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首页 卡内基 演讲的艺术 The art of public speaking

卡内基 演讲的艺术 The art of public speaking.pdf

卡内基 演讲的艺术 The art of public spe…

猪小猪2004
2009-08-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《卡内基 演讲的艺术 The art of public speakingpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

CHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIICHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERXIIICHAPTERXIVCHAPTERXVCHAPTERXVIChapterXVIIICHAPTERXVIICHAPTERXVIIICHAPTERXIXCHAPTERXXCHAPTERXXICHAPTERXXIICHAPTERXXIIICHAPTERXXIVCHAPTERXXVCHAPTERXXVICHAPTERXXVIICHAPTERXXVIIICHAPTERXXIXCHAPTERXXXCHAPTERXXXITheArtofPublicSpeakingBYJBERGESENWEINAUTHOROF"HOWTOATTRACTANDHOLDANAUDIENCE,""WRITINGTHESHORTSTORY,""WRITINGTHEPHOTOPLAY,"ETC,ETC,ANDDALECARNAGEYPROFESSOROFPUBLICSPEAKING,BALTIMORESCHOOLOFCOMMERCEANDFINANCEINSTRUCTORINPUBLICSPEAKING,YMCASCHOOLS,NEWYORK,BROOKLYN,BALTIMORE,ANDPHILADELPHIA,ANDTHENEWYORKCITYCHAPTER,AMERICANINSTITUTEOFBANKINGTHEWRITER'SLIBRARYTheArtofPublicSpeakingBYEDITEDBYJBERGESENWEINTHEHOMECORRESPONDENCESCHOOLSPRINGFIELD,MASSPUBLISHERSCopyrightTHEHOMECORRESPONDENCESCHOOLALLRIGHTSRESERVEDTOFARTHURMETCALFFELLOWWORKERANDFRIENDTableofContentsTHINGSTOTHINKOFFIRSTAFOREWORD*CHAPTERIACQUIRINGCONFIDENCEBEFOREANAUDIENCE*CHAPTERIITHESINOFMONOTONY*CHAPTERIIIEFFICIENCYTHROUGHEMPHASISANDSUBORDINATION*CHAPTERIVEFFICIENCYTHROUGHCHANGEOFPITCH*CHAPTERVEFFICIENCYTHROUGHCHANGEOFPACE*CHAPTERVIPAUSEANDPOWER*CHAPTERVIIEFFICIENCYTHROUGHINFLECTIONDALECARNAGEY*CHAPTERVIIICONCENTRATIONINDELIVERY*CHAPTERIXFORCE*CHAPTERXFEELINGANDENTHUSIASM*CHAPTERXIFLUENCYTHROUGHPREPARATION*CHAPTERXIITHEVOICE*CHAPTERXIIIVOICECHARM*CHAPTERXIVDISTINCTNESSANDPRECISIONOFUTTERANCE*CHAPTERXVTHETRUTHABOUTGESTURE*CHAPTERXVIMETHODSOFDELIVERY*CHAPTERXVIITHOUGHTANDRESERVEPOWER*CHAPTERXVIIISUBJECTANDPREPARATION*CHAPTERXIXINFLUENCINGBYEXPOSITION*CHAPTERXXINFLUENCINGBYDESCRIPTION*CHAPTERXXIINFLUENCINGBYNARRATION*CHAPTERXXIIINFLUENCINGBYSUGGESTION*CHAPTERXXIIIINFLUENCINGBYARGUMENT*CHAPTERXXIVINFLUENCINGBYPERSUASION*CHAPTERXXVINFLUENCINGTHECROWDDALECARNAGEY*CHAPTERXXVIRIDINGTHEWINGEDHORSE*CHAPTERXXVIIGROWINGAVOCABULARY*CHAPTERXXVIIIMEMORYTRAINING*CHAPTERXXIXRIGHTTHINKINGANDPERSONALITY*CHAPTERXXXAFTERDINNERANDOTHEROCCASIONALSPEAKING*CHAPTERXXXIMAKINGCONVERSATIONEFFECTIVEAPPENDIXAFIFTYQUESTIONSFORDEBATEAPPENDIXBTHIRTYTHEMESFORSPEECHES,WITHSOURCEREFERENCESAPPENDIXCSUGGESTIVESUBJECTSFORSPEECHESHINTSFORTREATMENTAPPENDIXDSPEECHESFORSTUDYANDPRACTISEGENERALINDEX=ThingstoThinkofFirst=AFOREWORDTheefficiencyofabookislikethatofaman,inoneimportantrespect:itsattitudetowarditssubjectisthefirstsourceofitspowerAbookmaybefullofgoodideaswellexpressed,butifitswriterviewshissubjectfromthewrongangleevenhisexcellentadvicemayprovetobeineffectiveThisbookstandsorfallsbyitsauthors'attitudetowarditssubjectIfthebestwaytoteachoneselforotherstospeakeffectivelyinpublicistofillDALECARNAGEYthemindwithrules,andtosetupfixedstandardsfortheinterpretationofthought,theutteranceoflanguage,themakingofgestures,andalltherest,thenthisbookwillbelimitedinvaluetosuchstrayideasthroughoutitspagesasmayprovehelpfultothereaderasanefforttoenforceagroupofprinciplesitmustbereckonedafailure,becauseitisthenuntrueItisofsomeimportance,therefore,tothosewhotakeupthisvolumewithopenmindthattheyshouldseeclearlyattheoutstartwhatisthethoughtthatatonceunderliesandisbuildedthroughthisstructureInplainwordsitisthis:TraininginpublicspeakingisnotamatterofexternalsprimarilyitisnotamatterofimitationfundamentallyitisnotamatterofconformitytostandardsatallPublicspeakingispublicutterance,publicissuance,ofthemanhimselfthereforethefirstthingbothintimeandinimportanceisthatthemanshouldbeandthinkandfeelthingsthatareworthyofbeinggivenforthUnlesstherebesomethingofvaluewithin,notricksoftrainingcanevermakeofthetalkeranythingmorethanamachinealbeitahighlyperfectedmachineforthedeliveryofothermen'sgoodsSoselfdevelopmentisfundamentalinourplanThesecondprincipleliesclosetothefirst:Themanmustenthronehiswilltoruleoverhisthought,hisfeelings,andallhisphysicalpowers,sothattheouterselfmaygiveperfect,unhamperedexpressiontotheinnerItisfutile,weassert,tolaydownsystemsofrulesforvoiceculture,intonation,gesture,andwhatnot,unlessthesetwoprinciplesofhavingsomethingtosayandmakingthewillsovereignhaveatleastbeguntomakethemselvesfeltinthelifeThethirdprinciplewill,wesurmise,arousenodispute:NoonecanlearnhowtospeakwhodoesnotfirstspeakasbesthecanThatmayseemlikeaviciouscircleinstatement,butitwillbearexaminationManyteachershavebegunwiththehowVaineffort!ItisanancienttruismthatwelearntodobydoingThefirstthingforthebeginnerinpublicspeakingistospeaknottostudyvoiceandgestureandtherestOnceheDALECARNAGEYhasspokenhecanimprovehimselfbyselfobservationoraccordingtothecriticismsofthosewhohearButhowshallhebeabletocriticisehimselfSimplybyfindingoutthreethings:WhatarethequalitieswhichbycommonconsentgotomakeupaneffectivespeakerbywhatmeansatleastsomeofthesequalitiesmaybeacquiredandwhatwronghabitsofspeechinhimselfworkagainsthisacquiringandusingthequalitieswhichhefindstobegoodExperience,then,isnotonlythebestteacher,butthefirstandthelastButexperiencemustbeadualthingtheexperienceofothersmustbeusedtosupplement,correctandjustifyourownexperienceinthiswayweshallbecomeourownbestcriticsonlyafterwehavetrainedourselvesinselfknowledge,theknowledgeofwhatothermindsthink,andintheabilitytojudgeourselvesbythestandardswehavecometobelieveareright"IfIought,"saidKant,"Ican"Anexaminationofthecontentsofthisvolumewillshowhowconsistentlythesearticlesoffaithhavebeendeclared,expounded,andillustratedThestudentisurgedtobegintospeakatonceofwhatheknowsThenheisgivensimplesuggestionsforselfcontrol,withgraduallyincreasingemphasisuponthepoweroftheinnermanovertheouterNext,thewaytotherichstorehousesofmaterialispointedoutAndfinally,allthewhileheisurgedtospeak,speak,SPEAKasheisapplyingtohisownmethods,inhisownpersonalway,theprincipleshehasgatheredfromhisownexperienceandobservationandtherecordedexperiencesofothersSonowattheveryfirstletitbeasclearaslightthatmethodsaresecondarymattersthatthefullmind,thewarmheart,thedominantwillareprimaryandnotonlyprimarybutparamountforunlessitbeafullbeingthatusesthemethodsitwillbelikedressingawoodenimageintheclothesofamanJBERGESENWEINNARBERTH,PA,JANUARY,THEARTOFPUBLICSPEAKINGDALECARNAGEYSenseneverfailstogivethemthathaveit,WordsenoughtomakethemunderstoodIttoooftenhappensinsomeconversations,asinApothecaryShops,thatthosePotsthatareEmpty,orhaveThingsofsmallValueinthem,areasgaudilyDress'dasthosethatarefullofpreciousDrugsTheythatsoartoohigh,oftenfallhard,makingalowandlevelDwellingpreferableThetallestTreesaremostinthePoweroftheWinds,andAmbitiousMenoftheBlastsofFortuneBuildingshaveneedofagoodFoundation,thatliesomuchexposedtotheWeatherWILLIAMPENNDALECARNAGEYCHAPTERIACQUIRINGCONFIDENCEBEFOREANAUDIENCEThereisastrangesensationoftenexperiencedinthepresenceofanaudienceItmayproceedfromthegazeofthemanyeyesthatturnuponthespeaker,especiallyifhepermitshimselftosteadilyreturnthatgazeMostspeakershavebeenconsciousofthisinanamelessthrill,arealsomething,pervadingtheatmosphere,tangible,evanescent,indescribableAllwritershavebornetestimonytothepowerofaspeaker'seyeinimpressinganaudienceThisinfluencewhichwearenowconsideringisthereverseofthatpicturethepowertheireyesmayexertuponhim,especiallybeforehebeginstospeak:aftertheinwardfiresoforatoryarefannedintoflametheeyesoftheaudienceloseallterrorWILLIAMPITTENGER,ExtemporeSpeechStudentsofpublicspeakingcontinuallyask,"HowcanIovercomeselfconsciousnessandthefearthatparalyzesmebeforeanaudience"Didyouevernoticeinlookingfromatrainwindowthatsomehorsesfeednearthetrackandneverevenpausetolookupatthethunderingcars,whilejustaheadatthenextrailroadcrossingafarmer'swifewillbenervouslytryingtoquietherscaredhorseasthetraingoesbyHowwouldyoucureahorsethatisafraidofcarsgrazehiminabackwoodslotwherehewouldneverseesteamenginesorautomobiles,ordriveorpasturehimwherehewouldfrequentlyseethemachinesApplyhorsesensetoriddingyourselfofselfconsciousnessandfear:faceanaudienceasfrequentlyasyoucan,andyouwillsoonstopshyingYoucanneverattainfreedomfromstagefrightbyreadingatreatiseAbookmaygiveyouexcellentsuggestionsonhowbesttoconductyourselfinthewater,butsoonerorlateryoumustgetwet,perhapsevenstrangleandbe"halfscaredtodeath"Thereareagreatmany"wetless"bathingsuitswornattheseashore,butnooneeverlearnstoswiminthemToplungeistheCHAPTERIonlywayPractise,practise,PRACTISEinspeakingbeforeanaudiencewilltendtoremoveallfearofaudiences,justaspractiseinswimmingwillleadtoconfidenceandfacilityinthewaterYoumustlearntospeakbyspeakingTheApostlePaultellsusthateverymanmustworkouthisownsalvationAllwecandohereistoofferyousuggestionsastohowbesttoprepareforyourplungeTherealplungenoonecantakeforyouAdoctormayprescribe,butyoumusttakethemedicineDonotbedisheartenedifatfirstyousufferfromstagefrightDanPatchwasmoresusceptibletosufferingthanasuperannuateddrayhorsewouldbeItneverhurtsafooltoappearbeforeanaudience,forhiscapacityisnotacapacityforfeelingAblowthatwouldkillacivilizedmansoonhealsonasavageThehigherwegointhescaleoflife,thegreateristhecapacityforsufferingForonereasonoranother,somemasterspeakersneverentirelyovercomestagefright,butitwillpayyoutosparenopainstoconqueritDanielWebsterfailedinhisfirstappearanceandhadtotakehisseatwithoutfinishinghisspeechbecausehewasnervousGladstonewasoftentroubledwithselfconsciousnessinthebeginningofanaddressBeecherwasalwaysperturbedbeforetalkinginpublicBlacksmithssometimestwistaropetightaroundthenoseofahorse,andbythusinflictingalittlepaintheydistracthisattentionfromtheshoeingprocessOnewaytogetairoutofaglassistopourinwaterBeAbsorbedbyYourSubjectApplytheblacksmith'shomelyprinciplewhenyouarespeakingIfyoufeeldeeplyaboutyoursubjectyouwillbeabletothinkoflittleelseConcentrationisaprocessofdistractionfromlessimportantmattersItistoolatetothinkaboutthecutofyourcoatwhenonceyouareupontheplatform,socentreyourinterestonwhatyouareabouttosayfillyourCHAPTERImindwithyourspeechmaterialand,liketheinfillingwaterintheglass,itwilldriveoutyourunsubstantialfearsSelfconsciousnessisundueconsciousnessofself,and,forthepurposeofdelivery,selfissecondarytoyoursubject,notonlyintheopinionoftheaudience,but,ifyouarewise,inyourownToholdanyotherviewistoregardyourselfasanexhibitinsteadofasamessengerwithamessageworthdeliveringDoyourememberElbertHubbard'stremendouslittletract,"AMessagetoGarcia"TheyouthsubordinatedhimselftothemessageheboreSomustyou,byallthedeterminationyoucanmusterItissheeregotismtofillyourmindwiththoughtsofselfwhenagreaterthingisthereTRUTHSaythistoyourselfsternly,andshameyourselfconsciousnessintoquiescenceIfthetheatercaughtfireyoucouldrushtothestageandshoutdirectionstotheaudiencewithoutanyselfconsciousness,fortheimportanceofwhatyouweresayingwoulddriveallfearthoughtsoutofyourmindFarworsethanselfconsciousnessthroughfearofdoingpoorlyisselfconsciousnessthroughassumptionofdoingwellThefirstsignofgreatnessiswhenamandoesnotattempttolookandactgreatBeforeyoucancallyourselfamanatall,Kiplingassuresus,youmust"notlooktoogoodnortalktoowise"NothingadvertisesitselfsothoroughlyasconceitOnemaybesofullofselfastobeemptyVoltairesaid,"Wemustconcealselflove"ButthatcannotbedoneYouknowthistobetrue,foryouhaverecognizedoverweeningselfloveinothersIfyouhaveit,othersareseeingitinyouTherearethingsinthisworldbiggerthanself,andinworkingforthemselfwillbeforgotten,orwhatisbetterrememberedonlysoastohelpuswintowardhigherthingsHaveSomethingtoSayThetroublewithmanyspeakersisthattheygobeforeanaudiencewiththeirmindsablankItisnowonderthatnature,abhorringavacuum,fillsthemwiththenearestthinghandy,whichgenerallyhappenstobe,"ICHAPTERIwonderifIamdoingthisright!HowdoesmyhairlookIknowIshallfail"TheirpropheticsoulsaresuretoberightItisnotenoughtobeabsorbedbyyoursubjecttoacquireselfconfidenceyoumusthavesomethinginwhichtobeconfidentIfyougobeforeanaudiencewithoutanypreparation,orpreviousknowledgeofyoursubject,yououghttobeselfconsciousyououghttobeashamedtostealthetimeofyouraudiencePrepareyourselfKnowwhatyouaregoingtotalkabout,and,ingeneral,howyouaregoingtosayitHavethefirstfewsentencesworkedoutcompletelysothatyoumaynotbetroubledinthebeginningtofindwordsKnowyoursubjectbetterthanyourhearersknowit,andyouhavenothingtofearAfterPreparingforSuccess,ExpectItLetyourbearingbemodestlyconfident,butmostofallbemodestlyconfidentwithinOverconfidenceisbad,buttotoleratepremonitionsoffailureisworse,foraboldmanmaywinattentionbyhisverybearing,whilearabbitheartedcowardinvitesdisasterHumilityisnotthepersonaldiscountthatwemustofferinthepresenceofothersagainstthisoldinterpretationtherehasbeenamosthealthymodernreactionTruehumilityanymanwhothoroughlyknowshimselfmustfeelbutitisnotahumilitythatassumesawormlikemeeknessitisratherastrong,vibrantprayerforgreaterpowerforserviceaprayerthatUriahHeepcouldneverhaveutteredWashingtonIrvingonceintroducedCharlesDickensatadinnergiveninthelatter'shonorInthemiddleofhisspeechIrvinghesitated,becameembarrassed,andsatdownawkwardlyTurningtoafriendbesidehimheremarked,"There,ItoldyouIwouldfail,andIdid"Ifyoubelieveyouwillfail,thereisnohopeforyouYouwillRidyourselfofthisIamapoorworminthedustideaYouareagod,withinfinitecapabilities"Allthingsarereadyifthemindbeso"TheeagleCHAPTERIlooksthecloudlesssuninthefaceAssumeMasteryOverYourAudienceInpublicspeech,asinelectricity,thereisapositiveandanegativeforceEitheryouoryouraudiencearegoingtopossessthepositivefactorIfyouassumeityoucanalmostinvariablymakeityoursIfyouassumethenegativeyouaresuretobenegativeAssumingavirtueoravicevitalizesitSummonallyourpowerofselfdirection,andrememberthatthoughyouraudienceisinfinitelymoreimportantthanyou,thetruthismoreimportantthanbothofyou,becauseitiseternalIfyourmindfaltersinitsleadershiptheswordwilldropfromyourhandsYourassumptionofbeingabletoinstructorleadorinspireamultitudeorevenasmallgroupofpeoplemayappallyouasbeingcolossalimpudenceasindeeditmaybebuthavingonceessayedtospeak,becourageousBEcourageousitlieswithinyoutobewhatyouwillMAKEyourselfbecalmandconfidentReflectthatyouraudiencewillnothurtyouIfBeecherinLiverpoolhadspokenbehindawirescreenhewouldhaveinvitedtheaudiencetothrowtheoverripemissileswithwhichtheywereloadedbuthewasaman,confrontedhishostilehearersfearlesslyandwonthemInfacingyouraudience,pauseamomentandlookthemoverahundredchancestoonetheywantyoutosucceed,forwhatmanissofoolishastospendhistime,perhapshismoney,inthehopethatyouwillwastehisinvestmentbytalkingdullyConcludingHintsDonotmakehastetobeginhasteshowslackofcontrolDonotapologizeItoughtnottobenecessaryandifitis,itwillnothelpGostraightaheadTakeadeepbreath,relax,andbegininaquietconversationaltoneasthoughyouwerespeakingtoonelargefriendYouwillnotfindithalfsoCHAPTERIbadasyouimaginedreally,itisliketakingacoldplunge:afteryouarein,thewaterisfineInfact,havingspokenafewtimesyouwillevenanticipatetheplungewithexhilarationTostandbeforeanaudienceandmakethemthinkyourthoughtsafteryouisoneofthegreatestpleasuresyoucaneverknowInsteadoffearingit,yououghttobeasanxiousasthefoxhoundsstrainingattheirleashes,ortheracehorsestuggingattheirreinsSocastoutfear,forfeariscowardlywhenitisnotmasteredThebravestknowfear,buttheydonotyieldtoitFaceyouraudiencepluckilyifyourkneesquake,MAKEthemstopInyouraudienceliessomevictoryforyouandthecauseyourepresentGowinitSupposeCharlesMartellhadbeenafraidtohammertheSaracenatTourssupposeColumbushadfearedtoventureoutintotheunknownWestsupposeourforefathershadbeentootimidtoopposethetyrannyofGeorgetheThirdsupposethatanymanwhoeverdidanythingworthwhilehadbeenacoward!Theworldowesitsprogresstothemenwhohavedared,andyoumustdaretospeaktheeffectivewordthatisinyourhearttospeakforoftenitrequirescouragetoutterasinglesentenceButrememberthatmenerectnomonumentsandweavenolaurelsforthosewhofeartodowhattheycanIsallthisunsympathetic,doyousayMan,whatyouneedisnotsympathy,butapushNoonedoubtsthattemperamentandnervesandillnessandevenpraiseworthymodestymay,singlyorcombined,causethespeaker'scheektoblanchbeforeanaudience,butneithercananyonedoubtthatcoddlingwillmagnifythisweaknessThevictoryliesinafearlessframeofmindProfWalterDillScottsays:"Successorfailureinbusinessiscausedmorebymentalattitudeeventhanbymentalcapacity"BanishthefearattitudeacquiretheconfidentattitudeAndrememberthattheonlywaytoacquireitistoacquireitInthisfoundationchapterwehavetriedtostrikethetoneofmuchthatistofollowManyoftheseideaswillbeamplifiedandenforcedinamorespecificwaybutthroughallthesechaptersonanartwhichMrGladstonebelievedtobemorepowerfulthanthepublicpress,thenoteofjustifiableCHAPTERIselfconfidencemustsoundagainandagainQUESTIONSANDE

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