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首页 文化、全球化与世界体系

文化、全球化与世界体系.pdf

文化、全球化与世界体系

蹇庐
2009-08-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《文化、全球化与世界体系pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CULTURE,GLOBALIZATIONANDTHEWORLDSYSTEMThispageintentionallyleftblankCULTURE,GLOBALIZATIONANDTHEWORLDSYSTEMCONTEMPORARYCONDITIONSFORTHEREPRESENTATIONOFIDENTITYEditedbyANTHONYDKINGMINNESOTAUniversityofMinnesotaPressMinneapolisCopyrightbytheRegentsoftheUniversityofMinnesotaAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherPublishedbytheUniversityofMinnesotaPressThirdAvenueSouth,SuiteMinneapolis,MNhttp:wwwupressumneduThirdprintingPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataCulture,globalization,andtheworldsystem:contemporaryconditionsfortherepresentationofidentityeditedbyAnthonyDKingpcmPaperspresentedatasymposiumheldattheStateUniversityofNewYorkatBinghamtononApril,Originallypublished:Binghamton:DeptofArtandArtHistory,StateUniversityofNewYorkatBinghamton,WithnewprefIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexesISBN(pb)CultureCongressesAcculturationCongressesEthnicityCongressesIKing,AnthonyDGNCdcTheUniversityofMinnesotaisanequalopportunityeducatorandemployerContentsPrefacetotheRevisedEditionviiAcknowledgmentsxiiiIntroduction:SpacesofCulture,SpacesofKnowledgeAnthonyKingTheLocalandtheGlobal:GlobalizationandEthnicityStuartHallOldandNewIdentities,OldandNewEthnicitiesStuartHallSocialTheory,CulturalRelativityandtheProblemofGlobalityRolandRobertsonTheNationalandtheUniversal:CanThereBeSuchaThingasWorldCultureImmanuelWallersteinScenariosforPeripheralCulturesUlfHannerzInterrogatingTheoriesoftheGlobalCONTENTSIGoingBeyondGlobalBabbleJanetAbuLughodIILanguagesandModelsforCulturalExchangeBarbaraAbouElHajIIISpecificityandCultureMaureenTurimIVTheGlobal,theUrban,andtheWorldAnthonyKingIVGlobalization,TotalizationandtheDiscursiveFieldJohnTaggTheGlobalandtheSpecific:ReconcilingConflictingTheoriesofCultureJanetWolffNameIndexSubjectIndexNotesonContributorsPrefacetotheRevisedEditionSINCETHEESSAYSINTHISBOOKWEREFIRSTPRESENTEDATANINTERnationalsymposiuminupstateNewYorkin,therehasbeenaphenomenalgrowthofinterestinthesubjectofglobalizationYet,relativelylittleoftheliteratureonthistopichasaddressedthemanycomplexquestionsarisingfromtheimpactofglobalizationonspecificallyculturalissuesor,indeed,ofculture(s)ontheprocessesofglobalization,howeverthosetwoveryproblematicconceptsareinterpretedIfthisisonegoodreasonforbringingoutasecondNorthAmericaneditionofthisbook,anotheristhecontinuedrelevanceofthemanypowerfulargumentsanddifferentperspectivesraisedbyitsvariouscontributorsEncouraged,therefore,bythepositivereceptionaccordedthefirstedition,theenthusiasticsupportofeditorMicahKleitattheUniversityofMinnesotaPress,and,inamorepragmaticsense,thesomewhatfurtivecirculationofitspredecessor,startthisprefacetotherevisededitionAsIindicatedintheoriginaledition,eachtermofthemaintitleisassociatedwiththenameofparticularleadingscholarstheauthorsoftheprincipalpapersherewho,overthepasttwodecades,havepioneeredInadditiontothetitlescitedhere,PublicCulture(),thejournaloftheSocietyforTransnationalCulturalStudies,andTheory,CultureandSociety()providevaluableguidestotheexistingliteraturePublishedundertheimprintofmyparentdepartment,thetitleneverquitemadeitintotheAmericaneditionofBooksinPrintOutsideNorthAmerica,thebookispublishedbyMacmillan(London)and,inJapanese,byTamagawaUniversityPressCULTURE,GLOBALIZATIONANDTHEWORLDSYSTEMthestudyofissuesthatthetitlesuggests,somefocusingprimarilyonquestionsofculture,othersontheworldpoliticaleconomy,stillothersonquestionsofsocietaltransformationandidentityformationYet,despitetheirdifferentpositionsanddifferentconceptuallanguages,allshare,toagreaterorlesserextent,atleasttwoperspectives:therejectionofthenationallyconstitutedsocietyastheappropriateobjectofdiscourse,orunitofsocialandculturalanalysis,andindifferentwaysandtovaryingdegrees,acommitmenttoconceptualizing"theworldasawhole"Sincethebookwasfirstpublished,theseauthors,eitherontheirownorincollaborationwithothers,havecontinuedtoforgeahead,developingtheirideasand,insomecases,respondingtoissuesandquestionsraisedatthesymposium,stimulatingourthoughtsandextendingourvisionInaddition,agrowingnumberofauthorshavebothinterrogatedandreinterpretednotionsofglobalizationandtheworldsystem,or,asIlatersuggest,haverespondedbyrefusingthemOtherscholarshavepursuedsomeofthemorefocusedissuestheyprompt:thefutureofnationalidentitiesandculturestherethinkingofideasofmodernity,religion,andworldhistoryfromaperspectiveofglobalizationthelocalizationoftheglobalthetransformationofstatecentricassumptionsinthesocialsciencesand,inthehumanities,waysoftheorizingcontemporarynovelsasexamplesoftheglobalizationofcultureTheseandmanyotherstudiesofglobalization,inwidelydifferentfields,aresurelyindicativeofamajorparadigmshifttakingplaceinthewaythatthescholarlyproductionofknowledgeisbeingForexample,DavidMorleyandKuanHsingChen,eds,StuartHall:CriticalDialoguesinCulturalStudies(LondonandNewYork:Routledge,)UlfHannerz,TransnationalConnections:Culture,People,Places(LondonandNewYork:Routledge,)RolandRobertson,Globalization:SocialTheoryandGlobalCulture(London,NewburyPark,andNewDelhi:Sage,)andImmanuelWallerstein,GeopoliticsandGeoculture:EssaysontheChangingWorldSystem(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,)andAfterLiberalism(NewYork:NewPress,)Bothinthisvolumeandinotherpublications,Robertson,aswellasotherscholarsmentionedhere,takeupanumberofthepointsmadebyJanetWolffinherconcludingcriticalessayseenoteandalsoessaysinMorleyandChen,StuartHallandHannerz,TransnationalConnectionsMalcolmWaters,Globalization(LondonandNewYork:Routledge,)TonySpybey,GlobalizationandWorldSociety(Cambridge:Polity,)AnthonyGiddens,ModernityandSelfIdentity:SelfandSocietyintheLateModemAge(Cambridge:Polity,)FrederickBuell,NationalCultureandtheNewGlobalSystem(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,)JonathanFriedman,CulturalIdentityandGlobalProcess(London,ThousandOaks,andNewDelhi:Sage,)MikeFeatherstone,ScottLash,andRolandRobertson,eds,GlobalModernities(London,ThousandOaks,andNewDelhi:Sage,)PeterBeyer,viiiPREFACETOTHEREVISEDEDITIONrethoughtatthecloseofthesecondmillennium,atimeinhistoricalspacewhenadditionalsymbolicmeaningisbeinginvestedintheconstructionofanewspaceinhistoricaltimeItisfairtopredictthatscholarsinanincreasingnumberofspecializedfields,fromarchitecturetozoology,notonlywilllooktoexistingtheoriesof"theworldasasingleplace,"toquoteRolandRobertson,butalsowill,throughtheirownfieldsofexpertiseandresearch,refineanddevelopthemIllustrativeoftheemergenceofmorespecializedstudiesinthisareahasbeentheincreasinguseofthenotionof"globalculture"Inrecentlyreviewingsometwentybooksandessaysinwhichthetermeitherfiguresinthetitleorisdefinedanddiscussedinthetext,becameawareofanumberofpointsFirst,perhaps,istheveryobviousonethattheword"global"hasacquiredacertainfashionableeclat,nowused,withoutdefinitionorexplanation,wherepreviously"worldwide,""universal,"or"everywhere"wouldhavesufficedMoreseriously,however,Featherstonewritesthatasthereisawidevarietyofresponsestotheprocessesofglobalization,thereis"littleprospectofaunifiedglobalculture,ratherthereareglobalculturesintheplural"Yet,meaningsaccordedto"globalculture"differRecognizingthis,thereisatemptationtosuggestabasicdistinctionbetweenwhatmight,fromaspatialperspective,betermedcentripetalandcentrifugaluses:inthefirst,culturalforms,influences,andpracticesfrommanypartsoftheworldlocatingataplaceorpopulationareseentocreateanew"globalculture"ReligionandGlobalization(London,ThousandOaks,andNewDelhi:Sage,)BruceMazlishandRalphBuultjens,eds,ConceptualizingGlobalHistory(Boulder,Colo:Westview,)RobWilsonandWimalDissanayake,eds,GlobalLocal:CulturalProductionandtheTransnationalImaginary(Durham,NC:DukeUniversityPress,)PeterJTaylor,"OntheNationState,theGlobal,andSocialScience,"EnvironmentandPlanningA,(),withcommentariesfromfourteensocialscientistscurrentlywritingonglobalizationMichaelValdezMoses,TheNovelandtheGlobalizationofCulture(OxfordandNewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,)AnthonyDKing,"TheProblemofGlobalCultureandtheInternationalizationofArchitecture,"inDistanzierteVerstrickungen:DieambivalenteBindungsociologischForschenderanihrenGegenstandFestschriftfurPeterRGleichmann,edsEvaBarlosius,ElcinKiirsatAhlers,andHansPeterWaldhoff(Berlin:SigmaVerlag,forthcoming,inGerman)ThefollowingparagraphsdrawfromthisMikeFeatherstone,"GlobalCulture:AnIntroduction,"inGlobalCulture:Nationalism,GlobalizationandModernity,edFeatherstone(London,NewburyPark,andNewDelhi:Sage,inassociationwithTheory,CultureandSociety,),Forexample,KarenFogOlwig,GlobalCulture,IslandIdentity:ContinuityandChangeintheAfroCaribbeanCommunityofNevis(Philadelphia:Harwood,)ixCULTURE,GLOBALIZATIONANDTHEWORLDSYSTEMinthesecond(morecommonly),culturalinfluencesorpractices,stemmingfromonelocation,aresaidtobefound,invariousforms,inmanypartsoftheglobe(Neitherofthese,incidentally,isaparticularlynewphenomenon)Suchadichotomyisalltoosimple,howeverIftherearegloballyproducedcultures,thereare(asRobertsonmaintains)culturallyproducedviewsofglobalityWhereJohnDobsonassumestheincreasingexistenceofaglobalcorporateculture,themorewidelyheldopinionisthatspecificculturalpracticesandinstitutions,whennotresisted,areinvariablyindiginized,hybridized,subjectedtoprocessesofculturaltranslationinthemanneroftheirreceptionGlobalizationisnotaonewayprocess,nordoesitcomefromasinglesourceFurthermore,itseffectsarenotequallydistributedinaglobalsituationofgrosslyunevendevelopmentArjunAppadurai'sideaofavarietyofculturalflows,stemmingfromdifferentsocial,spatial,andhistoricallocations(seepagesoftheIntroduction),alongwithalternativeinterpretations,stillhasvalueMorerecently,thelessthanelegant"glocalization,"aJapanesemarketingneologismfromthes,hasbeenproposedtocapturetheprocesswherebytheglobalisadaptedtodifferentiatedlocalconditionsThereis,however,stillatendencyinmanystudiestodelineate,inrelationtomaterial,media,orprofessionalcultures,aprocessofglobalproductionlegitimateinitselfyettoignoretheverydifferentcircumstancesoftheirreceptionconsumptionandthemeaningsinvestedinthisprocessForexample,KarlaPoewe,ed,CharismaticChristianityasaGlobalCulture(Columbia:UniversityofSouthCarolinaPress,)andotherexamplesinWaters,Globalization,amongothersJohnDobson,"TheRoleofEthicsinGlobalCorporateCulture,"JournalofBusinessEthics,():^CyanPrakash,"Science'GoneNative'inColonialIndia,"Representations,(Fall):JanNederveenPieterse,"GlobalizationasHybridization'inFeatherstone,Lash,andRobertson,GlobalModernities,AnthonyMcGrew,"AGlobalSociety"inModernityandItsFutures,edsStuartHall,DavidHeld,andTonyMcGrew(Cambridge:PolityPress,),"Waters,Globalization,RolandRobertson,"Glocalization:TimeSpaceandHomogeneityHeterogeneity,"inFeatherstone,Lash,andRobertson,GlobalModernities,Wemustalsoacknowledgethattheincreasingnumbersofpeopleinthecategoryofglobaltravelersarelikelytobeinclinedtoaccordsimilarmeaningstoglobalizedphenomenaandhencethegrowthof"globetalk"xPREFACETOTHEREVISEDEDITIONAlloftheseinterpretationsmightbesaidtobe"internal"tothenotionoftheglobal,encompassedwithinitsboundaries,sotospeakAtquiteadifferentlevel,KennethSurinwritesthat"atheoryofcultureissomethingthatisproducedorcreatednolessthanitsputativeobjectAtheoryofculture,inthiscase,globalculture,isnotaboutcultureglobalcultureitselfbutabouttheconceptsthatculturegeneratesAtheoryofculturedoesnotimpingedirectlyonculturebutontheconceptsofcultureItisapartoftheprocessbywhicheveryculturegeneratesforitselfitsown'thinkability'(and'unthinkability')"Yet,alloftheseviewsstemfromaparticularWesternepistemeBecauseallstresstheimportanceoftransnationalforces,thepracticesofcodinganddecodingeverydaypracticesthatdisrupt,disturb,andevendenytheidentityoftheglobalarenotrevealedOnerealmofintellectualinquirythataimstodothis,namely,themorehistoricallyandpoliticallygroundedargumentsofpostcolonialcriticism,thoughcrucialtothistopic,istooextensivetobetreatedhereMoreover,contestationsoftheserepresentationsofglobalizationarealsolikelytobefoundinmajorworldreligionsThisraisestheverybasicquestionofwhetheritisactuallypossiblefordifferentgeographical,social,political,religious,andculturalconstituenciestoworkwiththesameconceptsAndasonlysomeoftheworkscitedhereaddressthequestionofgender,thereisclearlyanurgentneedtoremedythisInmyoriginalprefaceImadereferencetothenecessityofthinkingaboutglobalitythroughthearts,incontrasttothe(mainly)socialscienceperspectivesoftheauthorshereAlthoughagrowingbodyoftheoreticalworkonglobalizationandtheartsisemerging,therealanswertothisquestionistobefoundratherinthecontentsandcontextsoftheiractualperformanceandpracticeratherthanintheorymuchofitKennethSurin,"OnProducingtheConceptofaGlobalCulture'inNations,Identities,Cultures,edVYMudimbeSpecialissueofSouthAtlanticQuarterly,():amindebtedtoAbidinKusnoforthiscommentReferencemustbemade,however,toEdwardSaid'sCultureandImperialism(London:ChattoandWindus,)wForexample,Spybey,GlobalizationandWorldSocietyRobertson,GlobalizationSee,forexample,DoreenMassey,Space,PlaceandGender(Cambridge:Polity,)Apreliminarybibliographicsearchsuggeststhatfeministresearchandwritingareprimarilyfocusedonglobaleconomic,social,andpoliticalissues(including,butnotlimitedto,theconditionofwomen,aswellaspeace,health,ecology,andsoon)ratherthanmoregeneralizedstudiesofglobalizationxiCULTURE,GLOBALIZATIONANDTHEWORLDSYSTEMgeneratedthroughtheveryhistorically,geographically,andspatiallyspecificsitesofworldandglobalcities,increasinglysignificantpoliticalandculturalformationsthat,untilnow,havebeenconceptualizedandresearchedmoreineconomicthansocialandculturaltermsItistheveryspecificityandoriginalityofnovels,music,dance,video,poetry,graphics,film,photography,theaterarts,painting,architecture,radio,television,carnivalarts,publicsculpture,andtheirequallydistinctiveculturalpoliticsandpoliticaleffects,theirpersonalandcommunityhistoriesandmemories,thatwillhelprefinethenextgenerationoftheorizingaboutglobalizationinthepolitical,social,and,especially,culturalsphereAnthonyDKingBinghamton,NYSeptemberPaulLKnoxandPeterJTaylor,eds,WorldCitiesinaWorldSystem(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,)AnthonyDKing,GlobalCities:PostImperialismandtheInternationalisationofLondon(LondonandNewYork:Routledge,)SaskiaSassen,TheGlobalCity:NewYork,London,Tokyo(Princeton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPress,)SharonZukin,TheCulturesofCities(Cambridge,Mass,andOxford:Blackwell,)Forsomeinitialconsiderationoftheartsinthiscontextsee,forexample,"TheGlobalIssue:ASymposium,"ArtinAmerica,(July)alsoJeanFisher,GlobalVisions:TowardsaNewInternationalismintheVisualArts(London:KalaPress,),andselectedpapersinThirdText()xiiAcknowledgmentsTHEESSAYSINTHISCOLLECTIONWEREFIRSTPRESENTEDATAONEdaysymposiumheldattheStateUniversityofNewYorkatBinghamtoninAprilandsubsequentlyrevisedandeditedforpublicationThefirsttwotalks,byStuartHall,weregiventwoweeksbeforethemainsymposiumthechaptersthatappearhererepresentslightlyeditedversionsofthetranscriptionsmadefromthetapedpresentationsThesymposiumwassupportedbygrantsfromtheofficesoftheDean,VicePresidentandViceProvostforGraduateStudiesandResearchattheuniversityIwouldliketothankthemandalsomanyotherswhohelpedorganizeandmaketheconferencepossible,includingthespeakerstheassociatedeanofHarpurCollege,TrudyCobbDenardSteveRossandBarbaraAbouElHajforchairingCarolBreckenridge,editorofPublicCulturetheArtHistoryGraduateStudentsUnion,particularly,itsthenpresident,JoeSockimyarthistorycolleagues,particularlyJohnTagg,WendyBotting,andotherswhoassistedinvariouswaysthemembersoftheFernandBraudelCenter,especiallyDonnaDeVoistGeorgeMcKeeforhisadviceMarioADiCesareforhishelpwiththeproductionofthefirsteditionCarolMarcyandJoanScottoftheDepartmentofArtHistoryandespeciallythestaffofthethenUniversityManuscriptCenter,LisaFegleySchmidt,PhyllisAntos,LoisOrzel,andElizabethRegan,fortheirexcellentcooperationandexpertiseFinally,mythankstoAbidinKusnoandJanetWolfffortheircommentsontheprefacetothissecondeditionThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroduction:SpacesofCulture,SpacesofKnowledgeANTHONYKINGIWANTTOSTARTTHISINTRODUCTIONBYLOOKINGATTHETHREEtermsusedinthemaintitleofthisbookandbyexplainingwhytheyhavebeenputtogether,ifsomewhatuneasily,toformonesingleideaCulture,whetherinitsmaterialorsymbolicform,isanattributewhichpeople(s)aresaidtohaveglobalizationisaprocessandtheworldsystemisastruc

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