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首页 【弗洛姆】马克思人的概念

【弗洛姆】马克思人的概念.pdf

【弗洛姆】马克思人的概念

九月虺
2009-08-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【弗洛姆】马克思人的概念pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MARX'SCONCEPTOFMANErichFrommMILESTONESOFTHOUGHTWithatranslationfromMarxECONOMICANDPHILOSOPHICALMANUSCRIPTSbyTBBottomoreLondonSchoolofEconomicsandPoliticalScienceFREDERICKUNGARPUBLISHINGCONEWYORKiiiMILESTONESOFTHOUGHTSintheHistoryofIdeasCopyright©byErichFrommPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCatalogCardNoivPREFACEThebulkofthisvolumecontainsanEnglishtranslationofKarlMarxmainphilosophicalwork,publishedforthefirsttimeintheUnitedStatesObviously,thispublicationisofimportance,iffornootherreasonthanthatitwillacquainttheAmericanpublicwithoneofthemajorworksofpostHegelianphilosophy,hithertounknownintheEnglishspeakingworldMarx'sphilosophy,likemuchofexistentialistthinking,representsaprotestagainstman'salienation,hislossofhimselfandhistransformationintoathingitisamovementagainstthedehumanizationandautomatizationofmaninherentinthedevelopmentofWesternindustrialismItisruthlesslycriticalofall"answers"totheproblemofhumanexistencewhichtrytopresentsolutionsbynegatingorcamouflagingthedichotomiesinherentinman'sexistenceMarx'sphilosophyisrootedinthehumanistWesternphilosophicaltradition,whichreachesfromSpinozathroughtheFrenchandGermanenlightenmentphilosophersoftheeighteenthcenturytoGoetheandHegel,andtheveryessenceofwhichisconcernformanandtherealizationofhispotentialitiesForMarx'sphilosophy,whichhasfounditsmostarticulateexpressionintheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscripts,thecentralissueisthatoftheexistenceoftherealindividualman,whoiswhathedoes,andwhose"nature"unfoldsandrevealsitselfinhistoryButincontrasttoKierkegaardandothers,MarxseesmaninhisAnearliertranslationintoEnglish,madeinRussia,hasbeenonsaleinEnglandsinceInRayaDunayevskayaMarxismandFreedom,BookmanAssociates,NewYork,,somepartsofthePhilosophicalManuscripts(alittlelessthanonehalfofwhatispublishedhere)wereforthefirsttimetranslatedandpublishedintheUnitedStatesvfullconcretenessasamemberofagivensocietyandofagivenclass,aidedinhisdevelopmentbysociety,andatthesametimeitscaptiveThefullrealizationofman'shumanityandhisemancipationfromthesocialforcesthatimprisonhimisboundup,forMarx,withtherecognitionoftheseforces,andwithsocialchangebasedonthisrecognitionMarx'sphilosophyisoneofprotestitisaprotestimbuedwithfaithinman,inhiscapacitytoliberatehimself,andtorealizehispotentialitiesThisfaithisatraitofMarx'sthinkingthatwascharacteristicoftheWesternmoodfromthelateMiddleAgestothenineteenthcentury,andwhichissoraretodayForthisveryreason,tomanyreaderswhoareinfectedwiththecontemporaryspiritofresignationandtherevivaloftheconceptoforiginalsin(inNiebuhrianorFreudianterms),Marx'sphilosophywillsounddated,oldfashioned,utopianandforthisreason,ifnotforothers,theywillrejectthevoiceoffaithinman'spossibilities,andofhopeinhiscapacitytobecomewhathepotentiallyisToothers,however,Marx'sphilosophywillbeasourceofnewinsightandhopeIbelievethathopeandnewinsighttranscendingthenarrowlimitsofthepositivisticmechanisticthinkingofsocialsciencetodayareneeded,iftheWestistoemergealivefromthiscenturyoftrialIndeedwhileWesternthoughtfromthethirteenthtothenineteenthcentury(or