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首页 *新书上架*【马基雅弗利研究】卓越品质的解禁:马基雅弗利对色诺芬及政治的道德基础的批判

*新书上架*【马基雅弗利研究】卓越品质的解禁:马基雅弗利对色诺芬及政治的道德基础的批判.pdf

*新书上架*【马基雅弗利研究】卓越品质的解禁:马基雅弗利对色诺…

九月虺
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简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【马基雅弗利研究】卓越品质的解禁:马基雅弗利对色诺芬及政治的道德基础的批判pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

EXCELLENCEUNLEASHEDRASMUSSENEXCELLENCEUNLEASHEDPAULJRASMUSSENMACHIAVELLI’SCRITIQUEOFXENOPHONANDTHEMORALFOUNDATIONOFPOLITICS“Whenitcomestothequalitiescharacteristicofcontemporaryacademicwriting,lucidityisintheunderrepresentedminorityPaulJRasmussen’sproseexemplifiesthisvirtueasitexplorestwoauthorswhodelightusevenastheyquickenourthoughtsHiscrispformulationsmakefamiliarpointsseemnew,andhethengoesbeyondthembyestablishingsuchnewconnectionsastherelationshipbetweenMachiavelli’scritiqueofXenophonandhiscritiqueofChristianityThistourdeforceisaccuratelydescribedbyitsowntitle”WAYNEAMBLER,directoroftheHerbstProgramofHumanitiesattheUniversityofColoradoatBoulder“ExcellenceUnleashedisafinecomparisonofMachiavelliandhisfavoriteclassicalauthor,Xenophon,thatislongoverduePaulJRasmussenaccompanieshiscarefulanalysiswithusefulstricturesandshrewdinsights”HARVEYCMANSFIELD,professorofgovernmentatHarvardUniversityWhatisMachiavelli’splaceinthehistoryofpoliticalthoughtDidheseektorevivethecivicvirtuesespousedbyancientGreekandRomanpoliticaltheorists,orwasheanintellectualrebelwhoseradicalcritiqueoftheclassicalphilosophictraditionmadehimaharbingerofthemoderneraAlmosteverysignificantbookonMachiavellisincethebeginningofthetwentiethcenturyhasaddressedthequestionofhisrelationtoclassicalthoughtinoneformoranotherYettherehasneverbeenacomprehensivestudyoftherelationshipbetweenMachiavelliandXenophon,theclassicalpoliticaltheoristwhoseshrewdanalysisofeffectivepoliticscomesclosesttoMachiavelli’sExcellenceUnleashedisadetailedcomparisonofMachiavelliandXenophon’spoliticalphilosophy,focusingonXenophon’sEducationofCyrusandHieroorOnTyranny,andMachiavelli’sThePrinceandDiscoursesonLivyThisstudyexaminesanumberofmajorthemesessentialtobothwriters:themoralandpoliticalrequirementsofhealthyrepublicsimperialexpansiontherelationshipbetweenhumannature,politics,andvirtuetheroleofreligioninpoliticsthedistinctionbetweenlegitimateandillegitimateruleandtheinfluenceofphilosophyonpoliticsByelucidatingtheremarkablescope,depth,andsubtletyofthedebatebetweenthesetwogreatthinkers,thisbookoffersafreshperspectiveonthephilosophicandpoliticalsignificanceofMachiavelli’sprotomodernbreakfromtheclassicaltraditionPAULJRASMUSSENholdsaPhDinpoliticaltheoryfromtheUniversityofTorontoHehastaughtatBaruchCollege,theUniversityofMichigan–Dearborn,andCaliforniaStateUniversity–SanBernardinoHeiscurrentlyworkingonabookaboutthehistoryofpatriotismPOLITICALTHEORY•PHILOSOPHYForordersandinformationpleasecontactthepublisherLEXINGTONBOOKSAdivisionofRowmanLittlefieldPublishers,IncForbesBoulevard,SuiteLanham,MarylandwwwlexingtonbookscomExcellenceUnleashedLITHOinddExcellenceUnleashedLITHOindd::PM::PMExcellenceUnleashedExcellenceUnleashedMachiavelli’sCritiqueofXenophonandtheMoralFoundationofPoliticsPaulJRasmussenLEXINGTONBOOKSAdivisionofROWMANLITTLEFIELDPUBLISHERS,INCLanham•Boulder•NewYork•Toronto•Plymouth,UKLEXINGTONBOOKSAdivisionofRowmanLittlefieldPublishers,IncAwhollyownedsubsidiaryofTheRowmanLittlefieldPublishingGroup,IncForbesBoulevard,SuiteLanham,MDEstoverRoadPlymouthPLPYUnitedKingdomCopyright©byLexingtonBooksAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationInformationAvailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRasmussen,PaulJ,–Excellenceunleashed:Machiavelli’scritiqueofXenophonandthemoralfoundationofpoliticsPaulJRasmussenpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferences(p)ISBN:(cloth:alkpaper)ISBN:(cloth:alkpaper)ISBN:(electronic)ISBN:X(electronic)PoliticalethicsHistoryMachiavelli,Niccolò,–XenophonITitleJARdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica�™ThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSINISOZTothememoryofmyfather,PoulJorgenRasmussen,whobelievedinthepowerofeducationaboveallelse�ContentsAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionxiPartOneRepublicsandTyrantsChapterXenophon’sPersianRepublicChapterTumults,Liberty,andTyranny:Machiavelli’sUnconventionalRepublicanismChapterTheReformofTyrannyinXenophon’sHieroPartTwoPrincesandPhilosophersChapterTheLegacyofCyrusandtheLimitsofPoliticsChapterCyrus’SocraticEducationChapterMachiavelli’sCyrusandtheHumanityofEffectiveRuleChapterGlory,MoralInnovation,andtheChristianPrinceConclusion:ThePhilosopherandPoliticsReferencesIndexAbouttheAuthorvii�AcknowledgmentsIamdeeplygratefultomyteachers,ThomasPangleandCliffordOrwinattheUniversityofToronto,andNathanTarcovattheUniversityofChicagoWalterNewell,RonaldBeiner,andananonymousreviewerprovidedvaluablecommentaryonpreviousdraftsofthisprojectIwouldalsoliketothankJosephParry,MelissaWilks,andLyndaPhungatLexingtonBooksTheOlinFoundation,theEarhartFoundation,theBradleyFoundation,andtheUniversityofTorontoallprovidedmewithsupportthroughvariousphasesofthisworkFinally,ImustthankmywifeClaireBuchananforherundyingsupportandimmeasurablepatienceix�IntroductionInrecentyears,dueinlargeparttotheworkofJGAPocock,QuentinSkinner,andothersaffiliatedwiththe“CambridgeSchool,”MachiavellihascometobeseenasavaluableresourceforstrengtheningthemoralandpoliticalfoundationsofmodernrepublicansocietyHeisconsideredanallyespeciallytocommunitarianpoliticaltheoristsattemptingtoredressthemoralmalaiseofcontemporaryliberalismtheunfortunateconsequenceoftheliberalethicthatfreestheindividual(inthenameofautonomy,personalfulfillment,andtoleration)fromalltiesofsolidarityandthedutiesofresponsiblecitizenshipPocock,Skinner,andthescholarstheyhaveinfluencedarguethatMachiavelliisapivotalmemberofavenerableclassicalrepublicantraditionthatbeginswithAristotleandstretchestotheAmericanFoundingThefundamentalprincipleofthis“civicrepublican”or“civichumanist”traditionisthathumanexcellenceconsistsinthevitaactivaofadutifulcitizenofathrivingrepublicMachiavelliispraisedforhisinspiringarticulationofthecivicgreatnesspossibleinafreerepublic,andforhisdefenseofthepoliticalvirtuesessentialtomaintainingthisfreedomAtthecoreofMachiavelli’sthought,assertsSkinner,isthetraditionalbeliefthat“unlesseachcitizenbehaveswithvirtu,andinconsequenceplacesthegoodofhiscommunityaboveallprivateambitionsandfactionalallegiances,thegoalofcivicgrandezzacanneverbeachieved”(,,)Machiavelli’srepublicanteachingisalsorespectedforitsfocusonpromotingandmaintainingthecivichumanistethosinthelessthanidealconditionsofactualpoliticalcommunitiesAccordingtoPocock,thispragmatismismostevidentxiinMachiavelli’s“exaltationofthecitizenmilitia”and“militarizationofcitizenship”(,,,)PococksuggeststhatMachiavelli’sinfluenceontheAmericanFounding,especiallythestatesmanshipofJefferson,demonstratesthepotencyofhisvigorousrepublicanismeventheSecondAmendmenttotheAmericanConstitutionreflectsMachiavelli’spragmaticvisionofthecivicspiritnecessarytoprotectanationagainstthedangersofpoliticalinstability“TheSecondAmendmentapparentlydraftedtoreassuremen’smindsagainstthefactthatthefederalgovernmentwouldmaintainsomethinginthenatureofaprofessionalarmyaffirmstherelationbetweenapopularmilitiaandpopularfreedominlanguagedirectlydescendedfromthatofMachiavelli,whichremainsapotentritualutterancetothisdayintheUnitedStates”(,)ThisinterpretationofMachiavelli’spoliticalteaching,withitsemphasisoncivicresponsibility,posesanimportantchallengetothedominantliberalparadigmthatgroundsoursocietyinthe“naturalrights”liberalismofHobbesandLockeAndifthisassessmentofMachiavelliandhisinfluenceiscorrect,itsuggeststhatMachiavellimayindeedbeuniquelysuitedtohelpingcontemporarypoliticaltheoristscraftapublicphilosophythatrecapturesthepublicmindedcitizenshipoftheclassicalrepublicantraditioninawaythateffectivelyaddressestheillsspecifictomodernsocietyButhowtraditionalisMachiavelli’srepublicanismDoesMachiavellireallybelievethatgovernmentexistsforthepurposeofpromotingthemoralandpoliticalexcellenceofcitizensascitizensTheanswertothesequestionshasadirectbearingonMachiavelli’ssuitabilityasaguideforcultivatingthehealthyrepublicanpoliticschampionedbyPocock,Skinner,andtheirfollowersWearejustifiedinaskingthesequestionsbecause,asthesescholarsthemselvesacknowledge,thereisacertainnoveltytoMachiavelli’sthoughtthatdistinguisheshimfromotherwritersoftheclassicalrepublicantraditionAtaminimum,theyrecognizethatthecontextinwhichhewrotethemodernChristianworldasopposedtotheancientpaganonelendsauniquecharacterandsignificancetohisworkMachiavelli’sworkdeservesattentioniffornootherreasonthanthatitraisesthequestionwhetherandhowancientrepublicanvirtuecanbecultivatedinthepostclassicalworldEveniftheydisagreeaboutthenatureofMachiavelli’snovelty,mostscholarsaffirmthatthesingularityofMachiavelli’sthoughtisinextricablylinkedtohisanswertothemorecomprehensivequestionofthenecessaryrelationshipbetweenvirtueandpoliticsThus,anyinquiryintothepublicphilosophyMachiavellimighthelpuscultivateisinseparablefromthelargerquestionofMachiavelli’snoveltyvisàvisclassicalnotionsofvirtuexii�IntroductionHowdowediscoverthisnoveltyThereiswidespreadagreementamongthosewhoplaceMachiavelliinthecivicrepublicantradition,andindeedamongmostscholars,thatwecannotunderstandMachiavelli’sthoughtbylookingathiswritingsaloneTounderstandhiswork,ortheworkofanyothergreatthinker,forthatmatter,wemustunderstandthecontextinwhichhewroteButwhatisthatcontext,howdoweidentifyit,andhowmuchweightdowegiveitintryingtoassesswhatMachiavellihimselfthoughtPocockhasdevelopedwhatisperhapsthemostinfluentialcontextualapproachtothestudyofintellectualhistoryHestatesthattounderstandthepoliticalthinkersofagivenera,itfirstisnecessarytoidentifythe“conceptualvocabularies”thatwereavailabletothosewritingabout“politicalsystemsconsideredintheirparticularity”(,)Wethenmustconsiderthe“limitationsandimplications”oftheseconceptualsystemsand“theprocessesbywhichthey,theirusesandimplications,changedovertime”Similarly,QuentinSkinnerarguesthatpoliticallife“setsthemainproblemsforthepoliticaltheorist,causingacertainrangeofissuestoappearproblematic,andacorrespondingrangeofquestionstobecometheleadingsubjectsofdebate”(,xi)Indebatingthesequestions,however,thetheoristislimitedbythe“normativevocabularyavailableatanygiventime”Thisvocabularydetermines“thewaysinwhichparticularquestionscometobesingledoutanddiscussed”The“natureandlimits”ofthisvocabulary,inturn,aredeterminedby“earlierwritingsandinheritedassumptionsaboutpoliticalsociety”ForbothPocockandSkinner,therefore,Machiavelli’sthoughtcanbeunderstoodonlyasa“productoftheideasandconceptualvocabularieswhichwereavailabletotheRenaissancemind”(Pocock,)ThereigningintellectualparadigmofMachiavelli’sdaywasthetraditionofcivichumanismderivedfromancientRoman,earlierRenaissance,andAristoteliansourcesTheirconclusionisthatwemustbeginourstudyofMachiavellibylookingathiswritingsinthecontextofthisrepublicantraditionasitwasgenerallyunderstoodbysixteenthcenturyFlorentineintellectuals(Skinner,–)SuchstudiesareindeedhelpfulindescribingthegeneralintellectualclimateofMachiavelli’sFlorenceButdeterminingtheconcernsandassumptionsofMachiavelli’scontemporariesisnotadequateforidentifyingthemostimportantaspectsofhisownthoughtThisisnottosuggestthatMachiavelliwasunconcernedwiththewriters,ideas,andpoliticalproblemsthatPocockandSkinneridentifyashavingshapedFlorentinethoughtGivenMachiavelli’sextensivediscussionofRomanandItalianhistory,hisattentiontotherelativemeritsofrepublicsandprincipalities,andhisactiveinvolvementinIntroduction�xiiiFlorentinepolitics,itisclearthathesharedmanyofthesamepoliticalconcernsashisfellowcitizens,andthatheunderstoodtheirintellectualdebttothecivichumanisttraditionNevertheless,whilefocusingonMachiavelli’sresponsetotheseconcernsandwriters,mostscholarswhoemploythiscontextualapproachhaveneglectedoneofthemoresignificantaspectsofMachiavelli’sthoughtTheyhavenotconsideredsufficientlytheextenttowhichMachiavelliunderstoodhiswritingstobeacorrectionoftheclassical,especiallyGreek,politicalphilosophicunderstandingofthenecessaryrelationshipbetweenpoliticsandvirtueWecanmakethisassertionbecausemostcontemporaryscholarshavelargelyignoredtheimportanceofXenophoninMachiavelli’swritingsAsthemostpoliticalofSocrates’students,XenophonjoinsMachiavelliincelebratingtheexcellenceandvigorofgreatrulersAsreflectedintheformalseparationofhis“political”and“Socratic”writings,XenophondistinguishespoliticalactionfromphilosophicalspeculationinawaythatfocusesourattentiononthepossibilityofpoliticalexcellenceasanobleendinitselfFurther,bothXenophonandMachiavelliconsideratlengthwhetherhumanityisnotbestservedwhenambitiousrulersareallowedtoexercisefreelytheirpoliticaltalentsonthegreatestscaleevenorespeciallywhentheyexceedconventionalnotionsofmoralandpoliticalvirtueMachiavellilearnedmuchfromXenophon’skeeninsightsintotheharshrealitiesofpoliticalsuccessButMachiavelliisultimatelycriticalofXenophonAndhiscritiqueissignificantbecauseitisbasedonanumberoffundamental,ifoftensubtle,theoreticaldisagreementswithXenophonabouthumannatureandthemoralfoundationsofhealthypoliticsThesedifferencesarereflectedinthedistinctionbetweenMachiavelli’sradicalquestioningoftraditionalmoralityandtheultimatelyconservativetoneofXenophon’swritingsThoughfullyawarethatpoliticalsuccessandmoralvirtuedonotnecessarilycoincide,Xenophon,unlikeMachiavelli,continuestoendorsetheconventionalnotionsofvirtuethatmanifestthemselvesinthelawsandinstitutionsoftraditionalrepublicanregimesThegeneralplanofthisstudyis,first,touncoverthereasonsbehindthemoralqualificationsXenophonplacesonthepursuitofpoliticalgreatnessandsecond,toarticulateMachiavelli’scritiqueofXenophon’spositionasitemergesfromhisbriefbutpregnantreferencestohispredecessorMyconclusionsarebasedonaclosereadingofXenophon’sEducationofCyrus(theCyropaedia)andHieroorOnTyranny,andMachiavelli’sThePrinceandDiscoursesonLivyThisbookwillshowthatMachiavelliunderstoodhiscritiqueofXenophon’smoreconservativepoliticalteachingtobeanessentialpartofxiv�Introductionhislargerprojecttosupplantbothclassicaland,aswillbeseen,Christiannotionsofmoralandpoliticalvirtuewithashrewdlypragmatic,morallyneutralunderstandingofthepoliticalexcellencenecessaryforhumanflourishingReadingMachiavelliandXenophonMachiavelliindicateshisrespectforXenophonbycitinghimmorethananyotherclassicalwriter,withtheobviousexceptionofLivyInThePrinceandDiscoursesontheFirstTenBooksofTitusLivy,MachiavellimentionsXenophoneighttimesIncontrast,MachiavellimentionsCiceroandSallust,whomSkinner(,–)namesastheprimarysourcesofMachiavelli’shumanistbeliefs,onlythreetimeseachintheDiscourses,andnotonceinThePrinceWhatismore,MachiavellimakesnoexplicitreferencestosuchleadingRenaissancehumanistsasLeonardoBruni,PoggioBracciolini,andColuccioSalutati,whoarealsoconsideredbySkinner(,)andPocock(,–,)tobeimportantinfluencesonMachiavelli’sthoughtMachiavelliwascertainlyfamiliarwiththeseRomanandRenaissancewriters,butwecannotignorethefactthathechoosestocitenotthembutXenophoninhismostimportantpoliticalworksXenophon’simportanceisfurtherconfirmedbythecontextofMachiavelli’sreferencestohimMostofthesereferencesoccurindiscussionsoftherelationshipbetweentherequirementsofpoliticalruleandconventionalnotionsofmoralandpoliticalvirtue,themostimportantthemeinMachiavelli’swritingsAndinMachiavelli’smostfamousdiscussionofthistheme(Prince–),XenophonistheonlywriterMachiavellimentionsbyname,eventhoughheacknowledgesthat“manyhavewrittenaboutthis”(Prince)MachiavellisinglesoutXenophon’sCyropaediaforfurtherstudyandencouragesthereadertocomparehisworktoXenophon’sHeimpliesthatstudyingXenophon’saccountoftherelationshipbetweenpoliticsandvirtuewillhelptoclarifyhisownposition,especiallyhisclaimthatinwritingonthissubjecthe“departsfromtheordersofothers”XenophonholdsthekeytounderstandingboththeveracityofMachiavelli’sclaimregardingthenoveltyofhisthoughtandthegroundsonwhichitisbasedThisiscomplicated,however,bythefactthat,consideredinlightofeachother,Machiavelli’sreferencesinThePrinceandDiscoursesonLivytoXenophon’sCyropaediapaintaseeminglyinconsistent,evenparadoxical,accountofXenophon’sCyrusOntheonehand,Xenophon’sCyrusrepresentsforMachiavellitheclassicexampleofaprincewhowongloryandtheloveofhissubjectsthroughhisgreatmoralvirtue(Prince,DiscoursesIII,–)Ontheotherhand,MachiavelliclaimsthattheCyropaediaalsorevealsaIntroduction�xvdarkersidetoCyrus’rule:inDiscoursesII,MachiavelliarguesthatXenophonteachesthenecessityoffraudthroughhisdescriptionofCyrus’campaignagainstArmeniaandsystematicdeceptionofhismaternaluncleXenophoninhislifeofCyr

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*新书上架*【马基雅弗利研究】卓越品质的解禁:马基雅弗利对色诺芬及政治的道德基础的批判

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