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首页 *新书上架*多元女孩文化:制造身份的人种学

*新书上架*多元女孩文化:制造身份的人种学.pdf

*新书上架*多元女孩文化:制造身份的人种学

九月虺
2009-08-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*多元女孩文化:制造身份的人种学pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MultiGirlCultureAnEthnographyofDoingIdentityLindaDuitsInthishighlyreadablebook,LindaDuitsinvestigatesgirlcultureintheDutchmulticulturalsocietyHerethnographicaccountprovidesathickdescriptionoflifeatschool,stillthemostprominentsettingfortodaysyouthShefollowedyounggirlsofdiverseethnicbackgroundsintheirtransitionfromprimarytosecondaryschool,focusingonthewaystheyusethebody,clothingandmediaintheirperformanceofidentityCounteringseveralmediahypes,includingtheinternetgeneration,theheadscarfdebate,andthesexualisationofsociety,DuitsshowshowcontemporarygirlcultureisamundaneculturethatisreflexivelynegotiatedinaneverydaysettingLindaDuits()obtainedhermastersdegreeinPoliticalScienceandherPhDinCommunicationScienceSheiscurrentlyAssistantProfessorinQualitativeMethodsatthedepartmentofCommunicationoftheUniversityofAmsterdam,andaffiliatedwiththeAmsterdamSchoolofCommunicationsResearch(ASCoR)andtheCentreforPopularCultureLindaDuitsMultiGirlCultureUvADissertationFacultyofSocialandBehaviouralSciencesAUPThesisDuits:AUPBuijn:PaginaMULTIGIRLCULTUREANETHNOGRAPHYOFDOINGIDENTITYACADEMISCHPROEFSCHRIFTterverkrijgingvandegraadvandoctoraandeUniversiteitvanAmsterdamopgezagvandeRectorMagnificusprofdrDCvandenBoomtenoverstaanvaneendoorhetcollegevoorpromotiesingesteldecommissie,inhetopenbaarteverdedigenindeAuladerUniversiteitopwoensdagjuni,te:uurdoorLindaDuitsgeborenteZeistPromotorProfdrEAvanZoonenCommissieledenProfdrKLKBrantsProfdrMFennemaDrJCHermesProfdrAMcRobbieProfdrKSchönbachProfdrPMValkenburgFaculteitderMaatschappijenGedragswetenschappenTableofcontentsAcknowledgementsPartI:IntroductionDisciplininggirls’bodiesHeadscarvesandpornochicProblemdefinitionApproachOutlineofthebookGirls’studiesIntroductionThes:BedroomcultureThes:FeminismforgirlsThes:‘Cando’versus‘atrisk’Currentgirls’studiesConclusion:Listening–buthowandtowhomDoingidentityIntroductionIdentityincrisisIdentityperformanceCitationandidentificationOperationalisingperformance:styleAppearanceMediaSummaryMethodmethodologyIntroductionDesignThetwomainfieldsParticipatingandobservingIndepthinterviewsAdditionalmethodsVisitstosecondaryschoolFocusgroupssecondaryschoolAnalysisEthicalconsiderationsThequalityofthisqualitativeresearchReflectionAnoteonwritingPartII:ContextsofperformancesLifeatprimaryschoolIntroductionSchool’selfpresentationRoutinesandritualsTheteacher,theparent,andthepupilFriends,cliques,andhierarchiesConclusionAdvancingtosecondaryschoolIntroductionTheintelligencehierarchyPerceiveddifferencesChangesinfriendshipThepopularityhierarchyConclusion:somemethodologicalconsiderationsPartIII:MappingperformancesSubjectpositionsIntroductionGenderAgeEthnicityClassConclusionPerformancepracticesIntroductionAppearanceUseorlose:GirlsusingmediaEverybody’stalkin’aboutitGirls’mediatalkConditionsfortheuseofperformancepracticesConclusionInfluencespheresIntroductionFamilyPeersSocietyConclusionInterpretativerepertoiresIntroductionThepoliticallycorrectrepertoireTherepertoireofchoiceTherepertoireofauthenticityTherepertoireofnormalcyConclusionConclusionsdiscussionIntroductionEmpiricalresultsContemporarymultigirlcultureTheoreticalimplicationsMethodologicalconsiderationsPersonalreflectionsConcludingremarksAppendicesNotesReferencesNederlandsesamenvattingGlossaryoftermsAcknowledgmentsAdissertationislikeanidentity:itisproducedinconstantreflectionandnegotiationwithothersHere,Iwanttothankthosepeoplethat,inonewayoranother,personallyorprofessionally,havebeenpartofthisprocessThisbookisaboutrealgirlsIdeeplyandwarmlythankallthegirlswhoparticipatedinthisstudyforallowingmeaccesstotheirworldIamindebtedtothetwoteacherswhosocourteouslywelcomedmeintheirclassroom:‘Thomas’fromthe‘Gunningschool’and‘Luck’fromthe‘Kantlijn’Ialsothanktheboysthatattendedthformattheseschoolsin,aswellasthefacultiesandsupportingstaffIespeciallywanttomentionMohamedBousaidandJaapterWeijSeveralpeoplehelpedshapethisresearchSandraZwierpointedmetothepossibilityofdoingaPhDatASCoRMiekedeWaal,SuzanneKuik,LenieBrouwerandJulietteWalmavanderMolenprovidedhelpfultipsforresearchingchildrenRosiBraidotti,RosemarieBuikemaandKarenO’ReilleysharpenedmythinkinginthecoursesItookwiththemTheexchangewithRosalindGillhaspushedmythinkingaboutagencytoahigherlevelTheChildren’sStudiesgroupledbyRinekevanDaalenhelpedfocusmyethnographiclensPaulinevanRomondtVishasbeenatruemethodologicaladvisorPaulineKoppewasagreatassistantinthefocusgroupsJeroenJansz’sdoorhasalwaysbeenopentomeforadviceThroughouttheyears,thevaryingcohabitantsofthewonderfulofficeCbwerealwaysthereforstimulatingschmooze,support,andloadsofsillinessEnriqueGomezllata,ToddGraham,FlorisMüller,MerviPantti,EstherRozendaalandKoosZwaan:IamluckytocallyoumyfriendsTodddeservesextragratitudeforallhislanguagehelpEstherandKoosbecausetheyarealsomyparanimphsDoingaPhDhasneverbeenalonelyendeavourforme,andIthankmanycolleaguesformakingworkfun:IsabelAwadCherit,PietBakker,HajoBoomgaarden,DavidvanBennekom,YiuFaiChow,CemGömusay,JoeriGritter,YaeldeHaan,WillemijnvanMaanen,andJochenPeter(therearemanymore,butIlimitedmyselftoten)MysmokingbuddyElskeVerkruijsse,ofcourse,getsmentionedseparatelyThanksforallthefunbreaks,carryonElske!ThePhDclubPopularCulturehasbeenagreatgroupofpeopleSomehavealreadybeennamed,andIshouldaddChrisAalberts,VincentCroneandSteinReijndershereMybestfriendPaulMetzemakersalwaysactsasmysoundingboardRememberthough,discourseisgoinggetyou!Formostoftheprocess,IsharedeverythingwithJeroenLammersYouareforeverinmyheartFinally,Idonotknowwherethisbook,orIforthatmatter,wouldbewithoutmyawesomesupervisorLiesbetvanZoonenYouareanexampleandafriendAmsterdam,AprilPartIIntroductionDisciplininggirls’bodiesChapterDiscipliningGirls’BodiesHeadscarvesandpornochicIn,severalWesternEuropeancountriesfacedsocalled‘headscarfaffairs’FuelledbyincidentsofMuslimgirlsbeingexpelledfromschoolbecausetheywantedtowearaheadscarfintheclassroom,countrieslikeFrance,Germany,andtheNetherlandsdebatedtheplaceofIslamicsymbolsinthepublicsphereHowever,aheadscarfwasnottheonlyattirethatcouldgetagirlintotroubleatthattimeTheFrenchAssistantSecretaryofEducationtalkedaboutbanningGstringsinschools,because‘schoolisnotanightclub’(quotedinVanBeemen,:)In,aDutchschoolbannedbellyshirts(alsoknownascroptops),goingsofarastosuspendagirlforcomingtoschoolwithsuchabarebellyinFebruaryThesetwodebatesformtheantecedentsofthisstudyAsdisconnectedastheymayappear,theyareinfactrelatedinthreewaysFirst,mostoftheseissuesarecentredontheschool:acrossroadsbetweenthepublicandtheprivateSecond,theyarepartofasinglehegemonicdiscourseaboutwomen’ssexualityThird,bothdebatesdenygirlstheiragencyandautonomyIfirstdiscussthesethreeconnectionsinmoredetail,andthengoontodefinethecentralquestionofthisstudySchoolandthemulticulturalIndiscussionsaboutboththeheadscarfandpornochic,adversariesfocusedontheschool,andarguedforgovernmentinterventionandselfregulationSituatedhalfwaybetweenthepublicandprivatespheres,Chaptertheschoolisanextraordinaryplace,anditisnocoincidencethatoneofthemajorhistoricalDutchpoliticalstrugglescentredonsuchaninstitutionThesocalled‘schoolstruggle’()addressedthelimitsofgovernmentinterventionandtheseparationofchurchandstate(DeLiagreBöhl,:)Sincethen,‘specialeducation’hashadadifferentlegalstatusintheNetherlands,meaningthatthegovernmentcannotcontrolallpartsofthecurriculumHenceforth,treatingallreligiousandnonreligiousgroupsequallyensuredtheneutralityoftheDutchstatetowardsreligionInFrance,ataboutthesametime,acomparableschoolstruggleledtotheoppositesystemoflaïcité,inwhichgovernmentneutralityinreligiousaffairsisensuredbythe“irreligiosityofthepublicsphere”(Göle,:)Someonehundredyearslater,theheadscarfaffairsseemtohaveproducedanewschoolstruggle,whichalsodealswiththeplaceofreligion(Islam)intheliberalstateandtheextenttowhichthegovernmentshouldinterveneinreligiousmattersTheheadscarfissueisalsopartofthemuchwiderdebatethatmulticulturalismhasplacedontheagendaIndeed,anextensiveanalysisoftheheadscarfdebatesinWesternEurope(DuitsVanZoonen,)hasrevealedthatthesediscussionsareactuallyaboutIslamasanallegedmisogynisticreligion,abouttheplaceoftheOtherintheWest,andabouttheseparationofchurchandstateTheterm‘multiculturalism’iscontestedPierik(:)distinguishesthreedifferentdenotationsofitFirst,itisafactualdescription,ieitdescribesarealityofculturalpluralismSecond,itcanbeanormativeprescriptionoftheorganisationofsociety,arguingthatculturaldifferencesshouldberespectedandaccommodatedThird,itsometimesreferstocertaingovernmentalpolicies(eglanguageandorintegrationcourses,thesubsidisingofculturalfestivalsandcommunitycentres)InEurope,Pierikstates,discussionsaboutmulticulturalismfocusmainlyonmigrantworkersIntheNetherlands,thelargestsuchgroupsareTurksandMoroccans(seeappendixI),andotherminorities,suchastheChinese,hardlyeverenterthedebate(Chow,)Asaresult,thediscussionsaboutmulticulturalismtendtofocusonIslamasanOtherreligion,whichsharesnocommongroundwithWesterncultureTheheadscarfplaysacentralroleinrepresentingthisdifferenceAsGöle(:)putsit:“Noothersymbolthantheveilreconstructswithsuchforcethe“otherness”ofIslamtotheWest”Currently,thefuroreaboutheadscarveshasabatedHowever,theschoolregularlyfeaturesindebatesaboutmulticulturalism,whichhaverecentlymovedontofocusontheissueof‘black’and‘white’schools(Paulle,)Disciplininggirls’bodiesSexualityThediscussionsaboutpornochicalsocentredontheschool,andbroughtmediaandpublicdebatesaboutdecency,andnormsandvaluesintotheschoolsetting(againseeDuitsVanZoonen,)Inadditiontothecalltobanpornochicinschools,ithasbeenproposedthattheallegedsexualisationofgirlsshouldbecounteredbymakingmedialiteracyacompulsorypartofthecurriculumAnumberofincidentsledtothemediaandgovernment’sobsessionwithanallegedsexualisationor‘pornofication’ofsocietyAgangrapeinvolvinganelevenyearoldgirlwasconnectedto‘MTVculture’(egElBarkany,VanKeken,Kiene,)andtheargumentthatMTVgivesgirlsthewrongideaaboutsexualityAreportinbytheDutchHealthService(VanDijk,)alsocausedconsiderableconcern,asitsuggestedthatgirlswerehavingsexinexchangeforsmallgifts(egaCD)Althoughthereportdidnotdrawanyconclusionsaboutmediainfluenceoreffects,theDutchpressquicklyblamedthemedia,particularlygenderrepresentationsinhiphopmusicvideosOneofthegiftsthereportmentionedwasabreezer,afruitflavouredrumdrink,fromwhichthetermbreezersletjebreezerslutwasderived,denotinga‘vulgar,dumbgirlthatcanbeeasilyseducedtosex’ThetermevenmadeitswayintoVanDale’sleadingdictionaryTheDutchpublicationofArielLevy’s()book,Femalechauvinistpigs,inalsoidentifiedwiththeconcernabout‘bimboculture’andunrulygirls’sexualityIndeed,Plasterk,theDutchMinisterofEducationrecentlylinkedtheseissuesinhisemancipationmemorandum,arguingthat“overtlysexualacts,innuendosandadvances”havebecome“a‘normal’partofyouthculture”throughtheirdisseminationinthemedia(Plasterk,:)Thefollowingquotesummarisestheissuesatstake:Teenagegirlsconductingsexualactsinexchangeforadrink,aprepaidphonecardorexpensivejeansprovocativeunderwearforyounggirlsontheshelvesofthedepartmentstoregirlswhoundergosurgicaloperationsontheirgenitaliaWeareconfrontedwiththesekindsofphenomenathroughthemediaonanalmostdailybasisThisdevelopmenthasbeencalledthe‘sexualisationofsociety’Atthemoment,thereisasocietaldebateinwhichonequestionstherepresentationofgirlsandwomenassexobjects,unobtainablebeautyidealsandtheincreasingcommercialisationandsexualisationofthefemalebodyinthemediaInthisdebate,suchdevelopmentsarenotonlyascribedtotheinfluenceofmentheroleofgirlsandwomenthemselvesisalsoexposedTheyarethoughtto(wantto)turnthemselvesandotherwomenintentionallyintosexualobjectsthroughappealingtoafeministprinciple(sexualliberation)(Plasterk,:,mytranslation)ChapterThememorandumgoesontosuggestapolicythatisdirectedspecificallyatgirlsAccordingtoPlasterk,theemancipationofgirlsinthenextfiveyearsshouldbeaimedateducatingthemaboutmedialiteracyandsexualityPlasterk’sformulationissuggestive,asonecannotestablishwhetherthissexualisationisfactual,orjustpurportedbymediathatdisseminatedtheseincidentsandlabelledthem‘contemporaryculture’Theemancipationmemorandumsimilarlysuggeststhataestheticvaginallabioplastyisnowcommonamongstgirls,whichishighlyquestionableQuantitativedataaboutthesephenomenaareabsentInthejournaloftheAmericanSocietyofPlasticSurgeons,Mendonçaetal,arguethat“aestheticsurgeryoffemalegenitaliaisanuncommonprocedure”(Mendonçaetal,:)Moreover,theHealthServicereportabout‘breezersex’explicitlystatesthatthedataarebasedonqualitativeinterviews,whichweremostlyhearsay,fromwhichnoquantitativeconclusionscanbedrawnWiththisintensespotlightonsexualisation,itiseasytoforgetthatjustoneortwoyearsearlierthemediawereobsessingabouttheheadscarfInthatdebate,theheadscarfwasarticulatedwithgenderinequality,multiculturalexcess,andlackofseparationbetweenchurchandstateAlthoughthebasicreligiousmotiveforcoveringtheheadrelatestosexuality,thisunderstandingdidnotenterthedebateandwasthusdeemedirrelevantinaWesterncontextImplicitly,then,theheadscarfisconstructedastoodecentThedebateaboutpornochicwasmoreexplicitlylinkedtotheissueofgirls’sexualitybutheadscarvesandpornochicare,infact,twosidesofthesamecoin,iegirls’sexualityDespitethisconnection,theyaretreatedasseparatephenomenaThissuggestsaratheronesidedperspectiveongirlcultureForinstance,inresponsetoouranalysisofthesedebates,Gillarguesthatpornochicis“mandatorywear”and“virtuallyhegemonic”(Gill,:)AsimilarsuggestionresonatesinthediscussionaboutsexualisationHowever,suchadesignationisonlypossibleifoneoverlooksthepresenceofheadscarfgirlsIslamicandChristiancritiquesonthesexualizationofsocietyarediscountedasprudishandmoralistic(hencenonmodern),makingtheoldvirginwhorecomplexaschizophrenicphenomenoninmulticulturalEuropeFurthermore,thisdoublestandardpromotesanexclusiveunderstandingofbothWesternandgirlcultureDisciplininggirls’bodiesAgencyAthirdconnectionbetweentheheadscarfandpornochicdebateslieswiththeneglectofgirls’agencyGirls’ownunderstandingoftheclothestheywearhardlyeverfeaturesinthediscussionstakingplace,towhichtheyareseldominvitedAsaresult,girls’bodies“havebecomethemetonymiclocationformanyofthesocialandculturalstrugglesinWestEuropeanimmigrationsocieties”(DuitsVanZoonen,:)Theirbodiesfunctionascarriersofbroaderdiscussionsaboutdecency,feminism,Islam,andconsumercultureOpinionleadersadoptanalmostFoucaultianperspective,construinggirlsas‘docilebodies’ThepowerofIslam,capitalismand‘men’is,accordingtothem,notonlyinscribedongirls’bodies,butthegirlhasalsobecome“theprincipleofherownsubjection”(Foucault,:)Inotherwords,Islam,capitalism,and‘men’haveinfluencedgirlstosuchanextentthattheyhaveinternalisedthesecontrolsanddisciplinethemselvesaccordinglyWhatappearstobe‘selfdetermination’,Foucault’sargumentgoes,isactuallysubmissiontodisciplinarypowerFromsuchastandpoint,girlscannotbeexpectedtomakeanyindependentrationalcontributiontothedebateandtherefore,theirvoicesareexcludedThus,girlsarereprievedfromhavingthepowertodefinetheirownactions:theiractionscannotbetheresultoftheirownchoicessincethesecomefromIslamorcapitalismThearticulationofalackofagencyonlywithgirlsisremarkableTherelationshipbetweenagencyandsocialstructureisanimportantthemethathasoccupiedmanyphilosophersandsociologistsAtthecoreofthedebateisthequestionwhether(andhowmuch)capacityindividualshave“toactindependentlyofstructuralconstraints”(Abercrombie,Hill,Turner,:)Attheoneextreme,itisarguedthatindividualscreatetheworldaroundthemattheother,theargumentisthatstructuredeterminesallindividualactionWhicheverpositiononechooses,inscholarlywritingsaboutagencyitisunusualtodistinguishbetweengroupsThus,toFoucaultnooneisoutsidepowerWhetheroneisatwelveyearoldgirlorahighlylearnedscholar,allindividualsubjectsaretheresultsofpowerandareunabletoactoutsidethesocialinscriptionofpowerInthedebatesaboutheadscarvesandpornochichowever,adistinctionismadebetweenthosewithpowerandagency(men–whoholdthepowertosubjectanddisciplineothers)andthosewithout(girls–whodocilelyfallvictimtostructure)TheascriptionofagencytooneChaptergroup,andthedenialof

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*新书上架*多元女孩文化:制造身份的人种学

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