“ruleofthepeople”remainsaninstrumentofthe“ruleoflaw”Thepoliticalautonomyofcitizensisnotanendinitselfrather,itisameansofsafeguardingtheequalprivateautonomyofmembersofsocietyLiberalismrecommendsitselfthroughtheelegantinterrelationoftwopowerfulnormativeintuitionsOntheonehand,theideaofequalindividuallibertiesforallsatisfiesthemoralstandardofegalitarianuniversalism,whichdemandsequalrespectforandconsiderationofeveryoneOntheotherhand,itmeetstheethicalstandardofindividualism,accordingtowhicheachpersonmusthavetherighttoconductherlifeaccordingtoherownpreferencesandconvictionsTheequalityofallcitizensisexpressedinthegeneralityoflaws,whileactionablerights,derivedineachcasefromlaws,guaranteetoeverycitizenawelldefinedlatitudeinpursuingherownwayoflifeConsequently,ethicalindividualismistheessentialmeaningofegalitarianuniversalism,whichtakesoverthesubstanceofmodernlawfrompostconventionalmoralityDifferentiatingethicallifeplansfromquestionsofjusticecomplieswiththerequirementsofadisarmedmodeofpostmetaphysicalthinkingSincephilosophyhasgivenupitsambitionofcompetingwithreligiousworldviews,itnolongerclaimsforitselfontotheologicalorcosmologicalfoundationsforauniversallybindingmodelofthesuccessfulornotmisspentlifeItclaimsuniversalvalidityonlyformoralclaimsaboutwhatliesinthe“equalinterestofall,”thatis,whatisequallygoodorbearableforeachAmoraltheorylikethisTheJournalofPoliticalPhilosophy:Volume,Number,,pp–©JürgenHabermas,*TranslatedbyJeffreyFlynnrefrainsfromcommittingtothesubstantialconceptionofanexemplarylifestylethatisplainlyauthoritativeforeveryoneMorality,havingbecome“formal”inthisrespect,iscloselylinkedwiththeideaofequalrespectforandconsiderationofeachpersonThisideaofequalityalsoreturnsinthepositive,compulsoryandindividualisticallystructuredformofmodernlaw:intheconceptionsof“equaltreatment”and“humandignity”(purgedofanyattributesofstatus)ThisliberalideaofequalitywasrepeatedlysubjectedtocriticismInitially,thecivicrepublicanismthathadbeenpushedasidebyliberalismrespondedwiththeobjectionthatthe“freedomoftheancients”mustnotbesacrificedonthealtarofthe“freedomofthemoderns”Infact,classicliberalismthreatenedtoreducethemeaningofequalethicallibertiestoapossessiveindividualistreadingofsubjectiverights,misunderstoodininstrumentalisttermsInsodoing,itmissedanimportantnormativeintuition,whichoughttoberecoveredevenunderconditionsofmodernsocietiesanintuitionaboutformsofsolidaritythatlinknotonlyrelatives,friendsandneighborswithinprivatespheresoflife,butalsounitecitizensasmembersofapoliticalcommunitybeyondmerelylegalrelationsThecoreoftheliberallegalorderconsistsoflibertiesthataregearedtowardthebusinesstransactionsofprivatepropertyownersaswellasthereligiousconscienceandbeliefofprivateindividualsThatreadingofan“egoistically”narrowedconceptionofethicalfreedomwasechoedinthepolemicoftheyoungMarxagainsttheAmericanandFrenchdeclarationsofrightsTheobjectionisthatthefreedomoftheindividualisnotexhaustedbytherighttoautilitarian“pursuitofhappiness”thus,itdoesnotconsistonlyinenablingtheprivatepursuitofone’sinterestinearthlyandspiritualgoodsTocompensateforthisdeficit,themodernrecoursetocivicrepublicanismbroughtintoplayadifferent,intersubjectivelyexpandedunderstandingoffreedom,tiedtotheroleofthedemocraticcitizenInthistradition,goingbacktoRousseau