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首页 *新书上架*勇敢的新心灵:精神生活的本质和意义的思想性研究

*新书上架*勇敢的新心灵:精神生活的本质和意义的思想性研究.pdf

*新书上架*勇敢的新心灵:精神生活的本质和意义的思想性研究

九月虺
2009-08-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*勇敢的新心灵:精神生活的本质和意义的思想性研究pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

BraveNewMindThispageintentionallyleftblankBraveNewMindAThoughtfulInquiryintotheNatureandMeaningofMentalLifePETERDODWELLNewYork•OxfordOxfordUniversityPressOxfordUniversityPressOxfordNewYorkAthensAucklandBangkokBogotaBuenosAiresCalcuttaCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiFlorenceHongKongIstanbulKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiParisSaoPauloSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoWarsawandassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanCopyright©byOxfordUniversityPress,IncPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,MadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDodwell,PCBravenewmindathoughtfulinquiryintothenatureandmeaningofmentallifePeterDodwellpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNCognitivescienceCreativethinkingConsciousnessCognitionSocialaspectsITitleBFDdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperForElizabeth,companioninthedramaoflifeThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceThisbookisaboutcognitivescience,aratherrecentarrivalinthepantheonofscientificachievementWhatisitApreliminarydefinitionmightbethestudyofmentalphenomenaviamethodsofrationalandempiricalresearchAmuchfullerandclearerpicturewillemergeinduecourse,butfornowwemaynotethatanumberofdisciplineshavecontributedtothedevelopmentofthemodernscientificpictureofmind,principallypsychology,linguistics,neuroscience,philosophy,and,thelatestbutbynomeanstheleast,computerscienceintheformofroboticsandartificialintelligenceMyoriginalintentionwastopresentahistoryofhowcognitivescience'srootswereestablishedasthesecontributorydisciplinesgrew,andthentosurveythecontemporarysceneanddiscusscurrentstrengthsandweaknessesinthatlightButtheprojectgotoutofhandandproducedamanuscriptofnearlytwicethedesirablelengthWhatwasoriginallyonemanuscriptbecametwoThisbook,thesecondpartoftheoriginalmanuscript,carriestheburdenofmymainmessage:apleaforthewideningofthefieldofcognitivesciencetoincludesomewelldocumentedfeaturesofmentallifethathavesufferedneglectoverthepastmanydecadesbutthatareneverthelessvalidtopicsofinquiryIcharacterizetheseasthedramaofthemindTheyincludesuchthingsasoriginalcreativityinmathematics,musicalcomposition,andlanguagealteredandchangingstatesofconsciousnessthehistoryofculturalmetamorphosisandthedevelopmentofnovelwaysofunderstandingtheworld,anunderstandingthatis,afterall,firstandforemostacognitiveachievementThislasthasbeenanabidingfeatureofmankind'sjourneyoverseveralmillenniaWideningthefieldofinvestigationnecessitatesabroadeningandsharpeningoftheexplanatorystrategiesweemploy,andTshallhavemuchtosayaboutthatAskingwhatthenextstepsonthispathmightbeisinsomerespectsspeculativebutstillalegitimateavenueofinquiryIndeed,takingthosestepsprovidesameasureoftheviiiPREFACEcaliberofthetimesandisanimportantmanifestationofthevitalityofanintellectuallymotivatedcivilizationOneofthegreatestshockstoourculturallifeimaginablewouldbethesuddencessationofnewproposalsabouthowtounderstandtheworldandourplaceinit,thetakingofnewmetaphysicalstances,asIshallcallthemAprincipalthemeofthisbookisthatcognitivescience,aspresentlypracticed,ismuchinneedofsuchrenewalWhatdocognitivescientiststhemselvesseeasthefutureoftheirdisciplineManyundoubtedlywouldoptforthefurtherdevelopmentofmechanisticanalogiestomental,oratleastcognitive,activitiesOtherswillseethechangingfutureofthemodernmindasafunctionofitsgrowingdependenceoninteractionwithcomputersandotherformsof"information"technologyYetanotherpowerfulperspectiveviewsthemindasasimpleoutgrowthoremergentpropertyoflargishbrains,sothatcognitivescienceisclaimedasmainlytheprovinceofneuroscienceSomebrilliantandpersuasiveauthorshavearguedforvariationsonthesethemes,andtheirviewswillbediscussedThewritingofabooklikethepresentonetakesmorethanayearortwo(atleastittookmethatlong!),sooneiscontinuallybeingovertakenbynewwritingofothersoncognatetopicsRatherthantrytocapturetheverylatestflavorofthiswork,Ihavedescribedthebasicpositionsofmanyoftheleadingauthorsintheirstandard,orcanonical,formHence,theideasexpressedinthelatestwritingsof,forinstance,Dawkins,Dennett,Hofstaedter,Searle,andPinker,tomentionsomeveryprominentexamples,arenotdirectlyaddressedIngeniousasthesepresentationsare,theyproposelittlethatisfundamentallydifferentofnewmetaphysicalsubstance,onemightsayfromviewsexpressedearlier,sonottoomuchislostbypassingoverthemlightlySomeyearsagoCPSnow,ascientistaswellasaprominentnovelist(andpowerfulbureaucrat),wroteTheTwoCultures,abookthatachievedconsiderablenotorietyTheburdenofhismessagewasthatthehardnosedworldofscienceandengineering,exploiterofthenaturalworld,isatoddswithandperhapsbasicallyincompatiblewiththedomainofliterary,humanecreationandinquiry,aswellaswiththesocialandpersonalperspectivesthatflowfromitPerhaps,ashefeared,thetwocultureshavegrowntoofaraparttofindcommonground,althoughhewasanadvocateofseekingitMoreover,withafootineachcamp,hewaswellqualifiedtoadjudicateandseekreconciliationbetweenthemCognitivescience,too,straddlesthetwocultures,becauseitseekstostudyandexplainmentallifefromascientificperspective,yetitssubjectmatterisobviouslytoagreatextentatleastinthedomainthatthehumanitiestaketobetheirveryownHereisthemajorquestionforcognitivescience,andonewithwhichwewilleventuallydealCanmentallifebeexhaustivelystudiedasapurelynaturalphenomenon,ormustwegobeyondthemundane,themerelyphysical,tograspitsrealityInotherwords,iscognitivesciencejustanaturalscience,orisit,touseanolderterminology,alsoamoralscienceTheweightofcontemporaryopinionacceptstheformer,butIshallarguestronglyforthelatter,moreaccurately,thatwecannotdispensewitheither,thatweneedthembothItmaybeofimportanceforthecognitivescientisttobeable(eventually)togiveanaccountofthegoingsoninthebrainofNorthropFrye,theauthorofAnatomyofCriticism,forinstance,butitPREFACEixwouldbeahardbittenmaterialistindeedwhowouldclaimthatthoseeventsareallthereisofscientificinteresttothecreationofsuchaliterarytourdeforceCognitivescienceisnowmainlyconcernedwiththe"grammar"ofmentallifeImportantasthisis,weshouldnotletitblindustothedramaYetwecannottakethefullmeasureofthedramawithoutfirstapprisingourselvesofthebasicgrammarThatiswhyIsetouttogiveanaccountofthehistoricalrootsofcognitivesciencebeforeembarkingondiscussionofthedramaofmindMuchofthathistoricalmaterial,whichhaslargelytodowiththegrammarofmind,hadtobeseverelycurtailedtoproduceabookofmanageablelengthYetIfeeltheneedtogiveafulleraccountofthatmaterialSomereaderswillfindthehistoricalcameosofthefirstthreechaptersalltoosketchy,andsomeofmyjudgmentsofthemovementsthatdefinedearly(andevensomecontemporary)cognitivesciencenotwellsupportedbytheevidencequotedAmuchfulleraccountofthesematterswillappearinasecondbookbasedonthefirsthalfoftheoriginalmanuscriptIrefertoitinvariousplacesinthefootnotesandtrustthatreadersdissatisfiedwiththecursorytreatmentmetedoutintheearlychaptersofthisbookcanfindsatisfactionoftheirinterests(orgrievances)thereThegestationperiodforthisbookhasnotbeenshortincertainrespectsitgoesbacktothebeginningofmyacademiccareer,overyearsagoDuringthattimeIhaveofcourselearnedenormouslyfromteachers,friends,colleagues,andothersengagedinthegreatenterpriseofstudyingthemindItwouldperhapsbeinvidioustosingleoutaparticularfew,andthedepthandvarietyofmydebtwillbeobviousasthereaderprogressesthroughthebookGreatfiguresfromtherecentpastwhohaveinfluencedmestronglyincludeWilliamJames,BertrandRussell,LudwigWittgenstein,KarlPopper,JeanPiaget,WolfgangKohler,DonaldHebb,andJamesGibsonIhadtheprivilegeofbeingeducatedataWaldorfSchool,sotheworldviewofRudolfSteiner,theoriginatoroftheWaldorfmovement,alsocertainlyplayedaroleinmydevelopmentIwanttothankfellowinquirersandfriendswhoreadandcommentedontheoriginalmanuscript:TerryCaelli,GusCraik,MerlinDonald,DavidFoster,WillHoffman,KeithHumphrey,andDavidMurraySelectedchapterswerealsoreviewedbyJimCutting,RandyHarris,HansandPamLiebeck,andRogerPenroseAllofthemmadehelpfulcommentsandsavedmefromsomefauxpas,althoughofcourseItakefullresponsibilityforthedeficienciesthatremain,particularlywhereIfailedtoheedtheircounsel!ItisarealsadnesstomethatJohnMacnamaradiedatatragicallyyoungagebeforeIwasabletoshowhimmymanuscriptandgetthebenefitofhisadviceourviewsonthenatureofmindwereremarkablycloseThanksarealsoduetomyeditorsatOxfordUniversityPress:JoanBossert(nowelevatedtohigherresponsibilities)forherinitialenthusiasmfortheproject,andPhilipLaughlinforefficientlyseeingitthroughtocompletionFinally,IthankmydearwifeElizabethforherconstantpatience,devotion,andencouragementShehasexpandedmyvisionofwhat'simportantinlife,aswellasinthestudyofthemindWithoutherenthusiasticsupportthebookmightwellhavefalteredtoherIdedicateitwithloveVictoria,BritishColumbia,PCDSeptemberThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsTheScopeofCognitiveScienceThePsychologicalUnderpinningsofCognitiveScienceOtherPathsinCognitiveScienceTheScienceofMindBrainandMind,aManyLayeredEnigmaNewPerspectivesonRepresentationandRealityMathematicsandtheMindExplanationinCognitiveScienceTheSacredRiverNotesReferencesIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankBraveNewmindThispageintentionallyleftblankTheScopeofCognitiveScienceManmustclingtohisfaiththattheincomprehensibleiscomprehensible,elsehewouldceasetoinvestigateJOHANNWOLFGANGVONGOETHEPicturingthenatureofselfandmindhasalwaysbeenattheforefrontofhumaninquiry,theearliestmythsandlegendsgraduallyyieldingtorationalthoughtandeventuallytoscientificinvestigationInitsmostrecentversionthisenterpriseisnowcalledcognitivescienceInquiriesintothehumanconditionhavealwaysbeenpolarizedintotwocampsOntheonehandarethepassionateadvocatesofhumanity'sspecialstatusatthepinnacleofcreation,seeingmanasabeingoffreedomandunboundedcreativepotentialtheidealisticviewThiscampmightborrowHamlet'sfamouswords,withoutirony,andpronounce:Whatapieceofworkisaman!Hownobleinreason,howinfiniteinfaculty,informandmovinghowexpressandadmirable,inactionhowlikeanangel,inapprehensionhowlikeagodthebeautyoftheworld,theparagonofanimals!Ontheotherhandarethemorecautious,prosaic,andempiricalthinkers,whoviewusasnaturalproductsofbiologicalevolution,determinedsolelybyheredityandenvironment,asfreeandindependentspiritsonlyinanillusorysenseThisisamorecynicalbut,asmanywouldhaveit,amorerealisticpictureItisparodiedelegantlyinadittyattributedtoanadmirerofEdwardLear:Therewasayoungmanwhosaid:Damn!IfindIundoubtedlyamAbeingthatmovesInpredestinategrooves,Infactnotabusbutatram!TheidealisticviewwasfirstexpressedinfullyintellectualtermsintheSocraticdialoguesItisstilloneofthepillarsofcontemporaryliteraryculture,withitsheavyBRAVENEWMINDemphasisonthe"daemonic,"the"inspired"elementofhumancreativityThesecondviewcanbetracedtoAristotleandhisfollowers,alessflamboyant,moredowntoearthbutnolesspotentwayofaccountingforhumankindasapurelynaturalspeciesThisperspective,whichincludestheclaimthatbiology(includingphysiology)willyieldtheultimateanswers,hascapturedtheallegianceofmostcontemporaryscientists,whohaveelevatedittothestatusofofficialdoctrineThemodernstudyofbrainandmindcognitivescienceisalsobasedforthemostpartonunswervingloyaltytothesecondviewCognitivesciencehasproposednovelandincisiveanswerstomanyfundamentalandlongstandingquestionsabouthumanmentation,aboutwhywearethewayweareyetinsomecardinalrespectsitfailstogiveasatisfactoryaccountofmindOnefailureconcernshowscientificthinkingandmethodologyhavebeenapplied(orassomewouldargue,notapplied)tojustthoseelementsthatmakeusfullyhumananduniqueinnature'sdominion,theelementsthataremosthighlyprizedintheidealistictraditionTheseelementsincludethecreativitysoabundantlyfoundinmusic,language,andmathematics,forexampleamatterIshalllookintolaterwhichopensupcompellingnewperspectivesontheunderstandingofmind,inallitsrichnessandvarietyIwilldescribehowthefailurecameaboutandevaluatethecurrentsituation,beforeproposingremediesthatdonotabandontheidealsofrigorandprecisionthatarethehallmarksofgoodcognitivescienceWhatweknowofourselves,andoftheworldwelivein,isdeeplyconditionedbyourintellectualandsocialmilieuForcontemporaryeducatedmankindapredominantfactoristhescientificoutlook,thefairestfruitofwhatJacobBronowskicalledthe"Westernintellectualtradition"Thefirstgreatpinnacleinthescientificunderstandingofmindoccurred,asIhavealreadysuggested,withtheappearanceofAristotle'steachingsinthefourthcenturyBCTheyguided,andevenlargelycontrolled,thecognitionsofhumanity,includingthoseithadaboutitself,fortwomillenniaAnothergreatchangecameaboutwiththebeginningsofmodernphysicsandastronomysomeyearsago,culminatingin"Newton'sCentury"BertrandRussellremarkedthatinADtheeducatedEuropeanhadanessentiallymedievalworldview,epitomizedfortheEnglishspeakingworldinthedramasofShakespeareBytheoutlookwasinmostrespectsmodernandcenteredonunderstandingtheworldintermsofnaturallaw,anenormousstepforwardThisoverstatesthecasemorethanalittle,becausetheacceptedviewhumankindhadofitselfdidnotbegintochangedrasticallyuntilthemiddleofthenineteenthcentury,whenDarwincameonthesceneBytheendofthenineteenthcentury,however,scientificknowledgereallyhadprofoundlyaffectedmankind'sunderstandingofitself,butstillatafairlygenerallevelCognitivescientiststodaybelievethatyetanothergreatturningpointisuponusastheintellectualtoolsofmodernresearch,andthetechnologyithasspawned,arebroughttobearindetailonthehumanbrainandmindThishasbeencalledthelatestandmostexciting,ifnotnecessarilytheverylast,frontierofscientificexplorationEnormousadvancesinknowledgehavecertainlybeenmade,butthetechnicalandtheoreticalagentsthatbroughtthemabouthavealsoinmanywaysrestrictedhowwethinkaboutthefrontierIshallgiveabriefhistoricalaccountofthefield,toseewhatlessonscanbelearnedthereIshallshow,too,someoftheconceptualTHESCOPEOFCOGNITIVESCIENCElimitationsthathavecometodominatethefieldAswegoaboutourmainbusiness,whichistogainanappreciationofthenatureofcontemporarycognitivescienceandtheaccountitgivesofmentallife,Ishallarguestronglythatthecurrentvogueforareductionistic,materialisticconceptofmindwillneverleadustoaproperunderstandingoftherichness,variety,andcreativityofhumancognitionthataresoclearlyapparent,eventothecasualobserverThetriumphsofnaturalsciencehavebeensogreatastomakethedesiretostudyourselvesfromthatsamevantagepoint,andwiththesamemethods,almostoverwhelmingWhathasworkedsowellintheworldofnaturesurelycanbeappliedwithequalsuccesstoourselves,andspecificallytomindWeareafterallcreaturesofthenaturalworldandassucharesubjecttoitslawsEvenso,theprojectofstudyingmentalphenomenaempirically,experimentally,andfromamodernscientificviewpoint,isofcomparativelyrecentoriginExperimentalpsychologywasthedisciplinethatfirstattemptedthisItisnotmuchmorethanahundredyearsold,arelativenewcomerinscienceSinceaboutthemiddleofthetwentiethcenturyithasbeenjoinedinthescientificstudyofmindbyresearchersinotherdisciplines,notablylinguistics,computerscience(artificalintelligenceandrobotics),neuroscience,andcertainbranchesofphilosophyCollectivelytheresearchersengagedinthisenterprisecallthemselvescognitivescientists,andthereasearchtheyundertakecognitivescienceThisisajointventure,oftenundertakencooperatively,tounderstandandexplainmentallifealthoughexperimentalpsychologywasthefirstinthefield,manywouldarguethatitshouldnolongerbethoughtofasthecoreandcertainlynottheonlydisciplinecommittedtotheenterpriseThatisapointweshallonlybeinapositiontoevaluateinalaterchapterScience'sPictureofHumanNatureLetusconsidermorecloselythehistoryofscience'scontributiontotheunderstandingofmindImplicitinthenew"naturalphilosophy"ofthefifteenthcenturywastheideathattruthistobereadonlyinthebookofnatureandattainedbythepowerofhumanreasoning,ratherthantobefoundinthewritingsofAristotle,Galen,andtheChurchFathers,sofarastheearth,itsphysicallaws,andthe"GreatglobeitselfareconcernedGalileo'squarrelwiththeChurchhadeverythingtodowithwhoseauthoritywastohold:thatoftheecclesiasticalestablishmentorthatoftheevidenceofthesensesasinterpretedbythefreeintellectandproclaimedbythenewdiscoveriesofnaturalscienceIthadlittletodowiththequestionofman'sorigininthedivineworld,whichwasnotunderdisputeEveninNewton'sdaythepermeationofcivilizationbynewidealsofscientificknowledgethatwouldredefinetheimageofmantheappearanceofaneworthodoxyconcerninghisnaturaloriginsasopposedtothetheologicaldoctrineofhissupernaturalcreationlaysomewhereinthefutureDescartes()wasthefirstscientistofthetoprank

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*新书上架*勇敢的新心灵:精神生活的本质和意义的思想性研究

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