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首页 《光荣与梦想(1932-1972年美国社会实录.and.the.dream】

《光荣与梦想(1932-1972年美国社会实录.and.the.dream】.pdf

《光荣与梦想(1932-1972年美国社会实录.and.the…

大俠
2009-08-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《光荣与梦想(1932-1972年美国社会实录.and.the.dream】pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域

TheGloryAndTheDreambywilliammanchesterBOOKSBYWILLIAMMANCHESTERHISTORYTHEDEATHOFAPRESIDENTNovemberNovember,THEARMSOFKRUPPTHEGLORYANDTHEDREAMANarrativeHistoryofAmerica,BIOGRAPHYDISTURBEROFTHEPEACETheLifeofHLMenckenAROCKEFELLERFAMILYPORTRAITFromJohnDtoNelsonPORTRAITOFAPRESIDENTJohnFKennedyinProfileFICTIONTHECITYOFANGERSHADOWOFTHEMONSOONTHELONGGAINERDIVERSIONBEARDTHELIONWILLIAMMANCHESTERTHEGLORYANDTHEDREAMANarrativeHistoryofAmericaLITTLE,BROWNANDCOMPANYBOSTONTORONTOCOPYRIGHT,BYWILLIAMMANCHESTERALLRIGHTSRESERVED"resembledthebesiegedcapitalofanobscureEuropeanstateSinceMaysometwentyfivethousandpennilessWorldWarveteranshadbeenencampedwiththeirwivesandchildreninDistrictparks,dumps,abandonedwarehouses,andemptystoresThemendrilled,sangwarsongs,andonce,ledbyaMedalofHonorwinnerandwatchedbyahundredthousandsilentWashingtonians,theymarchedupPennsylvaniaAvenuebearingAmericanflagsoffadedcottonMostofthetime,however,theywaitedandbroodedThevetshadcometoasktheirgovernmentforrelieffromtheGreatDepression,thenapproachingtheendofitsthirdyearspecifically,theywantedimmediatepaymentofthesoldiers'"bonus"authorizedbytheAdjustedCompensationActofbutnotdueuntilIftheycouldgetcashnow,themenwouldreceiveabout$eachHeadlinewritershadchristenedthem"theBonusArmy,""thebonusmarchers"TheycalledthemselvestheBonusExpeditionaryForceBEFmembershadhopedinvainforcongressionalactionNowtheyappealedtoPresidentHoover,begginghimtoreceiveadelegationoftheirleadersInsteadhesentwordthathewastoobusyandthenproceededtoisolatehimselffromthecityPresidentialplanstovisittheSenatewerecanceledpolicemenpatrolledtheWhiteHousegroundsdayandnightForthefirsttimesincetheArmistice,theExecutiveMansiongateswerechainedshuthooverlocksselfinwhitehouse,reada~NewYorkDailyNewsheadlineHewentevenfurtherBarricadeswereerectedtrafficwasshutdownforadistanceofoneblockonallsidesoftheMansionAonearmedveteran,bentuponpicketing,triedtopenetratethescreenofguardsHewassoundlybeatenandcarriedofftojailInretrospectthispanoplyappearstohavebeentheoverreactionofafrightened,frustratedadministrationThebonusmarcherswereunarmed,hadexpelledradicalsfromtheirranks,anddespitetheirevidenthungerweren'tevenpanhandlingopenlyTheyseemedtooweaktobeamenaceDrewPearson,athirtyfouryearoldBaltimoreSunreporter,describedthemas"ragged,weary,andapathetic,"with"nohopeontheirfaces"Increasingly,theBEFvigilhadbecomeanexerciseinenduranceAhealthdepartmentinspectordescribedthecamps'sanitaryconditionsas"extremelybad"MakeshiftcommissariesdependedlargelyuponcharityTruckloadsoffoodarrivedfromfriendsinDesMoinesandCamden,NewJerseyahundredloavesofbreadwerebeingshippedeachdayfromonesympatheticbakerathousandpiescamefromanothertheVeteransofForeignWarssent$,andthebonusmarchersraisedanother$,bystagingboxingboutsamongthemselvesinGriffithStadiumItwasallveryhaphazardTheadministrationwasdoingvirtuallynothingWashingtonpolicehadarousedHoover'swrathbyfeedingtheDistrict'suninvitedguestsbread,coffee,andstewatsixcentsadayandbymidAugustbrutaltemperatureswereapproachingtheirannualheight,diminishingwaterreservesandmultiplyingmiseryInthoseyearsWashingtonwasofficiallyclassifiedbytheBritishForeignOfficeasa"subtropicalclimate"Diplomatsloatheditswiltingheatanddensehumiditywiththeexceptionofafewdowntowntheaterswhichadvertisedthemselvesas"refrigerated,"therewasnoairconditioningInsummerthecapitalwasacityofawnings,screenedporches,icewagons,summerfurnitureandsummerrugs,andinthewordsofanofficialguidebookitwasalso"apeculiarlyinterestingplaceforthestudyofinsects"Lackingshadeorscreens,theBEFwasexposedtothefullfuryoftheseasonWhenthevets'vanguardhadenteredtheDistrict,gardenswerefloweringintheirspringtimegloryByJulytheblossomsofmagnoliaandazaleawerelonggone,andthecherrytreeswerebareEventheearth,itseemed,waspitilessThevetshadtakenontheappearanceofdesertcreaturesdowntownmerchantscomplainedthat"thesightofsomanydownattheheelmenhasadepressingeffectonbusiness"That,really,wasthetrueextentoftheirthreattothecountryButiftheBEFdangerwasillusion,Washington'sobscurityontheinternationalsceneinthatera,anditsdependencyuponEurope,weremoresubstantiveAmongthesixtyfiveindependentcountriesthenintheworld,therewasbutonesuperpower:GreatBritainTheUnionJackflewserenelyoveronefourthoftheearth'sarablesurfaceinEurope,Asia,andAfricaNorth,Central,andSouthAmericaAustralia,Oceania,andtheWestIndiesThesunliterallyneversankuponitBritain'sEmpirecommandedtheallegianceofmillionpeople,andifyouwantedtosuggeststabilityyousaid"solidastheRockofGibraltar,"or"safeastheBankofEngland,"whichwiththepoundsterlingat$seemedtheultimateinfiscalsecurityAirpowerwasthedreamofafewlittleknownpilotsandacashieredAmericangeneralnamedMitchellwhatcountedthenwasships,andvirtuallynosignificantworldwaterwaywasfreeofLondon'sdominionGibraltar,Suez,theGulfofAden,theStraitofSingapore,andtheCapeofGoodHopewerecontrolleddirectlybytheAdmiraltyTheStraitofMagellanwasatthemercyoftheBritishnavalstationintheFalklandIslands,andeventhePanamaCanallayunderthewatchfuleyeofHM"sCaribbeansquadronAsaconsequenceofallthis,theUnitedStateswasshieldedbytheRoyalNavyassurelyasanycrowncolonyLloyd'sofLondonofferedtoagainstanyinvasionoftheUSAndwhenFortuneassureditsreadersthattheAtlanticandPacificwere"stillaprotectionandwillforeverremainso,nomatterhowfastshipsmaysailorairplanesmayfly,"themagazinewasassumingthattheBritishfleet,whichhadruledthewavesthroughoutAmericanhistory,wouldgorightonrulingthemWashingtonmadethesameassumptionthecountrylackedthestatus,thepretensions,andmostoftheapparatusofagreatpowerThecapitalwasaslumberingvillageinsummer,largelyforgottentherestoftheyearInsizeitrankedfourteenthamongAmericancitiesMostbignationalproblemsweredecidedinNewYork,wherethemoneywaswhenfederalactionwasrequired,Manhattan'sbigcorporationlawyersmenlikeCharlesEvansHughes,HenryLStimson,andElihuRootcamedowntoguidetheirRepublicanprotegesPresidentCoolidgehadusuallyfinishedhisofficialdaybylunchtimeHoovercreatedastirbybecomingthefirstchiefexecutivetohaveatelephoneonhisdeskHealsoemployedfivesecretariesnopreviousPresidenthadrequiredmorethanoneandsummonedthembyanelaboratebuzzersystemFoggyBottom,thesiteofthepresentStateDepartmentBuilding,wasaNegroslumThelandnowoccupiedbythePentagonwasanagriculturalexperimentalstationandthustypicalofWashington'soutskirts"largeareasclosetotheveryheartofthenation'slawmaking,"theSaturdayEveningPostobserved,"arestillinfarmhands"ThegovernmentemployedfewerthantwothousandforeignserviceofficersItisanastonishingfactthattheSecretariesofState,War,andNavywereallunderonemansardroof,acrossthestreetfromtheWhiteHouseinthatugly,smugmassofbalusters,cupolas,andpillaredporticoesknowntodayastheExecutiveOfficeBuildingIndeed,afterafireguttedthePresident'sovalofficein,heandhisstaffhadmovedinwiththemandnoonehadfeltcrowdedTherewaslittlepompTheEastWingoftheWhiteHouse,whichwouldlaterhousemilitaryattachesandsocialsecretaries,hadn'tbeenbuiltTheSecretServicehadnotyetclosedWestExecutiveAvenuetothepublicitwasjustanothercitystreet,andonanormaldayyoucouldparktherewithinaneasystone'sthrowoftheovalofficeIfyoucalledontheSecretaryofState,hesometimesmetyouatthedoorArmyChiefofStaffDouglasMacArthur,onthesameflooroftheExecutiveOfficeBuilding,wasseparatedfromhissoleaidebyasingleslatteddoorWhenthegeneralwantedhelphecalled"MajorEisenhower,"andIkecamescurryingPROLOGUEItwasaFortunewriter,fortunatelyanonymous,whodescribedthegeneralas"shyandgenuinelyunsympathetictopublicity"ThatwasnonsenseMacArthur,eventhen,spokeofhimselfinthethirdperson,flourishedalongcigaretteholderashetalked,andhadheightenedhisimagebyinstallingafifteenfoothighmahoganymirrorbehindhimAsEisenhowerlaterrecalled,whenMacArthurfeltslightedhewascapableofexpressinghimselfin"anexplosivedenunciationofpolitics,badmanners,badjudgment,brokenpromises,arrogance,unconstitutionalityinsensitivity,andthewaytheworldhadgonetohell"HecanhardlybeblamedThoseweredogdaysforprofessionalsoldiersUpthroughtherankofcolonel,promotionwasbyseniorityonly,andbytheearlyThirtiesittooktwentytwoyearstoclimbfromcaptaintomajorTherewasn'tmuchtodoexceptwatchthecalendarSheerboredomnearlydroveEisenhowertothepointofresigninghiscommission,anditwasintheseyearsthathedevelopedthehabitofreadingStreetSmithpulps:TwoGunWestern,WesternStory,ThrillingWestern,andCowboyShortStoriesAcrossthePotomacatFortMyer,GeorgeSPattonJrwhohadbeenamajorsince,couldbeobservedplayingpoloWednesdaysandSaturdaysatpmRidinghisownhorseshehadcollectedfourhundredribbonsandtwohundredcupsalreadyknownforhispearlhandledrevolvers,healsopursuedsteeplechasingfoxhunting,skeetshooting,andflyingButMajorPatton,unlikeMajorEisenhower,wasrichPerhapsnothingismoreillustrativeofAmericanprovincialismfourdecadesagothanabriefglanceatthemilitaryestablishmentitrequiresnomoreTheUShadthesixteenthlargestarmyintheworld,puttingitbehind,amongothers,Czechoslovakia,Turkey,Spain,Romania,andPolandWhenevery$amonthprivatehadsuitedup,therewere,AmericansinuniformOnpapertheycouldhaveputupastifffightagainst'Yugoslavia(,),butinrealitytheywouldhavebeentorntopieces,becausemostofMacArthur'smenwerecommittedtodeskwork,patrollingtheMexicanborder,andprotectingUSpossessionsoverseasThechiefofstaffwasleftwith,troopsfewerthantheforceKingGeorgesenttotamehisrebelliousAmericancoloniesinMoreover,thequalityoftheArmywasappallingItcostroughlyaquarterofonepercentoftoday'smilitaryjuggernaut,andlookeditFortunecalleditthe"worstequipped"oftheworld'sarmedforcesnoonedisputedthejudgmentInacrisisMacArthurcouldhavefielded,tanks,allobsolete,aircraft,thefastestofwhichcouldflymphandasinglemechanizedregiment,whichhadbeenorganizedatFortKnoxthatspring,andwhichwasledbycavalrymenonhorseswhichworemustardgasproofbootsTheUnitedStatesArmy,onewriterreported,"foreverwalksthewidelandintheimageofagapingmouthedprivatewithanillfittinguniformcarryinganobsoleterifleatanungracefulangle"MacArthurwastheonlyfourstargeneralinthecountryandtherewerenothreestargeneralsAschiefofstaffhereceived$,ayear,ahomeatFortMyer,andtheexclusiveuseoftheArmy'sonlylimousineTohisaideheseemedtooccupyadistantpinnacleMajorEisenhower'sannualsalarywas$,Becausehedoubledasthemilitary'scongressionallobbyist,hefrequentlywentuptoCapitolHillButhisemployerneverloanedhimthelimousineNorwasthemajorgiventaxifareinallofofficialWashington,therewasnosuchthingasapettycashfundInstead,ashelikedtorecallinlaterlife,Eisenhowerwouldwalkdownthehallandfilloutaform,inexchangeforwhichhereceivedtwostreetcartokensThenhewouldstandoutsideonPennsylvaniaAvenueandwaitforaMtPleasanttrolleycarItwasn'talongwaitWashingtonwaslacedwithtrolleytrackstherewerenearlysevenhundredstreetcarsinserviceExceptinwinter,whentheywerevulnerabletoshortcircuits,thecarswereefficient,andtrafficjamslayagenerationawayIfyoudrovetowork(observingthemphspeedlimit),youparkedinfrontofyourofficeTherewasalmostalwaysroomatthecurbTherewasalsoanextraordinaryvarietyamongthesquareshoulderedPackards,Studebakers,Grahams,PierceArrows,Terraplanes,andStutzes,fortheautomobilebusiness,bylatercorporatestandards,waspracticallyacottageindustryMenofallclasses,includingcivilservants,workedSaturdaymorningsInsummertheyworeaseasonalwardrobe:whitelinen("PalmBeach")orcottonsuitsstrawboatersorPanamahatsshirtswith"soft"collarsandlightunderwear,whichwasrestrictedtothewarmmonthsbecausecentralheatingwasrecentandfarfromuniversalTheDistrict'sfivedailypaperswerecrowdedwithnewsofsocialunrestin,butnoneofitwasaboutNegroesAlthoughpercentofWashingtonwasblack(thehighestratioinanyAmericancity),Negroesacceptedtheirappallinglotwithremarkableunanimity"DarkskinnedchildrenoftheSouth,"agovernmentguideexplained,wereconfinedtodomesticserviceand"manualwork"Departmentstores,movies,andgovernmentcafeteriaswereclosedtothemBlackworkmendiggingthefoundationsofthenewJusticeDepartmentbuildingonPennsylvaniaAvenueeitherbroughttheirlunchesorwenthungryeveniftheywantedaglassofwatertheyhadtowalktwomilesoutSeventhStreettofindarestaurantwhichwouldservethemThepresidentofHowardUniversity,theNegrocollege,wasawhitemanWhenPresidentHooversentGoldStarmotherstoFrance,blackmotherswereassignedtoasecond(andsecondclass)shipAndthemostpopularradioprograminthecountry,Amos'nAndy,wasanightlyracialslur,withitsNegropartsplayedbytwowhitemenaffectingminstrelshowaccents("I'seregusted"Dat'sdepropolition")BlacksoccupiedFoggyBottom,southwestWashington,andallofGeorgetown,whichhadnotyetbeendiscoveredbyloversofthequaint,possiblybecausetherestofthecitywassopicturesqueTheDistrictwasgreenerthenthereweresixshadetreesforeveryinhabitantThemostexoticneighborhoodswereKaloramaHeightsandupperMassachusettsAvenueAseveryJewknew,thelovelymansionstherewere"restricted,"butantiSemitismwasnomoreunfashionablethanwhiteracismitdidn'teventroublethediplomaticcommunity,sincetherewasnosuchnationasIsraelEmbassyRow,nowonMassachusettsAvenue,wasthenonSixteenthStreet,withinwalkingdistanceoftheWhiteHouse,andtheambassadorsworestripedpantsandfrockcoatsTheyhadtostepcarefullyiftheyroamedthedowntownarea,formuchofitwascobblestoneSupermarketswerestillaCaliforniaphenomenonDistrictfoodshoppingwasdoneinsmallgroceries,inredfrontedoutletsoftheGreatAtlanticPacificTeaCompany,inopenmarkets,oronpavementsOrgangrindersandpushcartpeddlerscouldbeheardinthestreets,togetherwiththeshoutsofmenwheelinggrindstonesandinvitinghousewivestobringthemscissorsandknivesforsharpeningDowntown,flowerandfruitstandsprovidedvividsplashesofcoloronstreetcornersOystermarketsflourisheddownbythewharvesTheWashingtonDistrictMarketwasonPennsylvaniaAvenuewheretheNationalArchivesnowstandsTheFarmersMarketwasonKStreetaswarmingspectacularcelebratedforthecriesofitsfishhawkersandracksofdeadrabbitsTherewasevenasaddlerywithalifesizewoodenhorseinfronttherewerestillseveralthousandworkhorsesintheDistrictinTheKStreetcobblesweredottedwiththeirmementos,thescentofwhich,mingledwithfragrancesfromthegreatmarketsandthecornerstands,wouldsoonvanishindeferencetothegreatgodmacadamEvenduringtheDepressionWashingtonwasvisitedbyswarmsoftourists,buttheydidnotlandatWashingtonNationalAirport,throughwhichwouldpassinatotalof,passengersadayThosefranticacresthenlaysilentunderthewatersofthePotomacAirtravelwasrareThelabormarketbeingwhatitwas,airlinescouldrequirethateverystewardessbearegisterednurse,butpassengerplanes,usuallytrimotorFords,neverflewatnightorinbadweatherTherewerenocoasttocoastflightsTheaverageairlinerspeedwasmphBychangingplanes,onemancrossedthecountryineighteenhourshispicturewasinallthepapersAlthoughWashingtonhadafieldHooverAirport,ontheVirginiasideofwhatisnowtheFourteenthStreetBridge(thencalledHighwayBridge)itwasusedbyonlypassengersadayThevastmajorityoftravelers,elevenmillionofthemeachyear,arrivedatUnionStationThegloriousreignofthesteamenginewasattheheightofitsIndiansummerTherewere,locomotivessnufflingacrossthecountryside(ascomparedtofewerthanin),andthelong,plaintivewailofthesteamwhistlestirredrestlessyoungmenalloverAmericaFifteenyearoldJohnFKennedyhearditattheChoateSchoolinWallingford,ConnecticutLyndonJohnson,thenateacherofpublicspeaking,hearditinHoustonandinWhittier,California,acollegestudentnamedRichardMNixonlistenedinthenight,wonderingwhatlayacrosstheeasternhorizonandwhatWashington,DC"waslikeWhatdidthosewhocameseeTobeginwith,theylookedatthetrainstationUnionStationhadbecomethefirstmassofmasonryerectedundertheplanforametropolisofclassicalbuildings,anditsimperialfacadetogetherwiththeCapitoldominatedthecityTheCapitolitselfstoodmuchasitdoesnow,facingeastward,atributetoonearchitect'sbeliefinwhichdirectionthecitywouldgrowBecausethelongexpansionofpresidentialpowerhadnotbegun,CongresswasWashington'sfocalpoint,andtourists,liketheBEF,madetheHilltheirfirststopForsomeitwasalsothelasttheWhiteHousediscouragedvisitors,andthereweren'tmanyotherattractionsThereweretheLincolnMemorialandtheWashingtonMonument,withitsnewelevator(thoughyoungstersstillfeltchallengedbythestepsup)TheBotanicalGardenswereopensowastheFolgerShakespeareLibraryTheSmithsonianInstitutionwaspopularinthesemonthsafterthesuccessfu

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《光荣与梦想(1932-1972年美国社会实录.and.the.dream】

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