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首页 【齐泽克】齐泽克对话集

【齐泽克】齐泽克对话集.pdf

【齐泽克】齐泽克对话集

九月虺
2009-08-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【齐泽克】齐泽克对话集pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ConversationswithZiiekSlavojZizekandGlynDalypolityCopyright©SlavojZizekandGlynDalyTherightofSlavojZizekandGlynDalytobeidentifiedasAuthorsofthisWorkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeUKCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedinbyPolityPressinassociationwithBlackwellPublishingLtdEditorialoffice:PolityPressBridgeStreetCambridgeCBUR,UKMarketingandproduction:BlackwellPublishingLtdCowleyRoadOxfordOXUP,UKDistributedintheUSAbyBlackwellPublishingIncMainStreetMalden,MA,USAAllrightsreservedExceptforthequotationofshortpassagesforthepurposesofcriticismand·review,nop�rtofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherISBN:ISBN:(pb)AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryandhasbeenappliedforfromtheLibraryofCongressTypesetinonptBerlingbySNPBestsetTypesetterLtdHongKongPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyMPGBooks,Bodmin,CornwallForfurtherinformationonPolity,visitourwebsite:wwwpolitycoukContentsIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibleConversationOpeningtheSpaceofPhilosophyConversationTheMadnessofReason:EncountersoftheRealKindConversationSubjectsofModernity:VirtualityandtheFragilityoftheRealConversationToleranceandtheIntolerable:Enjoyment,EthicsandEventConversationMiraclesDoHappen:Globalization(s)andPoliticsBibliographyIndexIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibleGlynDalyAnanecdotebyLacanrecountsachanceremarkmadebyFreudtoJungFollowinganinvitationfromClarkUniversity,thetwopsychoanalyststravelledtotheUnitedStatesanduponarrivalinNewYorkharbourFreudgesturedtowardstheStatueofLibertyandsaid,'Theydon'trealizethatwe'rebringingthemtheplague'Intoday'sworldwemightsaysomethingsimilaraboutZiZekThatistosay,inthecontextoftheplatitudesandtritenessofapredominantlypostmod­erncultureZiZekrepresentsthephilosophicalequivalentofavirulentplagueorperhaps,toupdatethemetaphor,acom­puterviruswhosepurposeistodisruptthecomfortableappearancesofwhatmightbecalledthematrixofglobal­liberalcapitalismContinuinginacertainCartesiantradi­tion,whatZiZekinfectsuswithisafundamentaldoubtabouttheverypresuppositionsofoursocialrealityButthisismerelythestartingpointofamuchwiderethicopoliticalengagementwitharadicalemancipatoryuniversalismonethatiscapableoftakingontheincreasinglyprohibitivenatureofcontemporarycapitalismanditscorrespondingformsofpoliticalcorrectnessand'multiculturalism'IZitek'sworkhasbeenattheforefrontofphilosophical,politicalandculturaldebateformorethanadecadeFromthetheoryofideologytothecritiqueofsubjectivity,ethics,globalization,cyberspace,filmstudies,cognitivism,theology,musicandopera,Zitek'sinfluenceextendsfarandwideandhisinterventionscontinuetoprovokecontroversyandtoIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibletransformthewaywethinkabouttheseandothertopicsTopickupatextbyZitekistobeconfrontedwithaheadymixofelements:boldpropositions,bravuraofstyleandanintellectualaudaciousnessthatdoesnotflinchfrommovingbetweentheheightsofconceptualabstractionsandtheseeminglybaseandvoluptuaryaspectsofpopularandsen­suouslifeThelatterhoweverisnotsimplyanexerciseincerebralpyrotechnicsbutaimsatsomethingmorepreciseIndeed,wemightcharacterizeZitek'sdiscourseasanongoingdemonstrationoftheinextricableconnectionbetweenwhatmightbecalledthelevelsofthedivine,oreternal,andourimmediatelivedrealitiesFromKanttocun­nilingusZitekseekstoremindusthat,intheHegeliansense,thespiritisalwaysaboneandthatwecannotseparatethemostintimateofphysicalexperiencesfromtheirtranscen­dentaldimensionsItwouldbefutiletotryandsummarizetheworkofsomeonewhoiswithoutdoubtoneofthemostprolificandprodigiousthinkersofour'ageInthisbriefintroductionIwillinsteadfocusoncertainfundamentalthemesthatrunthroughoutJiek'sthoughtandelaboratetheseinthecontextofhismorerecent,andongoing,interventionsinphilosophicoculturalandpoliticallifeTheconstitutivemadnessofbeingTheZitekianparadigmifwecanspeakofitinthosetermsdrawsitsvitalityfromtwomainphilosophicalsources:GermanidealismandpsychoanalysisInbothcases,Ziiek'scentralconcerniswithacertainfailureexcessintheorderofbeingInGermanidealismthisaspectismadeincreasinglyexplicitthroughreferencetowhatcanbecalledanunac­countable'madness'thatisinherentto,andconstitutiveof,cogitoandsubjectivityassuchForKantthisisthedimensionof'diabolicalEvil'whileforSchellingandHegelitisthe'nightoftheself'andthe'nightoftheworld'respectivelyIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibleThepointisthat,ineachofthesecases,thereisanincreas­ingemphasisonnegativityasthefundamental(andineradi­cable)backgroundtoallbeingAsZiiekmakesclearinTheTicklishSubject,whatGermanidealismaccomplishesisadisplacementoftheusualoppo­sitionbetweentheideaofthesavage'prehuman'selfandthesymbolicuniverseof'civilized'humansubjectivity(whereintheEnlightenmenttraditionthelatterisidentifiedwiththeLightofReasonandassomethingwhichaffectsanultimatemastery,orpacification,overtheformer)Instead,whatisaffirmedisaviewofsubjectivitythatcanonlycomeintobeingasapassagethroughmadnessasanongoingattempttoimposeasymbolicintegrityagainsttheever­presentthreatofdisintegrationandnegativity(Jiek,:)Inpsychoanalysisthisthematicaspectofdislocatedsub­jectivityisdevelopedfurtherinrespectoftheFreudiannotionofdeathdriveDeathdriveemergespreciselyasaresultofthisgapintheorderofbeingagapthatsimulta­nebuslydesignatestheradicalautonomyofthesubjectandissomethingthatconstantlythreatenstosabotageorover­whelmthesymbolicframeworkofsubjectivityInFreudthecategoryofdeathisnotsimplyacancellationbutrefersrathertothe(immortal)dimensioninsubjectivitythatper­sistsbeyondmereexistenceorbiologicallifeAsJiekputsit:'Humanlifeisnever"justlife,"itisalwayssustainedbyanexcessoflife'(Jiek,:)ThisexcessoflifeisdeathdriveAnditisinthecontextofthelatterthatbothFreudand(especially)Lacanidentifythepeculiarlyhumanmoti­vationinregardtojouissance:thatis,abasiccompulsiontoenjoytoachieveconsummatesatisfactionandtherebyhealthegap,or'wound',intheorderofbeingThehumanconditionismarkedbyaneternalandimpos­sibleattempttobringaboutsomesortofresolutiontothisdriveaparadoxicaldrivetoresolvedriveassuchInthisway,drivebecomesattachedtocertain'objectsofexcess'(theidealexperience,lifestyle,possessionetc)Lacan'sobjetspetitathatholdthepromiseof,atleastpartial,fulfilmentIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossiblebutwhichcanneverfullydeliveritinaonceandforallwayTheobjetspetitaexistinapermanentstateofdisplacementandarealwayselsewhereItisinthesetermsthatZiiekinsistsonaLacanianread­ingofthesubjectIncertainpoststructuralistanddecon­structivistcircleswheretheemphasisisonanotionofmultiplebeingthatisalwaysprovisionallyconfiguredwithinslidingplanesofdifrancetheideaofthesubjecthasbecomeratherunfashionableasitallegedlyconjuresuptheimageofaunifiedCartesianidentityorsomekindofcentretosubjectivityButasZiiekhasconsistentlystressed,thesubjectisneitherasubstantialentitynoraspecificlocusRather,thesubjectexistsasaneternaldimensionofresistanceexcesstowardsallformsofsubjectivation(orwhatAlthusserwouldcallinterpellation)Thesubjectisabasicconstitutivevoidthatdrivessubjectivationbutwhichcannotultimatelybefilledoutbyit(Ziiek,:)Itissimul­taneouslythelackandtheleftoverinallformsofsubjecti­vationThisiswhytheLacanianmarkforthesubjectis$(the'barred',emptysubject)Thesubjectcannotfindits'name'inthesymbolicorderorachievefullontologicaliden­tityUsingLacan'sexpression,thesubjectalwaysremainsasa'bonestuckinthethroatofthesignifier'AndinsofarasthesubjectislinkedwiththeradicalnegativityofthedeathdriveitalsoreflectsthesamekindoftensionidentifiedinGermanidealismThusthesubjectisboththemovementawayfromsubjectivationtheexcessthatengulfssymboliccoherenceinanentropicnightoftheworldandtheverydrivetowardssubjectivationasawayofescapingsuchacon­dition(Ziiek,:)InthissenseidentificationisalwaysstructuredintermsofacertainbeingtowardsmadnessAscenefromScott'sBladerunnerprovidesausefulexampleUsingthe'voigtkampff'machine,Deckard(HarrisonFord)interrogatesRachel(SeanYoung)attheTyrellCorporationinordertotestherempathicresponsesandtherebytoestablishwhethersheistrulyhumanoramanufactured'replicant'Rachel'sanswersareslickandsurefireandindicatewellroundedsubjectivationThefinalIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossiblequestion,however,leavesRachelflounderinginastateofconfusionasshecannotfindapointofpositiveidentification(inthesymbolicorder)andthemachineregistersachillingwipeoutthevoidof$Whatiscompellingaboutthesceneisthat,farfromseparatingRachel(andtheotherreplicants)from'us',itservestounderscoreherhumanconditionasabeingwhosesubjectivationispronetofailureandnegativedistortionItispreciselythismalfunctioningelement(thebonestuckinthesymbolicorder)thatconfershumanstatusThuswhatismaskedinthisprojectionoffailureontoRachelisthetraumaticknowledgethatitis'us'whocannotresolvethequestionof'whoamI'inanultimatesenseorcom­pletelyfilloutthevoidof$Atthesametime,itisthroughthisveryresistanceexcesstowardssubjectivationandtheconsequentdrivetoresolveimpossiblequestionsconcerningidentity,destiny,divinityandsoonthathumanbeingsareessentiallyopentothepossibilityofdevelopingnewformsofsubjectivationInthisway,thesubjectisboththetranscendentalconditionofpossibilityandimpossibilityforallformsofcontingentsubjectivationAnditisinterestingtoseehowthesubjectpersistsevenmoreobstinatelyinthecontextoftoday'sattemptstoeithereradicateorsupersedeitTwoexamplesareinformativehereIndeconstructionistphilosophy,Derridahastendedtorejecttheideaofthesubjectinfavourofaconceptionofsubjec­tivitythatisbasedonakindofephemeraldecisionism(themultiformprocessesofbecomingunbecoming)thatcannotfindanultimateedgeInsupportofthis,DerridareferstoKierkegaardandhisfamousassertionthat'themomentofthedecisionisthemomentofmadness'FromaLacanianperspective,however,itispreciselythismomentofmadnessthatmarkstheconstitutivedimensionofthesubjectInbiogenetics,bycontrast,thereisnowthecapabilityofdeterminingthehumangenomeandourbasicDNAcoordi­natesYetitispreciselyatthispointoftotaldisclosurethatthemysterydeepensandwearedrawnmoreandmoreintoconfrontationwiththeveryincapacitytorepresentorresolveIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossiblethegapbetweensubjectivationandthatwhichconstantlyoverflowsit:deathdriveanditscharacteristicformsofanimus,impulsion,desireandsoonFarfromcapturingtheessenceofthehumanbeing,aparadoxicalresultofbio­geneticsisthatitbringsusintoincreasingproximitywiththevery'inhuman'excessesthatareconstitutiveofhumanityassuchtheLacanian'inusmorethanus'andwhichtestifytotheineradicablenatureofthesubjectDimensionsoftheRealThroughawideninganalysisofdeathdriveandthevariousaspectsofnegativitythatareinherenttobeing,thelaterLacanadvancedhiscrucialgenericformulationoftheRealUndertheleadershipofJAMiller,theconceptoftheRealhasbeenatthecentreoftheParisbased'newschoolofpsy­choanalysis'inwhichZi:tekhasplayedakeyroleLacanidentifiestheRealinrelation,totwootherbasicdimensionsthesymbolicandtheimaginaryandtogethertheseconstitutethetriadic(Borromean)structureofallbeingForLacan,whatwecall'reality'isarticulatedthroughsignification(thesymbolic)andthecharacteristicpatterningofimages(theimaginary)Strictlyspeakingboththesymbolicandtheimaginaryfunctionwithintheorderofsig­nificationAswithEinstein's'general'and'special'theoryofrelativity,theimaginarymayberegardedasaspecialcaseofSignificationWhatdifferentiatesthemisthatwhilethesym­bolicisinprincipleopenended,theimaginaryseekstodomesticatethisopenendednessthroughtheimpositionofafantasmaticlandscapethatispeculiartoeachindividualInotherwords,theimaginaryarreststhesymbolicaroundcertainfundamentalfantasiesAsanillustrationofthis,Zi:tek(:)takestherelationshipbetweenHannibalLecter(AnthonyHopkins)andClariceStarling(JodieFoster)atthecentreofDemme'sfilm,TheSilenceoftheLambsInacloseapproximationtoaLacanianpsychoanalyst,whatLecterIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibleseekstodiscoveristhespecificwayinwhichthesymbolicuniverseofStarlingisstructured(intendentialtermsatleast)aroundafundamentalfantasythecryingofthelambsandthefailedattempttorescueoneofthemThepointisthatStarlingmakessenseofherworld(sheisabletonarratesym­bolically'whosheis'fortheOther)preciselythroughacertainarrestingfantasyattheleveloftheimaginaryInthisway,thefantasyimaginarydimensionisdrawnintofocusatthose(nodal)pointswhereweexpecttobetakenmostseri­ouslyinrespectofthemythicalnarrationofwhowereallyare('itwasinthatmomentthatIknewIwantedtobe')TheReal,bycontrast,doesnotbelongtothe(symbolic­imaginary)orderofsignificationbutispreciselythatwhichnegatesthelatterthatwhichcannotbeincorporatedwithinsuchanorderTheRealpersistsasaneternaldimensionoflackandeverysymbolicimaginaryconstructionexistsasacertainhistoricalanswertothatbasiclackTheRealalwaysfunctionsinsuchawaythatitimposeslimitsofnegationon'nysignifying(discursive)orderandyetthroughtheveryimpositionofsuchlimitsitservessimultaneouslytocon­stitutestlchanorderTheRealinthissenseisstrictlyinher­enttosignification:itisboththeunsurpassablehorizonofnegativityforanysystemofsignificationanditsverycondi­tionofpossibilityWhiletheReal,bydefinition,cannotbedirectlyrepre­sented,itcannonethelessbealludedtoincertainfigurativeembodimentsofhQrrorexcessInZiZek'sfamousexample,itisalludedtointhemonsterfromScott'sfilm,Alien,whosebloodliterallydissolvesthefabricofreality(ZiZek,:)AndjustastheunityoftheprotagonistsinthisfilmisconstitutedagainstthethreatoftheAlien,sorealityitselfisalwaysconstructedasanattempttoestablishabasicconsis­tencyagainstthedisintegrativeeffectsoftheRealJustasbeingmaybeunderstoodasbeingtowardsmadness,realityisalwaysrealitytowardstheRealEveryformof(symbolic­imaginary)realityexistsasanimpossibleattempttoescapethevariousmanifestationsoftheRealthatthreatensdisinte­grationofonekindoranother:trauma,loss,anxietyandsoonIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibleIn:bZek'searlyworkstheRealtendedtobecharacterizedintermsofsomekindofforceofnegation(theAlien,theMedusa'shead,forcesofnatureandsoon)Inthelaterworks,howeveregTheTicklishSubject,TheFragileAbsoluteandOnBelief:bZekhasbeenconcernedtoemphasizethemoresubtledimensionsoftheRealThustheRealdoesnotsimplyfunctionasanexternal(hard)limittosignification,italsoplaysamoreintangibleroleonprovidingacertaininvis­ibleimmanenttwistthatgivesshapeandtexturetorealityTakingananalogyfromart,thisintangibleRealcouldbesaidtofunctionlikethe'vanishingpoint':iesomethingthatcannotberepresentedbutwhichisnonethelessconstitutiveofrepresentationInquantumphysics,bycontrast,theRealwouldbethecurvaturespace:somethingthatcannotbedimensionallydeterminedbutwhichcreatestheconditionsofpossibilityfordimensionalityassuchOr,ifwetakeLuhmann'ssystemstheory,theRealispresentintermsoftheconstitutiveparadoxwherebyasystemisabletoestab­lishitsformsofinternalcoherenceandunityonlyinsofarasitcannotsystematizeitsownprinciplesofconstitutionThepointisthattheRealshouldnotbeidentifiedexclusivelyasanexplicitforceofnegationitalsoplaysamoreimplicitandevanescentroleintheconstructionofoureverydayformsofsocialrealityItisinthiscontextthat:bZekhasengagedinacertain'deconstruction'oftherealsymbolicimaginarytriad,suchthateachofthesetermsshouldberegardedasfractallyinte­gratedormappedontoeachotherInthecaseoftheRealthenwehavetherealReal,thesymbolicRealandtheimaginaryReal(:bZek,:)TherealRealistheshat­teringexperienceofnegation(themeteors,monstersandmaelstromsoftrauma)ThesymbolicReal,bycontrast,referstotheanonymouscodesandorstructures(vanishingpoints,spacecurvature,scientificformulaeandsoon)thataremeaninglessinthemselvesandsimplyfunctionasthebasicabstract'texture'ontowhich(oroutofwhich)realityisconstituted:bZekarguesthatinthecontemporaryeraitiscapitalitselfthatestablishestheessentialbackdropIntroduction:RiskingtheImpossibletorealityandwhich,therefore,mayberegardedasthesymbolicRealofourtimes(Zitek,:)InthiswaythenewcyberstockmarketswiththeirconstantdigitaloutputcanbeseentofunctionasakindoforacularnetworkofsacredinformationthatinanabstractindifferentwaydeterminesthefateoftheEnrons,theWorldcomsandentirenationalandinternationalmarketsFinallywehavetheimaginaryRealinwhichagainthereisanemphasisonaninvisibleimmanenttwistthatgivesstructureandspecificitytotheimaginaryrealmThe(imag­inary)dreamlandscapeisaclearexampleofthisIndreamsthereisoftenasenseofinfinitepossibilityHowever,whereoneencountersaparticularimageofhorrorexcess(animma­nentmarkerof

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【齐泽克】齐泽克对话集

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