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首页 【阿甘本】诗歌的终结:诗学研究

【阿甘本】诗歌的终结:诗学研究.pdf

【阿甘本】诗歌的终结:诗学研究

九月虺
2009-08-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【阿甘本】诗歌的终结:诗学研究pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEENDOFTHEPOEMStudiesinPoeticsGiorgioAgambenTheEndofthePoem:StudiesinPoeticswasoriginallypublishedinItalianinunderthetitleCategorieitaliane:Studidipoetica©byMarsilioEditorifortheItalianeditionStanfordUniversityPressStanford,CaliforniaAcknowledgments"Comedy"firstappearedinParagone()"Corn:FromAnatomytoPoetics"waspublishedinLeMoyenÂgedanslamodernité,MélangesoffertsàRogerDragonetti,edJeanRScheidegger,SabineGirardet,andEricHicks(Geneva:Champion,)"TheDreamofLanguage,"originallywrittenfortheFondazioneCiniconference"LanguagesofDreaming,"appearedinLettereitaliane()"PascoliandtheThoughtoftheVoice"waspublishedasaprefacetoGiovanniPascoli,Ilfanciullino(Milan:Feltrinelli,)"TheDictationofPoetry"appearedasaprefacetoAntonioDelfini'sPoesiedellafinedelmondo(Macerata:Quodlibet,)"ExpropriatedManner"waspublishedasaprefacetoGiorgioCaproni,Resamissa(Milan:Garzanti,)"TheCelebrationoftheHiddenTreasure"waspresentedataconferenceonElsaMoranteinPerugiainJanuary"TheEndofthePoem"waspresentedNovember,,attheUniversityofGenevaduringaconferencehonoringRogerDragonetti"AnEnigmaConcerningtheBasqueWoman"appearedinMarka()"TheHuntforLanguage"waspublishedinIlManifesto,January,"TheJustDoNotFeedonLight"appearedinIdra()asanintroductiontoEugenioDeSignoribuspoems"TakingLeaveofTragedy"waspublishedinFinesecolo,December,GAContentsPrefacexi§Comedy§Corn:FromAnatomytoPoetics§TheDreamofLanguage§PascoliandtheThoughtoftheVoice§TheDictationofPoetry§ExpropriatedManner§TheCelebrationoftheHiddenTreasure§TheEndofthePoemAppendixAAnEnigmaConcerningtheBasqueWomanBTheHuntforLanguageCTheJustDoNotFeedonLightDTakingLeaveofTragedyNotesPrefaceBetweenandImetregularlyinPariswithItaloCalvinoandClaudioRugafioritodefinetheprogramofareviewTheprojectwasambitious,andourconversations,whichoftenwerenotentirelyfocused,followedthedominantmotifsandmuffledechoesofeachofourinterestsWewere,however,inagreementaboutonething:onesectionofthereviewwastobededicatedtothedefinitionofwhatwecalled"Italiancategories"ItwasamatterofidentifyingnothinglessthanthecategorialstructuresofItalianculturethroughaseriesofconjoinedpolarconceptsClaudioimmediatelysuggestedarchitecturevagueness(thatis,thedominationofthemathematicalarchitectonicorderalongsidetheperceptionofbeautyassomethingvague)ItalohadalreadybeenorderingimagesandthemesalongthecoordinatesofspeedlightnessWorkingontheessayonthetitleoftheDivineComedythatopensthiscollection,Iproposedthatweexploreseveraloppositions:tragedycomedy,lawcreature,biographyfableForreasonsthatneednotbeclarifiedhere,theprojectwasneverrealizedOncewehadreturnedtoItaly,weallifindifferentwaysconfrontedthepoliticalchangethatwasalreadyunderwayandthatwastoimpresstheswithitsdarksealItwasobviouslyatimenotforprogrammaticdefinitions,butforresistanceandflightEchoesofourcommonprojectcanbefoundinItaloAmericanLectures,aswellasinalargenotebookthathasremainedamonghispapersFormypart,Iattemptedtoestablishthephysiognomyoftheproject,beforeitwasdefinitivelycanceled,inthe"programforareview"publishedinlimineinInfancyandHistory(Thosewhoareinterestedmaylookinthosepagesfortheprovisionallistofcategoriesintheiroriginal,problematiccontext)Intheirownway,theeightstudiescollectedhere(thefirstofwhichdatesfromthetimeoftheproject,thelastofwhichwasfinishedin)remainfaithfultothisprogramInthecourseoftime,othercategoriescametobeaddedtothoserudimentaryfirstones(mothertonguegrammaticallanguagelivinglanguagedeadlanguagestylemanner)Atthesametime,theprojectofadefinitionofthesecategoriesgraduallygavewaytoastudyofthegeneralproblemsinpoeticsthattheyimpliedEachoftheessaysinthisbookthusseekstodefineageneralproblemofpoeticswithrespecttoanexemplarycaseinthehistoryofliteratureTheinquiryintothereasonsforthetitleofDanteComedymakesitpossibletocastnewlightonthecomedytragedyoppositionatthebeginningofRomancepoetryareadingofHypnerotomachiaPolifiliandPascoliconsiderstheproblemoftherelationbetweenlivinglanguageanddeadlanguageasafundamentalinternaltensioninthepoeticsofmodernitytheintroductiontothepoeticworkofacontemporaryItalianwriter,AntonioDelfini,functionsasanoccasiontoreformulatetheoldproblemoftherelationbetweenlifeandpoetryandtodefinetheprincipleofnarrativeinRomanceliteraturesasaninventionoflivedexperienceonthebasisofpoetryand,finally,ananalysisofoneofthegreatestpoetsofthetwentiethcentury,GiorgioCaproni,definestheactofwritingwithrespecttothedialecticaltensionofstyleandmannerIn"Corn:FromAnatomytoPoetics"and"TheEndofthePoem,"thesubjectofstudyshiftstotheproblemofthespecificstructureofthepoemitselfThesetwoessaysarethustobeunderstoodasafirstcontributiontoaphilosophyandcriticismofmeterthatdonotyetexistThefirstoftheseessays,whichexaminesArnautDaniel'sobscenesirventes,developsRomanJakobson'sproblemoftherelationbetweensoundandsensethesecond,whichlendsitstitletothebookasawhole,considerstheendofthepoemasapointofcrisisthatisineverysensefundamentaltothestructureofpoetryTheinitialprogramofasystematicgridofthecategoriesbearingonItaliancultureneverthelessremainsunfinished,andthisbookmerelyoffersatorsooftheideaofwhichweoncetriedtocatchsightItisthereforededicatedtothememorynotonlyofcompanionship,butalsooftheoneamonguswhoisnolongerpresenttobearwitnesstoitTHEENDOFTHEPOEM§ComedyTHEPROBLEMTheaimofthisessayisthecriticalassessmentofaneventthatcanbechronologicallydatedatthebeginningofthefourteenthcenturybutthat,byvirtueofitsstillexertingaprofoundinfluenceonItalianculture,canbesaidtohaveneverceasedtotakeplaceThiseventisthedecisionofapoettoabandonhisown"tragic"poeticprojectfora"comic"poemThisdecisiontranslatesintoanextremelyfamousincipit,whichoneoftheauthor'slettersstatesasfollows:"HerebeginstheComedyofDanteAlighieri,aFlorentinebybirth,notbydisposition"(IncipitcomoediaDantisAlagheriiflorentininationenonmoribus)TheturnregisteredbythesewordsissolittleaquestioninternaltoDantescholarshipthatitcanevenbesaidthathere,forthefirsttime,wefindoneofthetraitsthatmosttenaciouslycharacterizesItalianculture:itsessentialpertinencetothecomicsphereandconsequentrefutationoftragedyThefactthatevenafewyearsaftertheauthor'sdeaththereasonsforthecomictitleappearedproblematicandincoherenttotheoldestcommentatorsbearswitnesstotheextenttowhichthisturnhidesahistoricalknotwhoserepressioncannoteasilybebroughttoconsciousnessAllthemoresurprisingisthepovertyofmoderncriticalliteratureonthesubjectThatascholarsuchasPioRajna(whosoinfluencedlaterstudies)couldreachsuchobviouslyinsufficientconclusionsasthosewithwhichhisstudyofthepoem'stitleendsissomethingthatcannotbeexplainedevenbyItalianculture'slackofcontactwithitsownoriginsEvenErichAuerbach,theauthorofsuchpenetratingworksonDante'sstyle,doesnotsucceedinexplainingthepoem'sincipitinsatisfyingterms"Dante,"hewrites,referringtotheancienttheoryoftheseparationofstyles,"neverfreedhimselfcompletelyfromtheseviewsotherwisehewouldnothavecalledhisgreatworkacomedyinclearestoppositiontothetermaltatragediawhichheappliedtoVirgilAeneid"And,concerningDante'slettertoCangrande,Auerbachwrites:ItisnoteasytoseehowDante,afterhavingfoundthisformulaandafterhavingcompletedtheComedy,couldstillhaveexpressedhimselfuponitscharacterwiththepedantryexhibitedinthepassagefromthelettertoCangrandejustreferredtoHowever,sogreatwastheprestigeoftheclassicaltradition,obscuredasitstillwasbypedanticschematization,sostrongwasthepredilectionforfixedtheoreticalclassificationsofakindwhichwecanbutconsiderabsurd,thatsuchapossibilitycannotbegainsaidafterallAsfarasexplanationsforDante'schoiceoftitleareconcerned,inacertainsensemoderncriticismhasnotprogressedbeyondBenvenutodaImola'sobservationsorthesuggestionswithwhichBoccaccioendshiscommentaryonthetitleofthepoem"What,"Boccaccioasks,willwethensayoftheobjectionsthathavebeenmadeagainstitOnthegroundsthattheauthorwasamostprudentman,Ibelievethathewouldhavehadinmindnotthepartscontainedincomedybutitsentirety,andthathenamedhisbookonthebasisofthisentirety,sotospeakAndfromwhatonecaninferfromPlautusandTerence,whowerecomicpoets,theentiretyofcomedyisthis:comedyhasaturbulentprinciple,isfullofnoiseanddiscord,andendsfinallyinpeaceandtranquillityThepresentbookaltogetherconformstothismodelThustheauthorbeginswithwoesandinfernaltroublesandendsitinthepeaceandgloryenjoyedbytheblessedintheireternallifeAndthiscertainlysufficestoexplainhowthesaidtitlesuitsthisbookThemethodologicalprinciplethatwefollowinthisstudyisthatourignoranceofanauthor'smotivationsinnowayauthorizesthepresumptionthattheyareincoherentorfaultyWeholdthatuntilprovenotherwise,Dante,as"amostprudentman"(oculatissimouomo),couldnothavechosenhisincipitlightlyorsuperficiallyOnthecontrary,preciselythefactthatthecomictitleappearsdiscordantwithrespecttowhatweknowoftheideasofthepoetandhisagebringsustoclaimthatitwascarefullyconsideredAprecisestudyofthepassagesinwhichDantespeaksofcomedyandtragedydemonstratesthatthisclaimistextuallyfoundedWethusknowthattoDante'seyes,thepoeticprojectthatgavebirthtothegreatsongsoftheRimeseemedeminentlytragicInDevulgarieloquentia,heexplicitlystatesthatthetragicstyleisthehighestofallstylesandtheonlyoneappropriatetotheultimateobjectsofpoetry:"wellbeing,loveandvirtue"(salus,amoretvirtus)Alittlelaterhedefinesthesongcanzone,thesupremepoeticgenre,asaconnectedseriesofequalstanzasinthetragicstyle,withoutarefrain,andfocusedonasingletheme,asIhaveshownwhenIwrote"Donnecheaveteintellettod'amore"IfIsay"aconnectedseriesinthetragicstyle,"itisbecause,werethestyleofthestanzacomic,wewouldusethediminutiveandcallitacanzonetta(iaequaliumstantiarumsineresponsoriotragicaconiugatio,utnosostendimuscumdicimus"Donnecheaveteintellettod'amore"Quodautemdicimustragicaconiugatio,estquiacumcornicefiathecconiugatio,cantilenamvocamusperdiminutionem)Thepoem'scomictitlethereforeaboveallimpliesaruptureandaturnwithrespecttoDante'sownpastandpoeticitinerary,agenuine"categoricalrevolution"thatassuchcannothavebeendecideduponwithoutconsciousandvitalmotivationInapassageofthelettertoCangrande,DanteseemsimplicitlytoaffirmsuchanawarenessofreasonsforhischoiceWithadefinitionthatformallyrepeatscommonplacesofmedievallexicography,Dantehereintroducesadiscussionthatcannotbefoundinanyofhisknownsources"Nowcomedyisacertainkindofpoeticalnarration,"hewrites,"whichdiffersfromallothers"(Etestcomoediagenusquoddampoëticenarrationisabomnibusaliisdifferens)Thisprivilegedsituationofthecomicgenre,whichhasnocounterpartineithermedievalorlateancientsources,presupposesanintentiononthepoet'sparttoaltersemanticallytheterm"comedy"inasensethatcertainlygoesbeyondwhatmoderncriticismbelievesitselftohaveascertainedFromthisperspective,thefactthatintheInfernoDanteexplicitlydefinestheAeneidas"hightragedy"iseverybitassignificantasthefactthathetitleshisown"sacredpoem"acomedyThisissonotonlybecausehethuscomestoopposetheComedytotheworkofthepoetfromwhomheconsidershimselftodraw"thebeautifulstylethathasdonemehonor"(lobelstilechemihafattoonore),butalsobecausethedefinitionoftheAeneidasatragedycannotbecoherentlyreconciledwiththecriteriaofthe"peacefulbeginning"and"foulend"indicatedinthelettertoCangrandeInanattempttouseonehalfoftheproblemasanexplanationfortheotherhalf,ithasbeensaidthattoDante'seyes,theAeneid,asapoeticnarrationinthehighstyle,couldonlybeatragedyInfact,accordingtoatraditionthathasitsorigininDiomedesandthatisstillaliveinIsidoreofSeville,theAeneidfiguresinmedievaltreatisesasanexamplenotoftragedyasmuchasofthatgenreofpoeticnarrationthatwasdefinedasgenuscommuneonaccountofpresentingthespeechofbothcharactersandtheauthorItiscuriousthat,ashasbeenoccasionallynoted,inmedievaltreatisestheclassificationofthethreestyleswhoseprototypeistobefoundintheRhetoricaadHerenniumdoesnotnecessarilycoincidewiththatofthegenresofpoeticnarrationComedyandtragedy,whichneverentirelylosttheirdramaticconnotation,werecommonlylistedalongsidesatireandmimeinthegenusactivamordramaticon(inwhichonlycharactersspeak,withouttheinterventionoftheauthor)Theenumerationofstyles,moreover,alwaysinvolvedareferenceatleasttotheelegy,andcouldneverbeexhaustedinthecomedytragedyoppositionTheradicalitywithwhichthelettertoCangrandetransformsthisdoubleclassificationintoatragedycomedyantinomyanantinomythatisatoncestylisticandsubstantial,andwithrespecttowhichotherpoeticgenresarequicklysetasideisinitselfasufficientsignofastrong,conscioussenseofthesetwotermsFromthisperspective,theecloguetoGiovannidiVirgilioconstitutesanotherpieceofevidenceHereDantealludestohisownpoemwiththeexpressioncomicaverbaTheinterpretationofthispassagehasbeenledastraybyoneofBoccaccio'sglosses,whichexplainsthat"comica,idestvulgaria"TheinfluenceofthisglosshasbeensotenaciousthatevenintherecentEnciclopediadantescaonereadsthat,inthefirsteclogue,Danteresolutelyidentified"thecomicinthevernacular"AtextthatcouldhaveshedlightonDante'schoiceoftitlethusbecameirrelevant,sincetheidentificationbetweencomicstyleandtheItalianlanguageisclearlyuntenableAnattentivereadingofGiovanni'sverseepistledemonstratesthatthereproachesmadetoDantebytheBolognesehumanisthaveastheirobjectnotsimplytheuseofthevernacularasopposedtoLatinbutratherthechoiceofcomedyasopposedtotragedyTheexpressionwithwhichGiovannicharacterizesDante'swriting,sermoneforensi,doesnotalludetothevernacularbutrathercorrespondstothesermonepedestriofthepassageinHoracecitedbyDanteinhislettertoCangrande,aswellastothecotidianosermoneofmedievalpoeticsSermoneforensi,inotherwords,referstoachoiceofstyleandnotlanguageThisinterpretationisconfirmedbyafurtherpassageintheletterinwhichGiovanni,specifyinghisobjections,encouragesDantetosingin"propheticverse"thegreatfactsofthehistoryofhisage,thatis,theheroicand"public"materialoftragedyinsteadofthe"private"mattersofcomedyAtthecenterofthedebatewithGiovannidiVirgilio,whichbelongstotheculturalcirclefromwhichthefirstmoderntragedy,MussatotragoediaEcerinis,wastobeborn,isnotasmuchtheLatinvernacularoppositionasthetragedycomedyoneThistestifiesonceagaintothefactthatforDante,thecomictitleofhispoemisneithercontingentnorfragmentary,butratherconstitutestheaffirmationofaprincipleIfthisistrue,thenitisallthemoredispiritingthatthetitleoftheComedyisnotcompatiblewiththesetofdefinitionsgivenbyDanteforthetragiccomicopposition,andthatthesedefinitionscannot,moreover,bereducedtoaunitarysystemAshasbeennoted,thesedefinitionsarearticulatedontwoplanes:astylisticformalone(themodusloquendi),andamaterialsubstantialone(themateriaorsententia)InDevulgarieloquentia(inwhichthestylisticaspectisprevalentandwhoseincompletenessissuchthatthisworkgivesusnogenuinethematictreatmentofcomedy),thetragicstyleisdefined,accordingtotheprinciplesoftheclassicaltripartitionofstyles,asthemostelevatedstyle(superioremstilum),inharmonywiththeheightofthematerialreservedforit(thethreegreatmagnalia:salus,amore,andvirtus)InthelettertoCangrande,inwhichthematerialarticulationisprevalent,thetragiccomicoppositionisinsteadcharacterizedontheplaneofcontentandasanoppositionofbeginningandend:tragedyismarkedbyan"admirable"and"peaceful"beginninganda"foul"and"horrible"endcomedybya"horrible"and"foul"beginninganda"prosperous"and"pleasant"endOnthestylisticplane,thetragiccomicoppositionispresentedasanoppositionbetweenwhatis,inonecase,anelevatedandsublimemodusloquendiand,intheother,a"lowly"and"humble"modusloquendi(tempered,however,byareferencetoHorace,wholicentiatliquandocomicosuttragicosloqui)EvenasuperficialexaminationofthesecategoriesdemonstratesthataccordingtothecriteriaofDevulgarieloquentia,theComedycannotjustifyitstitlewithoutcontradiction,thoughtheAeneidprobablycanbecoherentlydefinedasatragedyAccordingtothecriteriaofthelettertoCangrande,bycontrast,whilethetragicjustificationoftheAeneidappearsunfounded,theComedysufficientlyjustifiesitstitleTheonlythingthatcaninfactbeaffirmedwithcertaintyisthatinDevulgarieloquentia,Dantehasinmindatragicpoeticprojectthatisprincipallyarticulatedonthestylisticplane,whereasthelettertoCangrandeseekstojustifyacomicchoicedefinedinmainlymaterialtermsNoreasonsforthischangecan,however,beidentifiedTheonlynewelementthatappearsinthelettertoCangrandeisthepeacefulbeginningharshbeginning,foulendprosperousendoppositionthatis,preciselytheelementthatappearstooureyesasamanneredrepetitionofextremelysuperficiallexicographicstereotypesThisissomuchthecasethatoneoftheoldestcommentatorsandalmostallmodernscholarsprefertodwellonthestylisticformalreasons,howeverdef

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