,theequalrightstocommunicationandparticipationarenotjustimportantfortheelaborationofsubjectiveprivaterightsrather,theymakepossibleapracticecarriedoutbycitizensjointlyandvaluedasanendinitselfFromarepublicanpointofview,democraticselflegislationestablishesaformofsolidaritythat–howeverabstract,becauselegallymediated–letsonecitizentakeresponsibilityfortheother(evenwithweaponsinhand)Inthedemocraticwillformationofasovereignpeople,thepoliticalethosofthecommunityisreproducedandrevitalizedEqualrightsguaranteeethicalfreedomThistime,however,itisnotfirstandforemostthesubjectivefreedomoftheindividualmemberofsociety,butinsteadfreedomconceivedasthesovereigntyofanationofcitizensunitedinsolidarityThisideaofsovereigntyhasramificationsinwardlyinacommunitarianunderstandingofthepoliticalfreedomofthemembersofanationalcommunity,andoutwardlyinacollectivistunderstandingofthefreedomofanationassertingitsexistenceagainstothernationsAsthepriceofthiselementofcivicsolidarity,however,ethicalrepublicanismacceptsalimitationonegalitarianuniversalismEachcitizenenjoysequalrightsJÜRGENHABERMASonlywithintherestrictionsofaparticularethos,presumedtobesharedbyallmembersofthepoliticalcommunityThefusingofcitizenshipandnationalcultureresultsina“monochrome”interpretationofcivilrightsthatisinsensitivetoculturaldifferencesThepoliticalpriorityofanethicallypermeatedcommongoodovertheeffectiveguaranteeofequalethicallibertiesinevitablyleads,withinpluralisticsocieties,todiscriminationagainstdifferentwaysoflifeand,attheinternationallevel,tohelplessnessinthefaceofa“clashofcivilizations”Theseproblemscanbesolvedonlywithinaframeworkthat,fromtheperspectiveofegalitarianuniversalism,disconnectsthemobilizationofcivicsolidarityfromethnicnationalityandradicalizesittowardasolidarityamong“others”Inbindingitselftouniversalisticconstitutionalprinciplesandto“human”rights,thesovereignwillformationofdemocraticcitizensisonlyactingaccordingtothenecessarypresuppositionsofalegitimatelegalinstitutionalizationofitsownpracticeHistoricallyevolvedformsofsolidarityaretransformed,butnotdestroyed,bytheintersectingoftherepublicanideaofpopularsovereigntywiththeideaofaruleoflawspelledoutintermsofbasicrightsAccordingtothisthirdreading,whichmediatesbetweenliberalismandrepublicanism,citizensunderstandthepoliticalethosthatkeepsthemtogetherasanationastheintentionaloutcomeofthedemocraticwillformationofapopulaceaccustomedtopoliticalfreedomTheinternalrelationbetweentheprivateautonomyoftheindividualmemberofsocietyandthecommonlyexercisedpoliticalautonomyofcitizenshasbeenprogressivelyworkedoutthehistoricalexperienceofthisfactiseventuallyexpressedinthenationalprideofanacquired,intersubjectivelysharedconsciousnessoffreedomCitizenscanmakeanappropriateuseoftheirpoliticalrightsonlyif,invirtueofanequallyprotectedprivatesphereofautonomyinconductingtheirlives,theyareinapositiontojudgeandactindependentlyOntheotherhand,membersofsocietycanactuallyenjoyundiminishedprivateautonomytoanequalextentonlyiftheymakeuseoftheirpoliticalrightsascitizensappropriatelynotsolelywithregardtoselfinterest,butalsoorientedtowardthecommongoodTheidea,introducedbyRousseauandgivenauniversalisttwistbyKant,thattheaddresseesofthelawmustbeabletounderstandthemselvesatthesametimeasitsauthors,doesnotgivetheunitedcitizensofademocraticcommunitycarteblanchetomakeanydecisionstheywantTheyshouldenactonlysuchlawsasarelegitimatedbythefactthattheycanbewilledbyallThesubjectivefreedomtodoasonepleaseswithintheboundsofthelawisthecoreofprivate,notcivic,autonomyOnthebasisofthislegallyguaranteedEQUALTREATMENTOFCULTURESJürgenHabermas,BetweenFactsandNorms:ContributionstoaDiscourseTheoryofLawandDemocracy,transWilliamRehg(Cambridge,Mass:MITPress,)JürgenHabermas,“Ontheinternalrelationbetweentheruleoflawanddemocracy,”inHabermas,TheInclusionoftheOther:StudiesinPoliticalTheory,edCiarinCroninandPabloDeGreiff(Cambridge,Mass:MITPress,),pp–JürgenHabermas,“Constitutionaldemocracy:aparadoxicalunionofcontradictoryprinciples”PoliticalTheory,(),–reprintedinHabermas,TimeofTransitions,transMaxPensky(Oxford:PolityPress,)freedomofchoice,however,autonomyisexpectedofdemocraticcitizensinthedemandingsense–thatofwillformationbeingbothreasonableandsolidaristic–eventhoughthiscannotbelegallydemanded,butonlyrequestedAlegalobligationtobeinsolidaritywouldbeacontradictioneinhölzernesEisenThedemocraticelaborationofasystemofrights,whichmustbepresupposedfordemocracytooperatewithinlegallyinstitutionalizedforms,rescuesclassicalliberalismfromtherigidabstractionofuniversallawsgroundedinnaturalrightsthataresupposedto“rule”forthesakeofequallydistributedindividuallibertiesOntheotherhand,thelogicthatfacilitatestheethicalindividualismofcitizensaccordingtotheegalitarianuniversalismoftheconstitutionalstateremainsintactAccordingtotheradicaldemocraticinterpretationofpoliticalliberalism,however,thislogicisnolongerobjectivelyimposedbytheanonymousruleoflaw,abovetheheadsofthecitizensasitwereratheritisembodiedinthedemocraticproceduresofpoliticalwillformationasalogicinternalizedbythecitizensthemselvesTheideaofequallibertiesforallemergesfromitsfossilizedforminnaturallawandadoptsareflexiveformintheprocessofselflegislationItaskstheparticipantsinthedemocraticprocesstoengageinreciprocalperspectivetakingandtosearchforgeneralizableinterests,ingrantingoneanotherthoserightsthattheprojectofaselfdeterminingassociationoffreeandequallegalconsociatesrequires,inlightofthehistoricalcircumstancesatthattimeWithacivicsolidarityproduced,actualizedanddeepenedthroughthedemocraticprocess,theegalitarianprojectofenablingequalethicallibertiesassumesaproceduralformInfavorablecases,thisdynamiccansetinmotioncumulativelearningprocessesandestablishpermanentreformsAdemocracyrootedincivilsocietythenacquiresasoundingboardwithinthepoliticalpublicsphereforvoicesofprotestfromthosewhoareunequallytreated,underprivileged,ordisrespectedThisprotestagainstinjusticeanddiscriminationcanspurthesortofselfcorrectionsthatsuccessivelyextendtheuniversalisticcontentoftheprincipleofcivicequalityfurtherinthedirectionofequalethicallibertiesHowever,criticismdoesnotsubsideinthefaceofthisdemocraticreadingofpoliticalliberalismIdistinguishthreetypesofobjectionhere,intermsofsocialscience,socialtheoryandthecritiqueofreasonFirst,soberingsociologicalreservationsaboutthedeclarednormativism(andconcealedidealism)ofapoliticaltheorythatgivesprioritytoconceptualanalysisprovidesalutarycorrectionsButifoneunderstandstheminamelioristicsense,thentheydonotnecessarilyexpandintotheprincipledobjectionthatnormativetheoriesfailbecauseofsocialcomplexityPurelynormativeconsiderationsremainrelevantaslongasoneacceptsthatcomplexsocietiescanstillreflexivelyoperateuponthemselvesthroughlawandpoliticsSecond,fromHegelthroughMarxuptoFoucault,thecritiqueofthe“impotenceoftheought”hasintensifiedwithinsocialtheoryFromthisJÜRGENHABERMASperspective,normativeprojectsfailintheirglaringdenialofanobtrusivereality,whichtosayisthattheyareanintegralelementoftheoverpoweringwholeofaformoflifethatisdenouncedas“alienated”or“powerridden”Thesemoredeepreachingcriticaldiagnoses,though,attributethelamentedlevelingandisolatingpowerofthe“abstractuniversal”tothefacticityofsocialstructures,andnottotheviolenceofparadoxicalconceptsofnormativityThus,conformityinducingstandardizationandisolationcomesfromthepenetrationofthemarketandadministrativepowerfrommechanismsofsocialintegrationthatturnintoareifyingpowerwhentheypenetratetotheheartofthevulnerable,communicativelyconstitutedlifeworldThecritiqueisstillnotdirectedatcontradictionsthatareconceptuallyinherentinthenormsthemselves,solongasthewitheringoftheresourcesofsocialsolidarityisseenastheresultoftheinvasionofexchangerelationsandbureaucraticregulationsintothecoreareasofprivateandpublicspheresofthelifeworldthatarecommunicativelyconstitutedbutthenpathologicallydistortedInthatrespect,Adorno’sworkmarksthetransitiontoathirdanddeepercritique,conceivingequivalentexchangeandorganizationalpower(bothofthesystemicmechanismsofsocialintegration)intermsofacritiqueofreasonForAdornotheyareanexpressionofinstrumentalrationalitythatcontradictstheindividuatingformofsolidaryrelationsDerridadissolvesthelink,presentinthetraditionofWeberianstyletheoriesofrationalizationgoingbacktoLukács,betweenthecritiqueofreasonandsocialtheoryHerestrictshimselftoadeconstructionofthebasicconceptsofpoliticaltheoryToDerridaitisprimarilyaquestionoftheinnerheterogeneityoftheconceptoflaw,whichisindissolublyjoinedwithsovereignpowerDerrida,likeAdorno,stillpursuesthedeconstructionofjusticefromtheperspectiveofanindeterminatemessianichopeNevertheless,theurgenttalkofthehesitantlyawaited“event”suggestsaninterpretationofDerridaas“criticizinganexisting,excludingandoppressiveunderstandingofliberalequalityfromtheperspectiveofacoming,expected,anddominationfreeunderstandingofliberalequality”RecollectionofthepromiseofradicaldemocracystillappearstoinspireDerridaForhimitremainsasourceforthesuppressedhopeinauniversalsolidaritypervadingallrelationsChristophMenke,ontheotherhand,givesanEQUALTREATMENTOFCULTURESJürgenHabermas,“Conceptionsofmodernity,”ThePostnationalConstellation,transMaxPensky(Cambridge,Mass:MITPress,)Suchaconnectionisalsocontinuedinthe“theoryofcommunicativeaction”onthecorresponding“reconstructive”procedure,seeBPeters,IntegrationmodernerGesellschaften(Frankfurt:Suhrkamp,),ppffJacquesDerrida,“Forceoflaw:the‘mysticalfoundationofauthority,’”CardozoLawReview,(),–andPoliticsofFriendship(NewYork:Verso,)Ontheinternalrelationbetweenlawandpower,seeHabermas,BetweenFactsandNorms,pp–Forexample,inJacquesDerrida,“Theuniversitywithoutcondition,”WithoutAlibi(Stanford,Calif:StanfordUniversityPress,)ChristophMenke,SpiegelungenderGleichheit(Berlin:Akademie,),pixanEnglishtranslationisforthcomingfromStanfordUniversityPressantiutopiantwisttothebusinessofdeconstructingjusticeAtthesametime,hedevelopsaninterestingandoriginalpostmodernreadingofliberalismWhileitshareswiththeclassicalversiontheviewthatdemocraticproceduresandpoliticalparticipationofcitizensdonotplayaconstitutiveroleindeterminingthebasicliberalideaofequalethicalliberties,theattempttodemonstrateaselfcontradictionintheconceptionofequallibertiestakestheformofacritiqueofreasonThepropositionthatequaltreatmentmustalwaysfailindoingjusticetotheindividualpersonisdevelopedintermsofaconceptualargument:“therealizationofequalitycanalwaysconflictwithobligationsthatariseinviewofdoingjusticetotheaspectsoftheindividualcase”Revolution,mercyandironyare“threesuperiorformsofdealing”withtheinsoluble“paradoxicalrelation”betweenequaltreatmentanddoingjusticeinindividualcasesTheantiutopianfeatureofthisconceptionisrevealedinthequietismofapersistentreflectiononthelimitsoffreedomTobesure,actsofequaltreatmentcannotachievetheirdeclaredpurposebutthisdeconstructiveinsightshouldstillallowustocontinuetryingevenmorepersistentlytoachieveindividualjustice,consciousoftheunavoidabilityoffailureAccordingtoMenke,bymakingphilosophyawareofthehiddenparadoxicalnatureofitsownperformance,deconstructionisanexerciseinraisinganawarenessoffinitudeConceptualanalysisofthisunconsciouselementissupposedtobringoutthe“performativecontradictionbetweenactingandsaying”IaminterestedinMenke’sperceptiveattempttodeconstructthefreedomprotectingprincipleofcivicequalityintheexampleofRawls’spoliticalliberalism,primarilybecauseherestrictshimselftotheliberalideaofequalityinitsclassicformHeneglectsthepriorgeneralizationofintereststhatshouldbeachievedbydemocraticlegislation,thatis,withacommonlydiscussedandacceptedjustificationofthelegaldeterminationofequalindividualliberties(SectionII)Evenunderareadingthattakesthisaspectintoconsideration,thecriticismisnotdispelledifonethinksoftheambivalentconsequencesofgrouprightsgroundedbymulticulturalismSuchrightsaresupposedtostrengthenthecapacityforselfassertionbydiscriminatedgroupsbutevenassuminganexemplarydemocraticrealization,theyappearinsteadtoproduceadialecticaltransformationofequalityintorepression(SectionIII)Finally,Iexaminetheconceptualconsistencyoftheintersectionoffreedomandequalityincasesoftheequaltreatmentofcultures,onceagainfromahistoricalperspective:namely,inviewofthenormativereasonablenessofthecoststhatreligiouscommunitieshadtopayforthecognitiveadaptationtorequirementsofculturalandsocialmodernization(SectionIV)JÜRGENHABERMASIbid,pIbid,pIamskepticalandleaveitopenwhethertheinterpretationthatMenkegivesofthemethodofsocalled“deconstruction”appliestothepracticeorselfunderstandingofJacquesDerridaSeetheeditors’introductioninAKernandChMenke,eds,PhilosophiederDekonstruktion(Frankfurt:Suhrkamp,),pIIMenkewantstoshowthat,inthecourseofimplementinganyliberalprogram,theideaofequalethicallibertiesrevealstheselfcontradictorynatureoftheveryconceptofpoliticalequalityAlthoughheisnotinterestedinthespecificsolutionproposedbythelaterRawls(namely,themodularconceptionofanoverlappingconsensus)theRawlsiantheoryisjusttherightthingforpurposesofsuchadeconstructionInviewofthe“factofpluralism,”itexplicitlypresentsa“political”conceptionofjusti

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【哈贝马斯】文化平等与后现代自由主义的局限

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