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首页 RF功率放大器设计

RF功率放大器设计.pdf

RF功率放大器设计

ttopvic5101
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简介:本文档为《RF功率放大器设计pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

AdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignForalistingofrecenttitlesintheArtechHouseMicrowaveLibrary,turntothebackofthisbookAdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignSteveCCrippsArtechHouseBoston•LondonwwwartechhousecomLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataCripps,SteveCAdvancedtechniquesinRFpoweramplifierdesignSteveCrippspcm—(ArtechHousemicrowavelibrary)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)PoweramplifiersAmplifiers,RadiofrequencyITitleIISeriesTKPC’—dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataCripps,SteveCAdvancedtechniquesinRFpoweramplifierdesign—(ArtechHousemicrowavelibrary)Poweramplifiers—DesignAmplifiers,RadiofrequencyITitle’ISBNCoverdesignbyGaryRagaglia'ARTECHHOUSE,INCCantonStreetNorwood,MAAllrightsreservedPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherAlltermsmentionedinthisbookthatareknowntobetrademarksorservicemarkshavebeenappropriatelycapitalizedArtechHousecannotattesttotheaccuracyofthisinformationUseofaterminthisbookshouldnotberegardedasaffectingthevalidityofanytrademarkorservicemarkInternationalStandardBookNumber:LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:ContentsPrefacexiAcknowledgmentsxvClassABAmplifiersIntroductionClassicalClassABModesClassAB:ADifferentPerspectiveRFBipolars:ViveLaDifferenceABasicRFBJTModelOnSweetSpotsandIMGlitchesConclusionsReferenceDohertyandChireixIntroductionTheDohertyPAIntroductionandFormulationvTheClassicalDohertyConfigurationVariationsontheClassicalConfigurationPeakingAmplifierConfigurationsDohertyPAMatchingTopologiesTheMultipleDohertyPADohertyPAConclusionsTheChireixOutphasingPAIntroductionandFormulationDiscussion,Analysis,andSimulationVariationsChireix:ConclusionsReferencesSomeTopicsinPANonlinearityIntroductionAProblem,aSolution,andProblemswiththeSolutionPowerSeries,VolterraSeries,andPolynomialsTwoCarrierCharacterizationMemoryandIMAsymmetryinRFPAsPAsandPeaktoAverageRatiosConclusionsReferencesFeedbackTechniquesIntroductionFeedbackTechniquesAmplitudeEnvelopeFeedback:ConfigurationandAnalysisVectorEnvelopeFeedbackviAdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignLowLatencyPADesignVariationsConclusionsReferencesPredistortionTechniquesIntroductionThirdDegreePA:PredistortionAnalysisPDCharacteristicforGeneralPAModelPracticalRealizationofthePredistorterFunction:IntroductionAnalogPredistortersDSPPredistortionConclusionsReferencesFeedforwardPowerAmplifiersIntroductionTheFeedforwardLoopAMPMCorrectionintheFeedforwardLoopErrorInsertionCouplingThirdDegreeAnalysisoftheGeneralizedFeedforward(FFW)LoopFormulationandAnalysisTrackingErrorsCompressionAdjustmentThirdDegreeAnalysis:ConclusionsFeedforwardLoopSimulationEffectofAMPMinMainPAGainCompressionAdjustmentContentsviiEPRChangeGainandPhaseTrackingMulticarrierSimulationFeedforwardLoopEfficiencyConsiderationsAdaptionandCorrection:ClosingtheLoopVariationsTheDoubleFeedforwardLoopAFeedforwardEnhancedPowerCombiner“Budget”FFWSystemsConclusionsReferencesMicrowavePowerAmplifiersIntroductionBroadbandMicrowavePowerAmplifierDesignIntroductionBroadbandMatchingUsingNetworkSynthesisBalancedAmplifiersBroadbandPowerAmplifierDesignIssuesMicrowaveCircuitsandMICTechniquesIntroductionSubstrateandHeatsinkMaterialsMICComponentsandStructuresPADesignUsingPrematchedModulesIntroductionMatchingIssuesforIMTsBiasingIssuesforIMTsPowerCombiningofIMTsDistributedAmplifiersConclusionsReferencesviiiAdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignAppendixNotesSelectedBibliographyGlossaryAbouttheAuthorIndexContentsixPrefaceFirstofall,IshouldexplainthetitleofthisbookThisisnotreallyanadvancedbook,butdoescovertopicswhicharegenerallyofalesselementary,ortutorial,naturethanmyfirstbookInRFPowerAmplifiersforWirelessCommunications(RFPA,alsopublishedbyArtechHouse),myoverridinggoalwastopresentthesubjectmaterialinamannerthatisanalyticalbuthopefullystillreadableEngineeringliteraturehasalwaysbotheredmeBothbooksandtechnicaljournalsseemtopresenteverythingcouchedinhighlevelmathematicswhichthemajorityofpracticingengineerscan’tunderstand,oratbestdon’thavethetimeorinclinationtodecipherThereseemstobean“emperor’snewclothes”situationaboutitallmakethesubjectasdifficultaspossible,frequentlymuchmoredifficultthanitneedstobe,andyouarealmostassuredofpiousnodsofapprovalinhigherplacesLowerplaces,wheremostofusoperate,offeralessreverentreception,butseemtoacceptthesituationneverthelessTheoddpapermaybeprogressesasfarasthefaxmachineorthefilingcabinet,butthenrestsinpeaceandgathersdustIamencouraged,andverygrateful,forthepositiveresponsetomymodestbutradicalattemptstochangethissituationinRFPA,andproceedwiththisvolumeinverymuchthesamespiritTheintentionisthatthisbookcanberegardedasasequeltothefirst,butcanalsobereadinisolationItwouldbeappropriate,therefore,torestatebrieflysomeofthephilosophyandgoalsthatcarryoverFirstandforemost,thespiritofaprioridesignmethodsremainsparamountSimulationtoolsaregettingbetterallthetime,buttheadvantagesofperformingsymbolicanalysisusingsimplifiedmodelsbeforeengaginginnumbercrunchingarestillxipersuasiveIndeed,notbeingaparticularlyadvancedmathematicianmyselfhelpsinthatIfeelitiseasiertopresentreadablesymbolicanalysis,ratherthantheseeminglystatutoryunreadablestuffwhichaboundsinthemore“learned”literatureThisbookcoverssomenewtopicsthatbarelygotamentioninRFPA,andtakessomeotherswhich,althoughcoveredinthefirstbook,deservemoredetailedtreatmentBipolarjunctiontransistors(BJTs),forinstance,werebarelymentionedinRFPAandwiththeadventofheterojunctionbipolartransistors(HBTs)andSiliconGermanium(SiGe)technology,thingsarehottingupagainfortheBJT(punsomewhatintended)ChapterrevisitsthebasicsofClassABoperation,butwithgreateremphasisonBJTapplicationsMicrowavepoweramplifierapplicationsalsogetachapteroftheirown,Chapter,inwhichanattemptismadetopulltogethersomeofthetechniqueswhichweredevelopedinthesandsforhigherfrequency(>GHz)broadbandamplifierdesign,andwhichcouldeasilycomebackonstreamagainaswirelesscommunicationsrunoutofbandwidthatthelowendofthemicrowavespectrumOtherchapterspickuponsomeofthethingsthatwereintroducedinRFPA,butnotwrungouttosomereaders’satisfactionForallmyenthusiasticpromotionontheDohertyandChireixtechniquesinRFPA,theseadmirableinventionsstillappeartoremainfirmlyrootedinhistoryandvacuumtubetechnologySoChapterrevisitsthesetopicsregardingespeciallytheirpotentialroleinthemodernsceneThisincludesamoregeneralizedanalysisoftheDohertyPAandsomesimulationresultsonpracticalimplementationsTheChireixmethodcontinuestobeatalkingpointandnotmuchelseChapterattemptstodigalittledeeperintowhythisshouldbeChaptertakesupthethemeofnonlineareffectsinPAs,withaparticularemphasisontheproblemofasymmetricalIMdistortion,itscausesandpossibleremediesThischapteralsohassometutorialmaterialonthebehavioralmodelingofPAsandattemptstoshowthatthereisstillmuchusefullifeleftinpolynomialsandVolterraseriesmodelingmethodsInparticular,theuseofdynamic,ratherthanstatic,characterizationmethodsarediscussedinrelationtomemoryeffectsLinearizationis,ofcourse,aninescapableaspectofthemodernPAsceneEquallyinescapable,itseems,isthegrowingimpactofdigitalsignalprocessing(DSP)techniquesinthisareaChapters,,andcoverthethreemainlinearizationtopicsoffeedback,predistortion,andfeedforwardInthesechaptersIfindmyselfupagainstaburgeoningandalreadyvoluminousliterature,andalsotopicsofcurrentresearchwhichareengagingmanyxiiAdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignthousandsofengineersallovertheworldIhavethereforenotattemptedtocovereachtopicinanexhaustivemannerIhavebasicallyappliedmystatutorymethodsofsymbolicanalysisusingsimplifiedmodels,andIbelievecomeupwithsomeusefulresultsandobservationsMostofthematerialinChapters,,andrepresents,Ibelieve,atleastadifferentangleonthesubjectandassuchishopefullycomplementarytoexistingpublishedaccountsAsaPAdesignermyself,oneaspectwhichIhaveattemptedtoemphasizethroughoutthesethreechaptersistheneedtoredefine,andeventorethink,thedesignofaPAwhichistobeusedinanylinearizationsystemThisisanaspectofthebusinesswhichIfeelhasnotbeenadequatelyconsidered,forthelogisticalreasonthatPAlinearizationandPAdesignarefrequentlydonebydifferentgroupsofpeopleordifferentorganizationsImustmakesomecommentsonthepatentsituationinthisfieldThisbookdealswithatechnologythathasbeenthefocusformuchpatentactivityovertheyears,andespeciallywithinthelastdecadeorsoItseemsthatpatentsarenowbeingissuednotjustforspecificimplementations,orvariationsofwellestablishedtechniques,butinsomecasesforthewellestablishedtechniquesthemselvesThisisabigheadacheforanycompanywishingtoenterintothewirelesscommunicationsPAbusiness,andposesaproblemforanauthoraswellTogenerateacomprehensive,exhaustivelistofrelevantpatentswouldbeataskcomparabletowritingawholenewbookIndeed,perhapsitisabooksomeoneshouldwriteMypolicyhasbeentorefraincompletelyfromcitingindividualpatentsasreferences,otherthanoneortwohistoricalonesThisavoidsanyconflictwhereopposingfactionsmaybeclaimingpriorityandonlyonegetsthecitationItdoesnot,however,avoidthepossibilitythatImaybedescribing,orproposing,somethingthathasbeenpatentedsometime,bysomebodyIhavetriedingeneralthroughoutthisbooktomakethereaderawareoftheneedtoperformpatentsearchesinthisbusinessifacommercialproductisbeingcontemplatedIhavealsomadespecificcommentsaboutthelikelihoodofpatentsincertainfocusedareasIngeneral,Ihaveincludedafewideasofmyowninmostchapters(usuallyunderthesubheading“Variations”)ThesesuggestionsaremyownindependentideasanddonotrepresentanycommercialproductsofwhichIamawareTheyhavenot,however,beensubjectedtoanypatentsearchUnlikethepreviousbook,whichhadsubstantialcontinuityfromchaptertochapter,thisbooktreatsthenumeroustopicsinamannerwhichdoesnotalwaysfallintoaseamlessnarrativeSuchisthenatureof“moreadvancedtopics”Thisis,primarily,atheoreticalbookforthemostpartIamanalyzinghowthingswork,anddevelopingapriorimethodsforPrefacexiiidesigningthemItisnotastepbystepguideonhowtobuildRFpoweramplifiers,advancedorotherwiseIbelievethatIamaddressingtopicswhichRFdesigners,andespeciallythoseinvolvedwithRFpoweramplifiers,talkaboutalotamongstthemselvesIthereforemakenoapologiesforusingmorewords,andfewerequations,thaninaconventionaltechnicalbookxivAdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignAcknowledgmentsThisbookrepresents,inachronologicalsense,atimeperiodinmyowntechnicalcareerwhichextendsapproximatelybacktomyreturnfromCalifornia,tothegreeneranddamperBlackdownHillsofSomersetinEngland,whereIhavemanagedtokeepworkingintheRFPAbusiness,thanksmainlytothesponsorshipofseveralclientsAlso,IcontinuetofindtheintelligentquestionsofmyPAdesigntrainingcourseattendeesagreatstimulusforkeepingontopofarapidlydevelopingtechnicalareaSoImustalsoacknowledgethistime,havingomittedtomentionthemlasttime,theongoingsponsorshipIhavefromCEIEurope,whocontinuetoofferafirstclassserviceandorganizationfortrainingRFandcommunicationsprofessionalsinEuropeSteveCCrippsSomerset,EnglandMayxvClassABAmplifiersIntroductionTheClassABmodehasbeenafocusforseveralgenerationsofpoweramplifierdesigners,andforgoodreasonsItisaclassicalcompromise,offeringhigherefficiencyandcoolerheatsinksthanthelinearandwellbehavedClassAmode,butincurringsomeincreasednonlineareffectswhichcanbetolerated,orevenavoided,insomeapplicationsThemaingoalinthischapteristoinvitePAdesignersanddevicetechnologiststobreakoutoftheclassicalClassABtunnelvisionwhichseemstoafflictalargeproportionoftheirnumbersFortoolong,wehavebeenassumingthatourradiofrequencypoweramplifier(RFPA)transistorsobedientlyconductpreciselytruncatedsinewaveswhenthequiescentbiasisreducedbelowtheClassApoint,regardlessofthefactthatanRFpowerdevicewilltypicallyhavenowhereneartheswitchingspeedtoperformthetaskwiththeassumedprecisionTheironyofthisisthatthereveredclassicaltheory,summarizedinSection,actuallymakessomedirepredictionsaboutthelinearityofadeviceoperatedinthismanner,anditisthesharpnessofthecutoffortruncationprocessthatcausessomeofthedamageDecadesofpracticalexperiencewithRFPAsofallkindshaveshownthatthingsgenerallyworkoutbetterthanthetheorypredicts,asfaraslinearityisconcerned,whichhasrelegatedthecredibilityofthetheoryForthisreason,andothers,flagrantlyempiricalmethodsarestillusedtodesignRFPAs,indefianceofmoderntrendsSectionattemptstoreconcilesomeoftheapparentconflictbetweenobservationandtheory,showingthatanidealdevicewitharealizablecharacteristiccanbeprescribedtoallowlinearoperationalongwithnearclassicalefficiencySectiondiscussestheRFbipolaranditsradicallydifferentformulationforreachingthesamegoaloflinearitycombinedwithhighefficiencyoperationTheRFbipolaremergesfromthisanalysis,takingfullaccountofthediscussioninSection,inasurprisinglyfavorablelightSectionreturnstothefieldeffecttransistor(FET)asaClassABdevice,andtheextenttowhichexistingdevicescanfortuitouslyexhibitsomeofthelinearizationpossibilitiesdiscussedinSectionClassicalClassABModesThisanalysisshouldneednointroduction,andwhatfollowsislargelyasummaryofamoredetailedtreatmentinRFPA,butwithsomeextensionsintothepossibilitiesofferedbydynamicallyvaryingRFloadsFigureshowsanidealizedRFdevice,havingalineartransconductiveregionterminatedbyasharplydefinedcutoffpointThedeviceisassumedtobeentirelytransconductive,thatistosay,theoutputcurrenthasnodependencyontheoutputvoltageprovidedthisvoltageismaintainedabovetheturnon,or“knee”value,VkTheanalysiswillfurthermaketheapproximationthatVkisAdvancedTechniquesinRFPowerAmplifierDesignImaxImaxDraincurrentGatevoltage(normalized)CutoffregionSaturationregionQuasilinearregionFigureIdealtransconductivedevicetransfercharacteristicnegligibleincomparisontothedcsupplyvoltage,inotherwords,zeroThisapproximationisconspicuouslyunreal,andneedsimmediateaddressingifthevoltageisanythingotherthansinusoidal,butiscommonplaceinelementarytextbooksFigureshowstheclassicalcircuitschematicforClassABoperationThedeviceisbiasedtoaquiescentpointwhichissomewhereintheregionbetweenthecutoffpointandtheClassAbiaspointTheinputdrivelevelisadjustedsothatthecurrentswingsbetweenzeroandImax,ImaxClassABAmplifiersvDSvINiDvDSVdcvINvOUTRLdcblockingcapHiQ"tank"()fRF"choke"iDZRjfZffLLL()(,,etc)==iiii,,,etcGatevoltageDraincurrentDrainvoltageVoVoVtVqImaxIdcppppwtaFigureClassABamplifier:schematicandwaveformsbeingapredeterminedmaximumuseablecurrent,basedonsaturationorthermalrestrictionsTheresultingcurrentwaveformstaketheformofasymmetricallytruncatedsinewaves,thezerocurrentregioncorrespondingtotheswingsofinputvoltagebelowthecutoffpointThesecurrentwaveformsclearlyhavehighharmoniccontentThekeycircuitelementinaClassABamplifieristheharmonicshortplacedacrossthedevicewhichpreventsanyharmonicvoltagefrombeinggeneratedattheoutputSuchacircuitelementcouldberealized,asshowninFigure,usingaparallelshuntresonatorhavingaresonantfrequencyatthefundamentalInprinciplethecapacitorcouldhaveanarbitrarilyhighvalue,sufficienttoshortoutallharmoniccurrentwhilstallowingthefundamentalcomponentonlytoflowintotheresistiveloadSothefinaloutputvoltagewillapproximatetoasinewavewhoseamplitudewillbeafunctionofthedrivelevelandthechosenvalueoftheloadresistorInpracticetheloadresistorvaluewillbechosensuchthatatthemaximumanticipateddrivelevel,thevoltageswingwillusethefullavailablerange,approximatedinthiscasetoanamplitudeequaltothedcsupplyForthepurposesofthisanalysis,themaximumdrivelevelwillbeassumedtobethatlevelwhichcausesapeakcurrentofImaxSomesimpleFourieranalysisshowsthattheefficiency,definedhereastheRFoutputdividedbythedcsupply,increasessharplyasthequiescentbiaslevelisreduced,andthesocalledconductionangledrops(Figure)Notonlydoesthisapplytotheefficiencyatthedesignatedmaximumdrivelevel,buttheefficiencyinthe“backedoff”driveconditionalsoincreases,especiallyinrelationtotheClassAvalues(Figure)

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