,perhaps,tobeexact,uptotheoutbreakoftheFirstWorldWarin)wasoneofhope,ahoperootedinPropheticandGreekRomanthought,thelastfortyyearshavebeenyearsofincreasingpessimismandhopelessnessTheaveragepersonrunsforshelterhetriestoescapefromfreedomandheseeksforsecurityinthelapofthebigstateandthebigcorporationIfwearenotviabletoemergefromthishopelessness,wemaystillgoonforatimeonthebasisofourmaterialstrength,butinthelonghistoricalperspectivetheWestwillbecondemnedtophysicalorspiritualextinctionGreatasistheimportanceofMarx'sphilosophyasasourceofphilosophicalinsightandasanantidoteagainstthecurrentveiledoropenmoodofresignation,thereisanotherreason,hardlylessimportant,foritspublicationintheUnitedStatesatthistimeTheworldistorntodaybetweentworivalideologiesthatof"Marxism"andthatof"Capitalism"WhileintheUnitedStates"Socialism"isawordontheDevil'stongueandnotonethatrecommendsitself,theoppositeistrueintherestoftheworldNotonlydoRussiaandChinausetheterm"socialism"tomaketheirsystemsattractive,butmostAsianandAfricancountriesaredeeplyattractedbytheideasofMarxistsocialismTothemsocialismandMarxismareappealingnotonlybecauseoftheeconomicachievementsofRussiaandChina,butbecauseofthespiritualelementsofjustice,equalityanduniversalitywhichareinherentinMarxistsocialism(rootedintheWesternspiritualtradition)WhilethetruthisthattheSovietUnionisasystemofaconservativestatecapitalismandnottherealizationofMarxiansocialism,andwhileChinanegates,bythemeanssheemploys,thatemancipationoftheindividualpersonwhichistheveryaimofsocialism,theybothusetheattractionofMarxistthoughttorecommendthemselvestothepeoplesofAsiaandAfricaAndhowdoAmericanpublicopinionandofficialpolicyreactWedoeverythingtosupporttheRussianChineseclaimbyheraldingthattheirsystemis"Marxist,"andbyidentifyingMarxismandsocialismwithSovietstatecapitalismandChinesetotalitarianismByconfrontingtheuncommittedmassesoftheworldwiththealternaviitivebetween"Marxism"and"socialism"ontheonehand,and"capitalism"ontheother,(or,asweusuallyputit,between"slavery"and"freedom"orfreeenterprise)wegivetheSovietUnionandtheChineseCommunistsasmuchsupportaswepossiblycaninthebattleforthemindsofmenThealternativesfortheunderdevelopedcountries,whosepoliticaldevelopmentwillbedecisiveforthenexthundredyears,arenotcapitalismandsocialism,buttotalitariansocialismandMarxisthumanistsocialism,asittendstodevelopinvariousdifferentformsinPoland,Yugoslavia,Egypt,Burma,Indonesia,etcTheWesthasmuchtoofferasaleaderofsuchadevelopmentfortheformercolonialnationsnotonlycapitalandtechnicaladvice,butalsotheWesternhumanisttraditionofwhichMarxistsocialismistheupshotthetraditionofman'sfreedom,notonlyfrom,buthisfreedomtotodevelophisownhumanpotentialities,thetraditionofhumandignityandbrotherhoodButclearly,inordertoexercisethisinfluenceandinordertounderstandtheRussianandChineseclaims,wemustunderstandMarx'sthoughtandmustdiscardtheignorantanddistortedpictureofMarxismwhichiscurrentinAmericanthinkingtodayItismyhopethatthisvolumewillbeastepinthatdirectionIhavetriedinmyintroductiontopresentMarx'sconceptofmaninasimple(not,Itrust,oversimplified)way,becausehisstylemakeshiswritingsnotalwayseasytounderstand,andIhopethattheintroductionwillbehelpfultomostreadersforanunderstandingofMarx'stextIhaverefrainedfrompresentingmydisagreementswithMarx'sthinking,becausetherearefewasfarashishumanistexistentialismisconcernedAnumberofdisagreementsdoexistconcerninghissociologicalandeconomictheories,someofwhichIhaveexpressedinpreviousviiiworksTheyrefermainlytothefactthatMarxfailedtoseethedegreetowhichcapitalismwascapableofmodifyingitselfandthussatisfyingtheeconomicneedsofindustrializednations,hisfailuretoseeclearlyenoughthedangersofbureaucratizationandcentralization,andtoenvisagetheauthoritariansystemswhichcouldemergeasalternativestosocialismButsincethisbookdealsonlywithMarx'sphilosophicalandhistoricalthought,itisnottheplacetodiscussthecontroversialpointsofhiseconomicandpoliticaltheoryHowever,criticismofMarxissomethingquitedifferentfromthecustomaryfanaticalorcondescendingjudgmentsocharacteristicofpresentdayutterancesabouthimIamconvincedthatonlyifweunderstandtherealmeaningofMarxistthought,andhencecandifferentiateitfromRussianandChinesepseudoMarxism,willwebeabletounderstandtherealitiesofthepresentdayworldandbepreparedtodealrealisticallyandconstructivelywiththeirchallengeIhopethatthisvolumewillcontributenotonlytoagreaterunderstandingofMarx'shumanistphilosophy,butalsothatitwillhelptodiminishtheirrationalandparanoidattitudethatseesinMarxadevilandinsocialismarealmofthedevilWhiletheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscriptsconstitutethemainpartofthisvolume,IhaveincludedalsosmallsectionsofotherphilosophicalwritingsbyMarxtoroundoutthepictureTheonlylargersectionIhaveaddedcomprisesvariousstatementsdealingwiththepersonofMarx,andwhichalsohaveneverbeforebeenpublishedintheUnitedStatesIhaveaddedthissectionbecauseMarx'sperson,likehisideas,hasbeenslanderedandvilifiedbymanyauthorsIbelievethatCf,forexample,TheSaneSociety,RinehartCo,Inc,NewYork,ixamoreadequatepictureofMarx,theman,willhelptodestroysomeprejudiceswithregardtohisideasItremainsonlyformetoexpressmywarmappreciationtoMrTBBottomoreoftheLondonSchoolofEconomicsforhispermissiontousehisexcellentnewtranslationoftheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscripts,,andalsotothankhimforanumberofimportantcriticalsuggestionshemadeafterreadingthemanuscriptofmyintroductionEFAcrudeexampleofwhathasbeendoneinthisrespectistherecentAmericanpublicationofapamphletbyMarxunderthetitleTheWorldWithoutJewsThistitle,whichmakesitappearasifitweregiventothepamphletbyMarxhimself(therealtitleisOntheJewishProblem),seemstoconfirmtheclaimmadeinpublicityforthebookthatMarxwasthefounderofNaziandSovietantiSemitismAnyonewhoreadsthebookandwhoknowsMarx'sphilosophyandliterarystylewillrecognizethatthisclaimisabsurdandfalseItmisusessomecriticalremarksontheJews,whichweremadepolemicallyinabrilliantessaydealingwiththeproblemofbourgeoisemancipation,inordertomakethisfantasticaccusationagainstMarxWattsCo,London,willpublishatalaterdatethewholeofMrBottomoretranslationoftheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscripts(includingthemainlyeconomicpartswhichhavebeenomittedinthisvolume),togetherwithhisownintroductionNote:AllpagereferencestoEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscriptsaretotheBottomoretranslationinthisvolumexCONTENTSMARX'SCONCEPTOFMAN,ErichFrommTheFalsificationofMarx'sConceptsMarx'sHistoricalMaterialismTheProblemofConsciousness,SocialStructureandtheUseofForceTheNatureofManAlienationMarx'sConceptofSocialismTheContinuityinMarx'sThoughtMarxtheManECONOMICANDPHILOSOPHICALMANUSCRIPTS,KarlMarxTranslatedbyTBBottomoreTranslator'sNotePrefaceFirstManuscript:AlienatedLaborSecondManuscript:TheRelationshipofPrivatePropertyxiThirdManuscript:PrivatePropertyandLaborPrivatePropertyandCommunismNeeds,ProductionandDivisionofLaborMoneyCritiqueofHegel'sDialecticandGeneralPhilosophyFromGermanIdeology,KarlMarxPrefacetoaContributiontotheCritiqueofPoliticalEconomy,KarlMarxIntroductiontotheCritiqueofHegel'sPhilosophyofLawCritiqueofReligion,KarlMarxReminiscencesofMarx,PaulLafargueJennyMarxtoJosephWeydemeyerKarlMarx,EleanorMarxAvelingConfession,KarlMarxKarlMarx'sFuneral,FrederickEngelsxiiTHEFALSIFICATIONOFMARX'SCONCEPTSItisoneofthepeculiarironiesofhistorythattherearenolimitstothemisunderstandinganddistortionoftheories,eveninanagewhenthereisunlimitedaccesstothesourcesthereisnomoredrasticexampleofthisphenomenonthanwhathashappenedtothetheoryofKarlMarxinthelastfewdecadesThereiscontinuousreferencetoMarxandtoMarxisminthepress,inthespeechesofpoliticians,inbooksandarticleswrittenbyrespectablesocialscientistsandphilosophersyetwithfewexceptions,itseemsthatthepoliticiansandnewspapermenhaveneverasmuchasglancedatalinewrittenbyMarx,andthatthesocialscientistsaresatisfiedwithaminimalknowledgeofMarxApparentlytheyfeelsafeinactingasexpertsinthisfield,sincenobodywithpowerandstatusinthesocialresearchempirechallengestheirignorantstatementsItisasadcomment,yetonewhichcannotbeavoided,thatthisignoranceanddistortionofMarxaretobefoundmoreintheUnitedStatesthaninanyotherWesterncountryItmustbementionedespeciallythatinthelastfifteenyearstherehasbeenanextraordinaryrenaissanceofdiscussionsonMarxinGermanyandFrance,centeredespeciallyaroundtheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscriptspublishedinthisvolumeInGermanytheparticipantsinthisdiscussionaremainlyProtestanttheologiansImentionfirsttheextraordinaryMarxismusstudien,edbyIFetscher,volsJCBMohr(Tübingen,and)Further,theexcellentintroductionbyLandshuttotheKroenereditionoftheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscriptsThen,theworksofLukacs,Bloch,Popitzandothers,quotedlaterIntheUnitedStatesaslowlyincreasinginterestinMarx'sworkhasbeenobservedrecentlyUnfortunately,itisinsomepartexpressedinanumberofbiasedandfalsifyingbookslikeSchwarzschildTheRedPrussian,orinoversimplifiedandmisleadingbooksliketheOverstreets'TheMeaningofCommunismIncontrast,JosephASchumpeter,inhisCapitalism,SocialismandDemocracy(HarperBros,)offersanexcellentpresentationofMarxismCffurtherontheproblemofhistoricalnaturalism,JohnCBennettChristianityandCommunismToday(AssociationPress,NewYork)Seealsotheexcellentanthologies(andintroductions)byFeuer(AnchorBooks)andbyBottomoreandRubel,(WattsandCo,London)Specifically,onMarx'sviewofhumannatureIwanttomentionVenableHumanNature:TheMarxistView,which,althoughknowledgeableandobjective,suffersseverelyfromthefactthattheauthorcouldnotmakeuseoftheEconomicandPhilosophicalManuscriptsCfalso,forthephilosophicalbasisofMarx'sthought,HMarcusebrilliantandpenetratingbook,ReasonandRevolution(OxfordUniversityPress,NewYork,),andthesameauthor'sdiscussionofMarx'stheoriesvsSovietMarxisminSovietMarxismk(ColumbiaUniversityPress,NewYork,)CfalsomydiscussionofMarxinTheSaneSociety(RinehartCoInc,NewYork,)andmyearlierdiscussionofMarx'stheoryinZeitschriftfürSozialforschung,VolI(Hirschfeld,Leipzig,)InFrance,thediscussionhasbeenledpartlybyCatholicpriestsandpartlybyphilosophers,mostofthemsocialistsAmongtheformerIreferespeciallytoJYCalvez'LaPenséedeKarlMarx,edduSeuil,Parisamongthelatter,AKojcve,Sartre,andespeciallythevariousworksofHLefèbvreAmongallthemisunderstandingsthereisprobablynonemorewidespreadthantheideaofMarx's"materialism"Marxissupposedtohavebelievedthattheparamountpsychologicalmotiveinmanishiswishformonetarygainandcomfort,andthatthisstrivingformaximumprofitconstitutesthemainincentiveinhispersonallifeandinthelifeofthehumanraceComplementarytothisideaistheequallywidespreadassumptionthatMarxneglectedtheimportanceoftheindividualthathehadneitherrespectnorunderstandingforthespiritualneedsofman,andthathis"ideal"wasthewellfedandwellclad,but"soulless"personMarx'scriticismofreligionwasheldtobeidenticalwiththedenialofallspiritualvalues,andthisseemedallthemoreapparenttothosewhoassumethatbeliefinGodistheconditionforaspiritualorientationThisviewofMarxthengoesontodiscusshissocialistparadiseasoneofmillionsofpeoplewhosubmittoanallpowerfulstatebureaucracy,peoplewhohavesurrenderedtheirfreedom,eventhoughtheymighthaveachievedequalitythesemateriallysatisfied"individuals"havelosttheirindividualityandhavebeensuccessfullytransformedintomillionsofuniformrobotsandautomatons,ledbyasmalleliteofbetterfedleadersSufficeittosayattheoutsetthatthispopularpictureofMarx's"materialism"hisantispiritualtendency,hiswishforuniformityandsubordinationisutterlyfalseMarx'saimwasthatofthespiritualemancipationofman,ofhisliberationfromthechainsofeconomicdetermination,ofrestitutinghiminhishumanwholeness,ofenablinghimtofindunityandharmonywithhisfellowmanandwithnatureMarx'sphilosophywas,insecular,nontheisticlanguage,anewandradicalstepforwardinthetraditionofpropheticMessianismitwasaimedatthefullrealizationofindividualism,theveryaimwhichhasguidedWesternthinkingfromtheRenaissanceandtheReformationfarintothenineteenthcenturyThispictureundoubtedlymustshockmanyreadersbecauseofitsincompatibilitywiththeideasaboutMarxtowhichtheyhavebeenexposedButbeforeproceedingtosubstantiateit,IwanttoemphasizetheironywhichliesinthefactthatthedescriptiongivenoftheaimofMarxandofthecontentofhisvisionofsocialism,fitsalmostexactlytherealityofpresentdayWesterncapitalistsocietyThemajorityofpeoplearemotivatedbyawishforgreatermaterialgain,forcomfortandgadgets,andthiswishisrestrictedonlybythedesireforsecurityandtheavoidanceofrisksTheyareincreasinglysatisfiedwithaliferegulatedandmanipulated,bothinthesphereofproductionandofconsumption,bythestateandthebigcorporationsandtheirrespectivebureaucraciestheyhavereachedadegreeofconformitywhichhaswipedoutindividualitytoaremarkableextentTheyare,touseMarx'sterm,impotent"commoditymen"servingvirilemachinesTheverypictureofmidtwentiethcenturycapitalismishardlydistinguishablefromthecaricatureofMarxistsocialismasdrawnbyitsopponentsWhatisevenmoresurprisingisthefactthatthepeoplewhoaccuseMarxmostbitterlyof"materialism"attacksocialismforbeingunrealisticbecauseitdoesnotrecognizethattheonlyefficientincentiveformantoworkliesinhisdesireformaterialgainMan'sunboundedcapacityfornegatingblatantcontradictionsbyrationalizations,ifitsuitshim,couldhardly

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【弗洛姆】马克思人的概念

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