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首页 *新书上架*认知中的语言第一卷

*新书上架*认知中的语言第一卷.pdf

*新书上架*认知中的语言第一卷

九月虺
2009-08-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*认知中的语言第一卷pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

LanguageinCognitionLANGUAGEFROMWITHINInthisambitioustwovolumework,PieterSeurenseeksatheoreticalunitythatcanbridgethechasmsofmodernlinguisticsasheseesthem,bringingtogetherthelogical,thepsychological,andthepragmatictheempiricalandthetheoreticaltheformalistandtheempiricistandsituatingitallinthecontextoftwoandahalfmillenniaoflanguagestudypublishedVolumeI:LanguageinCognitioninpreparationVolumeII:TheLogicofLanguageLanguageinCognitionPIETERAMSEURENGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©PieterSeurenThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethesameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableTypesetbySPIPublisherServices,Pondicherry,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyCPIAntonyRowe,Chippenham,WiltshireISBN––––toPimLeveltforhisunfailingsupport,adviceandfriendshipThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsPrefacexiIntroductionThegistNaturalontologyNaturalcognitionandnaturallogicThetwovolumesThemethodCognitiverealismGrammaticalandsemanticformalismGrammaticalformalismSemanticformalismThevariousformsofecologismIntrospectionversusunderlyingsystem:cognitivismPragmatics:itsstrengthanditsweaknessesFunctionalismingrammarandthestatusofdataThe‘innatehypothesis’andthegenesisoflanguageThe‘innatehypothesis’ThegenesisoflanguageVirtualrealityThecreativemindaspartandcreatorofontologyNaturalhumanontologyisbasicallyintensionalThesocialrealityoflanguagesanddialectsTherealityofvirtualbeingBacktoMeinongandRussellTheepistemologicalargumentPropositionsandtruthWhatisapropositionThegeneralconceptofpropositionSomehistoryofthetermpropositionReificationsandvirtualobjectsThetype–tokendistinction:eternalversusoccasionsentencesviiiContentsAnchoringforinterpretabilityandkeyingfortruthtestingConfusionaroundsubjectandpredicate:topic–commentstructureTruth,lexicalsatisfactionconditions,andvaluationspacesTruthSatisfactionconditionsforthepredicatetrueValuationspacesTheroleofcognitionintheemergenceoftruthvaluesTheuntenabilityofthePrincipleofCognitiveIndependenceReferenceandtheOSTAPrincipleExistentialimportisdeterminedbythelexiconExtensionalityandintensionalityoftermpositionsThereferencehierarchyandacorollaryforpredicatelogicSpeechacts:sociallybindingforceTheemergenceofspeechacttheorySpeechactscreatesocialrealityTruthconditionsandliabilityconditionsThesociallybindingforcemoreprimitivethanthepropositionThelinguisticrealityofthespeechactoperatorRoss’s()performativehypothesisOtherargumentsforthelinguisticrealityofthespeechactoperatorThelogicalconnectivesfromaspeechactpointofviewIntensionalizationTheproblemstated‘Cecin’estpasunepipe’:confusionbetweenobjectandrepresentationThetruthaboutSherlockHolmesandCy:tacitintensionaloperatorsImplicitintensionalizationSubstitutivity,identity,andthevalueassigningpredicateBevUnicornsandritualcats:virtualobjectattraction(VOA)NonspecificreadingsandprelexicalsyntaxTherearewingedhorsesbutnoteverythingiswaterContentsixExtensionsandintensions:language,mindandworldFrege’sanalysisandthestandardsystemAnalternativesolutiontoFrege’sproblemActualandvirtualobjectsActualandvirtualÒvaluesfornominaltermsPossibleÒvaluesforStermsandsubstitutivityActualandvirtualfactsasÒvaluesPropositionalandLpropositionalÒvaluesandsubstitutivityTheecologyandmachineryoflanguageTheecologyofmind,language,andworldDeSaussure’sspeechcircuitOgdenandRichards’semiotictriangleThesemioticarchitectureinamodernperspectiveIsthereaselfcontainedmodularcomplexforlanguageClaim:speechproductionismodularEvidenceandpossiblecounterevidenceforgrammarastopdownmodulesIscomprehensionalsomodularThemachineryoftruthvalueassignmentSentencemeaningandlexicalmeaningSigns,sentencemeaning,andtokeninterpretationLexicalmeaningWhatislexicalmeaningThelexiconandcognition:thequaliaproblemAlllexicalwordsarepredicatesWordmeaningsassatisfactionconditionsThemetalanguageproblem:thecircleofsynonymyKatzandFodor()Pustejovsky()LexicaldecompositionPrelexicalsyntaxCriticismsofprelexicalsyntaxCaseshiftandotherargumentsforprelexicalsyntaxLexicallyincorporatednegationFodor’sglobalcognitivistapproachtolexicalmeaningPrototypicalityxContentsVagariesoflexicalmeaningCognitionasthemaindisturberoftheformalpeaceDerivationandcompoundingVaguenessandnonintersectivityinadjectivalpredicatesPresuppositionalaspectsoflexicalmeaningMetaphorPolysemyas‘semanticrelatedness’Whatis‘semanticrelatedness’Lexicalambiguity,homonymy,andspecializationDynamicfilteringSemanticspecializationofdoubletsandsynonymsFurthercognitiveelementsinlexicalmeaningsHigherorderpredicatesBibliographyIndexPrefaceThepresentbookisthefruitofmanyyearsof,largelyindependent,thinking,probing,investigating,andtryingtogainagraspofthoseissuesinthestudyofhumanlanguagethathaveprovedtobemostresistanttoscientificunderstandingItbringstogetherawidevarietyofissuesthatareonlyrarelyintegratedintoacomprehensivetheory,yetarealldirectlyrelevanttoanoverallinsightintothenatureoflanguageandspeechandintothedisciplinesconcernedwiththemItdoesso,moreover,inahistoricalperspective,becausethestudyoflanguagehasalongpastbutnotonethathasbeencumulativeinthesensethatresults,onceattained,becameaccepteddoctrineOnthecontrary,valuableandinterestinginsightshaveoftenbeenlostandmoreblinkeredviewshaveoftencarriedthetransientday,ourdayincludedAsthereaderwillquicklydiscover,thebookis,onthewhole,tentativeandexploratory,pointingtotheneedforfurtherresearchManyquestionsareleftopenandmanyproposedanswersarepresentedashypotheticalorsuggestiveButquiteafewoftheseopenorhalfopenquestionshaveneverbeenmootedeventhough,onceformulated,theyareseentotouchonrealissuesPerhapsIshouldhavewaitedevenlongerandletthewholecomplexofquestionsmatureevenmorebeforeproceedingtopublication,butsinceIamnolonger,tospeakwithDante,‘nelmezzodelcammindinostravita’butrather,inthenatureofthings,approachingtheendofit,IhavedecidedtopresentwhatIhaveinthewayofconsideredthoughtsonthematter,inthehopethatothers,youngerthanme,willtakeoverandcontributetheirperspectivesandtheirexpertiseThetwovolumesbeforeyouare,thoughtheyhavesprungfromonesinglesourceofinspiration,verydifferentincharacterVolumeIisnotverytechnicalorformalbutratherofadiscursivenature,exploringandreassessingthemethodological,ontological,andcognitiveaspectsofthestudyoflanguage,inparticularthestudyofmeaningVolumeII,bycontrast,takesthereaderintothemoretechnicalaspectsoflogicanddiscourseincrementation,withonlythehistoricalsectionsofferingsomerespiteIhavedonemyutmosttomakethetextaccessibletolesstechnicallytrainedreaders,devotingconsiderablespacetothebasicnotionsandmotivations,butIdorealizethatreaderswithoutanyprevioustraininginlogicandsettheorywillhavedifficultyfollowingtheargumentsandanalysesIregretthis,ofcourse,andallIcanxiiPrefacesayisthatitonlytakesanelementaryfamiliaritywithlogicalnotionsandnotationstogainanadequategraspofwhatisproposedinVolumeIIAndIpromisethatitisworththeeffortThebookemphasizesthefactthatlinguisticstudiesmustbebasicallyecologisticarequirementthatoftenstandsinthewayoffullyformalizedtheories,eventhoughaformalpresentationoftheanalysesandtheoriesdevelopedremainstheultimateaimForthatreason,phenomenathathavesofarresistedformaltreatmentaresystematicallyhighlightedaswarningsignalsforthoseformalistswhothinkthatthestudyoflanguagestopswheretheirformalismsstopThosewhoarewillingtotakesometimeofffromthedailyfrayoftheirworkwillfinditrewardingtobemadetorealizethatvastsectionsoftheterrainstillresistexactanalysis,notonlybecauseofthenatureofthematerialdealtwith,whichisoftentoovastandtoodivergenttobecapturedinaformaltheory,butalsobecausetherightperspectiveforafruitfulformalizationhasnotsofarbeendetectedInVolumeIthegroundispreparedforthedevelopmentofsuchnewperspectives,whileVolumeIIpresentsafeweffortsattheactualdesigningoffruitfulnovelformalizationsinthelightofthemIwishtoexpressmygratitudetothosewhowerekindenoughtoreaddraftsofchaptersanddiscussthemwithme,lettingmehavethebenefitoftheircriticismsandsuggestions,andtheirencouragementFirstandforemost,Imustmentionmyfriendoffortyyears’standingPimLevelt,towhomIhavededicatedthisbookIowehimagreatdebtofgratitude,bothpersonallyandprofessionally,notleastbecausehemadeitpossibleformetoworkattheMaxPlanckInstituteforPsycholinguisticsatNijmegenaftermyretirementfromNijmegenUniversityHiscontinuoussupporthelpedmeovermanyaboutoffailingcourageandconfidenceImustalsothankmycolleaguesattheMaxPlanckInstitute,inparticularPeterHagoortandJosvanBerkum,wholookedovermyshoulderwhenIwroteaboutthenewneuroimagingtechniques,whichtomearestillabafflingterraincognitaIamindebtedtoCharlesCollieroftheUniversityofFlorida,LevinCollegeofLaw,whoseincisiveandinspiringcommentsonthechaptersonspeechactsandmeaningwereofgreathelpThenImustmentionmyfriendandcolleagueDanyJaspersoftheUniversityofBrussels,whosewideknowledge,wellformulatedcomments,andinfectiousenthusiasmwereaconstantsourceofinspirationFerdinandoCavalieremademanyusefulsuggestionsregardingpredicatelogicanditshistoryAsregardsthefunctionandtheimportanceofthelexicon,IfoundakindredsoulinmycolleagueRobSchreuder,headoftheInterfacultyResearchUnitforLanguageandSpeechIamalsoindebtedtomyformerstudentCorBurgerPrefacexiiiwhoprovidedmewiththemostvaluableinputontherelationbetweenRussellandMeinong,describedinChapterofVolumeIThemanyotherswhohavehelpedmecarryonbygivingtheirintellectual,moral,andpersonalsupportaretoonumeroustobementionedindividuallyYetmygratitudetothemisnonethelessforthatPAMSNijmegen,ThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionThegistInthisbook,aradicallynewperspectiveispresentedonthestudyoflinguisticmeaning,theplaceoflogicinlanguageandtheembeddingoflanguageincognitionItdoesnotofferafullformaltheoryoflanguage,butitdoespresentanewanalysisofthemainparametersinvolved,pointingthewaytowardsafreshexplorationoftheterritoryandindicatingtheareasthatareopentofullformalization,givenavailabletechniques,nexttothosethathavesofarresistedformalizationThecentralinnovatingelementisasystematicrecognitionofthemindasthepivotalfactorinlanguageandmeaning,alongwiththeintroductionofthepersonastheholderofrights,duties,andresponsibilitiesanaspectwhichhaslikewisebeenneglectedinexistingtheoriesoflanguageandiselaboratedinChapterThosewhohavethestaminatoreadthroughthepresentbookwillfindthatsomeofthecentraltenetsoftwentiethcenturyAngloSaxonphilosophyarearguedtobebasicallyflawed,preciselybecausethemindisnotgivenitsdueMatterscometoaheadinVolumeII,wherestandardlogic,whichhasacquireduniqueprestigeduringthetwentiethcenturyandformsthebasisofformalsemanticswhilebeingtakenforgrantedbythepragmaticists,isdeprivedofitsinviolatestatusItisshownthatthereisaninfinitegamutofvalidlogics,dependingontheaxiomsadoptedandonthesemanticdefinitionofthelogicalconstantsemployedafactthatthrowsthequestionofthelogicoflanguagewideopenandmakesitanempiricalquestionThisrequiresathoroughrevisionoftheaxiomsandothertenetsconsideredsacrosanctinlogicanexercisethatbringsunexpectedrewardsThroughoutthetwovolumes,theintellectualtraditionsofthepast,largelyforgottenbytoday’sprotagonists,arerevivedandshowntocontainunexpectedtreasuresthatarecruciallyrelevanttotheissuesathandNaturalontologyAsfarasIcansee,therearetwoaspectsofcognitionwhoseneglecthasbeenmostdamagingtothestudyofmeaning,anontologicalandaLanguageinCognitionlogicomathematicalaspectAsregardstheontologicalaspect,thebasicpointisthetrivialobservationthatwhenwespeakwespeakaboutsomething,orelsewedonotspeakThisseemsobviousenough,butitgivesrisetothequestionofthenatureofthethingswespeakaboutDoweonlyspeakaboutthingsthatreallyexistintheactualworld,ordowealsospeakaboutthingsthatdonotexistintheactualworldbutaremerelythoughtup,eitherasthoughtupindividualsorasabstractionsorreificationsAndifwetaketheviewthatwealsospeakaboutnonexistentthings,whatsortofthingsarethingsthatdonotexistItdoesnottakemuchreflectiontoseethatwespeakabout,andquantifyover,thingsandsituationsthatarenotpartoftheactualworldwiththesameeaseandnaturalnessaswedoaboutthingsandsituationsthatareWeare,onthewhole,acutelyawareofthedifferencebetweenwhatweconsidertoactuallyexistorbethecaseandwhatwetakemerelytohavebeenconjuredupinourmindsInfact,muchofourpracticalandintellectualeffortisdirectedatestablishingwhethersomethingthathasbeenthoughtupactuallyexistsoractuallyisthecaseButthefactisthatwerefertoandquantifyoverthoughtupentities,andwereportonthoughtupsituations,asnaturallyaswedoaboutactuallyexistingentitiesandrealsituationsOneonlyhastogothroughanordinarytexttoseethatalargeportionofthereferencesmadearereferencestoabstractions,reifications,orthoughtupobjects,whichmayagainbethoughtupabstractionsorreificationsGloballyspeaking,our,onthewholeuncontroversial,positionisthathumansdistinguishbetweenthingsorsituationsthataretakentobeactuallythereandthingsorsituationsthatarenotbecausetheyarerecognizedasbeingnomorethantheproductsofour(verycreative)powersofimaginationandcognitiverepresentationButthisfact,thoughobvious,isnotrecognizedatallintheformalstudyofmeaningasitispractisedtodayAnd,aswillbecomeclearinthecourseofthisbook,thishasseriousconsequencesforatheoryofmeaningandforareconstructionofthenaturallogicoflanguageandcognitionThereisagreatdealoftalkabout‘possibleworlds’and,yes,thereisanintensionallogicmeanttotakecareofunrealthingsandsituations,butthemindisnevermentionedinthiscontextWhatispresentedas‘intensionallogic’is,infact,ageneralizationofextensional,actualworldrelated,logicoverilldefined‘possibleworlds’thatareseenasmathematicalabstractionsbutsubjecttotherestrictionsandprinciplesoftheworldthatexistsWhatisnotpresented,thoughitshouldbe,isanaccountofhowtheminddealswiththoughtupentitiesandsituationsIfsuchanaccountwerepresented,itwouldmakeclearthatthoughtupentitiesandsituationsbehaveverydifferentlyfromthosethatarerecognizedasbeingactualMoreover,ithasbeenIntroductionknownforalmostthirtyyearsthatthis‘programmeofextensionalizationofintensions’irredeemablyfoundersoversubstitutioninintensionalcontexts,asisexplainedinSectionsandSothefirstthingthatisneededisafullrecognitionofthefactthatwe,humans,speaknotonlyaboutactualbutalsoaboutthoughtupthingsandsituationsandthatthesearenotsubjecttoRussellianandQuineanontologicalprinciplesExistingformaltheoriesofmeaninghavesofarbeenunabletoprovideanadequateaccountofthisfactAnenormousobstacle,inthisrespect,ispresentedbytheontologicalviewsthataredominantintheAngloSaxonworld,accordingtowhichnothingisunlessitisactualandthuseitherhasindividualexistenceorisreducibletothingsthathave(orhad)actualexistenceThemainchampionsofthisbrandofontologyweretheinfluentialtwentiethcenturyphilosophersBertrandRussellandWillardVanOrmanQuineBotharethebuttofseverecriticisminChapter,wheretheKantianpositionisdefendedthatthereisnowayofprovingtherealstatusandrealnatureofwhatis‘outthere’becauseallweknowandcanknowabouttheworldisfilteredthroughthemindHence,anyontologicaltheorythatpretendsto

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