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首页 【阿甘本】无内容的人

【阿甘本】无内容的人.pdf

【阿甘本】无内容的人

九月虺
2009-08-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【阿甘本】无内容的人pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEMANWITHOUTCONTENTGiorgioAgambenTheManWithoutContentwasoriginallypublishedinItalianinunderthetitleL'uomosenzacontenuto©byQuodlibetfortheItalianeditionToGiovanniUrbaniasatokenoffriendshipandgratitudeContentsTranslator'sNote§TheMostUncannyThing§FrenhoferandHisDouble§TheManofTasteandtheDialecticoftheSplit§TheCabinetofWonder§"Lesjugementssurlapoésieontplusdevaleurquelapoésie"§ASelfAnnihilatingNothing§PrivationIsLikeaFace§PoiesisandPraxis§TheOriginalStructureoftheWorkofArt§TheMelancholyAngelNotesTranslator'sNoteTheManWithoutContentengagesinadialoguewithalargenumberofliteraryandespeciallyphilosophicalfigures,fromPlatotoWalterBenjaminWiththeexceptionoftheGreekandFrenchsources,AgambenquotesinItaliantranslation,frequentlyhisownIntheinstancesinwhichIhavelocatedEnglishtranslationsforthepassagesquoted,IhaveroutinelymodifiedthemtofollowmorecloselythewordingofAgamben'sItaliantranslationsIncaseswherenopublishedtranslationiscited,thetranslationsaremineThankstoThomasAlbrecht,DavidArndt,JenniferBajorek,ESBurt,ErinFerris,KevinNewmark,RichardRegosin,andElizabethRottenbergforhelpwithsources,andtoNancyYoungforherexcellenteditingTHEMANWITHOUTCONTENT§ITheMostUncannyThingInthethirdessayoftheGenealogyofMorals,NietzschesubjectstheKantiandefinitionofthebeautifulasdisinterestedpleasuretoaradicalcritique:Kantthoughthewashonoringartwhenamongthepredicatesofbeautyheemphasizedandgaveprominencetothosewhichestablishedthehonorofknowledge:impersonalityanduniversalityThisisnottheplacetoinquirewhetherthiswasessentiallyamistakeallIwishtounderlineisthatKant,likeallphilosophers,insteadofenvisagingtheaestheticproblemfromthepointofviewoftheartist(thecreator),consideredartandthebeautifulpurelyfromthatofthe"spectator,"andunconsciouslyintroducedthe"spectator"intotheconcept"beautiful"Itwouldnothavebeensobadifthis"spectator"hadatleastbeensufficientlyfamiliartothephilosophersofbeautynamely,asagreatpersonalfactandexperience,asanabundanceofvividauthenticexperiences,desires,surprises,anddelightsintherealmofthebeautiful!ButIfearthatthereversehasalwaysbeenthecaseandsotheyhaveofferedus,fromthebeginning,definitionsinwhich,asinKant'sfamousdefinitionofthebeautiful,alackofanyrefinedfirsthandexperiencereposesintheshapeofafatwormoferror"Thatisbeautiful,"saidKant,"whichgivesuspleasurewithoutinterest"Withoutinterest!Comparewiththisdefinitiononeframedbyagenuine"spectator"andartistStendhal,whooncecalledthebeautifulunepromessedebonheurAtanyrateherejectedandrepudiatedtheonepointabouttheaestheticconditionwhichKanthadstressed:ledésinteressementWhoisright,KantorStendhalIfouraestheticiansneverwearyofassertinginKant'sfavorthat,underthespellofbeauty,onecanevenviewundrapedfemalestatues"withoutinterest,"onemaylaughalittleattheirexpense:theexperiencesofartistsonthisticklishpointaremore"interesting,"andPygmalionwasinanyeventnotnecessarilyan"unaestheticman"TheexperienceofartthatisdescribedinthesewordsisinnowayanaestheticsforNietzscheOnthecontrary:thepointispreciselytopurifytheconceptof"beauty"byfilteringouttheαἴσθησις,thesensoryinvolvementofthespectator,andthustoconsiderartfromthepointofviewofitscreatorThispurificationtakesplaceasareversalofthetraditionalperspectiveontheworkofart:theaestheticdimensionthesensibleapprehensionofthebeautifulobjectonthepartofthespectatorisreplacedbythecreativeexperienceoftheartistwhoseesinhisworkonlyunepromessedebonheur,apromiseofhappinessHavingreachedthefurthestlimitofitsdestinyinthe"houroftheshortestshadow,"artleavesbehindtheneutralhorizonoftheaestheticandrecognizesitselfinthe"goldenball"ofthewilltopowerPygmalion,thesculptorwhobecomessoenamoredofhiscreationastowishthatitbelongednolongertoartbuttolife,isthesymbolofthisturnfromtheideaofdisinterestedbeautyasadenominatorofarttotheideaofhappiness,thatis,ofanunlimitedgrowthandstrengtheningofthevitalvalues,whilethefocalpointofthereflectiononartmovesfromthedisinterestedspectatortotheinterestedartistInforeseeingthischange,NietzschewasagoodprophetasusualIfonecompareswhathewritesinthethirdessayoftheGenealogyofMoralswiththetermsAntoninArtaudusesintheprefacetoTheaterandItsDoubletodescribetheagonyofWesternculture,onenotices,preciselyonthispoint,asurprisingagreementintheirviews"ItisouroccidentalideaofartthathascausedustolosecultureToourinertanddisinterestedideaofartanauthenticcultureopposesaviolentlyegoisticandmagical,ie,interestedidea''Inasense,theideathatartisnotadisinterestedexperiencewasperfectlyfamiliarinothererasWhenArtaud,in"TheaterandPlague,"Plague,"remembersthedecreeissuedbyScipioNasica,thegrandpontiffwhohadtheRomantheatersrazed,andthefurywithwhichSaintAugustineattacksthe"scenicgames,"responsibleforthedeathofthesoul,onecanhearinhiswordsthenostalgiathatasoulsuchashis,whothoughtthattheaterdrewitsonlyworth"fromanexcruciatingmagicalrelationtorealityanddanger,"musthavefeltforatimethathadsuchaconcreteandinterestednotionofthetheaterastodeemitnecessarytodestroyitforthehealthofsoulandcityItisnodoubtsuperfluoustonotethattodayitwouldbeimpossibletofindsuchideasevenamongcensorsHowever,itmaybeusefultopointoutthatthefirsttimethatsomethingsimilartoanautonomousexaminationoftheaestheticphenomenonappearsinEuropeanmedievalsociety,ittakestheformofaversionandrepugnancetowardart,intheinstructionsgivenbythosebishopswho,facedwiththemusicalinnovationsofthearsnova,prohibitedthemodulationofthesongandthefractiovocisduringthereligiousservicesbecausetheydistractedthefaithfulwiththeircharmThus,amongthestatementsinfavorofinterestedart,NietzschemighthavecitedapassageinPlatoRepublicthatisofteninvokedwhenspeakingaboutart,eventhoughthishasnotmadetheparadoxicalattitudethatisexpressedthereanylessscandaloustothemodernearPlato,asiswellknown,seesthepoetasadangerandacauseofruinforthecity:Ifamanwhowascapablebyhiscunningofassumingeverykindofshapeandimitatingallthingsshouldarriveinourcity,bringingwithhimselfthepoemswhichhewishedtoexhibit,weshouldfalldownandworshiphimasaholyandwondrousanddelightfulcreature,butshouldsaytohimthatthereisnomanofthatkindamongusinourcity,norisitlawfulforsuchamantoariseamongus,andweshouldsendhimawaytoanothercity,afterpouringmyrrhdownoverhisheadandcrowninghimwithfilletsofwood"Wecanadmitnopoetryintoourcity,"addsPlatowithanexpressionthatshocksouraestheticsensibility,"saveonlyhymnstothegodsandthepraisesofgoodmenEvenbeforePlato,however,acondemnationofart,oratleastasuspiciousstancetowardit,hadalreadybeenexpressedinthewordsofapoet,namelySophocles,attheendofthefirststasimonofhisAntigoneAftercharacterizingman,insofarasheistheonewhohasτέχνη(thatis,inthebroadmeaningtheGreeksgavethisterm,theabilitytoproduce,tobringathingfromnonbeingintobeing),asthemostuncannythingthereis,thechoruscontinuesbysayingthatthispowercanleadtohappinessaseasilyastoruin,andconcludeswithawishthatrecallsthePlatonicbanonpoets:"Notbymyfire,nevertosharemythoughts,whodoesthesethings"EdgarWindhasobservedthatthereasonwhyPlato'sstatementissosurprisingtousisthatartdoesnotexertthesameinfluenceonusasitdidonhimOnlybecausearthasleftthesphereofinteresttobecomemerelyinterestingdowewelcomeitsowarmlyInadraftofTheManWithoutQualitiesthatRobertMusilwroteatatimewhenthedefinitivedesignofhisnovelwasnotyetclearinhismind,Ulrich(whostillappearswithhisearliername,Anders)enterstheroomwhereAgatheisplayingthepianoandfeelsanobscureandirresistibleimpulsethatdriveshimtofiresomegunshotsattheinstrumentthatisdiffusingthroughthehousesucha"desolatingly"beautifulharmonyAsforus,however,itislikelythatifweattemptedtogotothebottomofthepeacefulcontemplationthatwe,unlikeUlrich,usuallyreserveforworksofart,wewouldeventuallyfindourselvesinagreementwithNietzsche,whothoughtthathistimehadnorighttoanswerPlato'squestionaboutart'smoralinfluence,since"evenifwehadtheartwheredoweseetheinfluence,anyinfluencefromart"Plato,andGreekclassicalantiquityingeneral,hadaverydifferentexperienceofart,anexperiencehavinglittletodowithdisinterestandaestheticenjoymentThepowerofartoverthesoulseemedtohimsogreatthathethoughtitcouldbyitselfdestroytheveryfoundationsofhiscitybutnonetheless,whilehewasforcedtobanishit,hedidsoreluctantly,"sinceweourselvesareveryconsciousofherspell"Thetermheuseswhenhewantstodefinetheeffectsofinspiredimaginationisθει̑οςϕοβός,"divineterror,"atermthatwe,benevolentspectators,nodoubtfindinappropriatetodefineourreactions,butthatneverthelessisfoundwithincreasingfrequency,afteracertaintime,inthenotesinwhichmodernartistsattempttocapturetheirexperienceofartItappears,infact,thatsimultaneouslywiththeprocessthroughwhichthespectatorinsinuateshimselfintotheconceptof"art,"confiningittotheτόποςοὐράνιος,theheavenlyplace,ofaesthetics,weseetheoppositeprocesstakingplacefromthepointofviewoftheartistFortheonewhocreatesit,artbecomesanincreasinglyuncannyexperience,withrespecttowhichspeakingofinterestisattheveryleastaeuphemism,becausewhatisatstakeseemstobenotinanywaytheproductionofabeautifulworkbutinsteadthelifeanddeathoftheauthor,oratleasthisorherspiritualhealthTotheincreasinginnocenceofthespectator'sexperienceinfrontofthebeautifulobjectcorrespondstheincreasingdangerinherentintheartist'sexperience,forwhomart'spromessedebonheurbecomesthepoisonthatcontaminatesanddestroyshisexistenceTheideathatextremeriskisimplicitintheartist'sactivitybeginstogaincurrency,almostasthoughsothoughtBaudelaireitwereasortofdueltothedeath"oùl'artistecriedefrayeuravantd'êtrevaincu"("wheretheartistcriesoutinfrightbeforebeingdefeated")andtoprovehowlittlethisideaismerelyonemetaphoramongthoseformingthe"properties"ofthe"literaryhistrio,'itsufficestoquotewhatHölderlinwroteonthebrinkofmadness:"IfearthatImightendliketheoldTantaluswhoreceivedmorefromtheGodsthanhecouldtake,"and"ImaysaythatApollostruckme''OrthenotefoundinVanGogh'spocketonthedayofhisdeath:"Well,asformyownwork,Iriskmylifeinitandmysanityhasalreadyhalfmeltedawayinit"OrRilke,inalettertoClaraRilke:"Worksofartarealwaystheproductofariskonehasrun,ofanexperiencetakentoitsextremelimit,tothepointwheremancannolongergoon"Anothernotionthatweencountermoreandmorefrequentlyinartists'opinionsisthatartissomethingfundamentallydangerousnotonlyfortheonewhoproducesitbutforsocietyaswellHölderlin,inthenotesinwhichheattemptstocondensethemeaningofhisunfinishedtragedy,findsacloseconnection,almostaunity,betweentheprincipleoftheAgrigentans'anarchicunbridlednessandEmpedocles'titanicpoetryandheappears,inaprojectedhymn,toconsiderarttheessentialcausethatledtotheruinofGreece:fortheywantedtofoundakingdomofartButtheymissedthenationaldasVaterländischeintheattemptandwretchedlyGreece,thehighestbeauty,wasruinedAnditislikelythatinallofmodernliteratureneitherMonsieurTeste,norWerftRönne,norAdrianLeverkühnwoulddisagreewithhim,butonlyacharacterwithsuchseeminglyhopelessbadtasteasRomainRolland'sJeanChristopheEverything,then,leadsonetothinkthatiftodaywegavetheartiststhemselvesthetaskofjudgingwhetherartshouldbeallowedinthecity,theywouldjudgefromtheirownexperienceandagreewithPlatoonthenecessityofbanishingitIfthisistrue,thentheentranceofartintotheaestheticdimensionandtheunderstandingofitstartingfromtheαἴσθησιςofthespectatorisnotasinnocentandnaturalaphenomenonaswecommonlythinkPerhapsnothingismoreurgentifwereallywanttoengagetheproblemofartinourtimethanadestructionofaestheticsthatwould,byclearingawaywhatisusuallytakenforgranted,allowustobringintoquestiontheverymeaningofaestheticsasthescienceoftheworkofartThequestion,however,iswhetherthetimeisripeforsuchadestruction,orwhetherinsteadtheconsequenceofsuchanactwouldnotbethelossofanypossiblehorizonfortheunderstandingoftheworkofartandthecreationofanabyssinfrontofitthatcouldonlybecrossedwitharadicalleapButperhapsjustsuchalossandsuchanabyssarewhatwemostneedifwewanttheworkofarttoreacquireitsoriginalstatureAndifitistruethatthefundamentalarchitecturalproblembecomesvisibleonlyinthehouseravagedbyfire,thenperhapswearetodayinaprivilegedpositiontounderstandtheauthenticsignificanceoftheWesternaestheticprojectFourteenyearsbeforeNietzschepublishedthethirdessayoftheGenealogyofMorals,apoet,whosewordremainsinscribedlikeaMedusa'sheadinthedestinyofWesternart,hadaskedpoetryneithertoproducebeautifulworksnortorespondtoadisinterestedaestheticideal,buttochangeman'slifeandreopenthegatesofEdenforhimInthisexperience,inwhichlamagiqueétudedubonheur(themagicalstudyofhappiness)obscuresallotherdesigntothepointofbecomingthesolefatalityofpoetryandlife,RimbaudhadencounteredTerrorThusthe"embarkationfortheislandofCythera"ofmodernartwastoleadtheartistnottothepromisedhappinessbuttoacompetitionwiththeMostUncanny,withthedivineterrorthathaddrivenPlatotobanishthepoetsfromhiscityOnlyifunderstoodasthefinalmomentofthisongoingprocess,throughwhichartpurifiesitselfofthespectatortofinditselffacedbyanabsolutethreat,doesNietzsche'sinvocationintheprefacetotheGayScienceacquireallitsenigmaticmeaning:"Ah,ifyoucouldreallyunderstandwhyweofallpeopleneedart,"but"anotherkindofartanartforartists,forartistsonly!"§FrenhoferandHisDoubleHowcanart,thismostinnocentofoccupations,pitmanagainstTerrorInLesfleursdeTarbes,JeanPaulhantakesashispremiseafundamentalambiguityinlanguagenamely,thefactthatitisconstitutedontheonehandbysignsthatareperceivedbythesenses,andontheotherbyideasassociatedwiththesesignsinsuchawayastobeimmediatelyevokedbythemandmakesadistinctionbetweentwokindsofwritersTherearetheRhetoricians,whodissolveallmeaningintoformandmakeformintothesolelawofliterature,andtheTerrorists,whorefusetobendtothislawandinsteadpursuetheoppositedreamofalanguagethatwouldbenothingbutmeaning,ofathoughtinwhoseflamethesignwouldbefullyconsumed,puttingthewriterfacetofacewiththeAbsoluteTheTerroristisamisologist,anddoesnotrecognizeinthedropofwaterthatremainsonhisfingertipstheseainwhichhethoughthehadimmersedhimselftheRhetoricianlookstothewordsandappearstodistrustthoughtThattheworkofartissomethingotherthanwhatissimpleinitisalmosttooobviousThisiswhattheGreeksexpressedwiththeconceptofallegory:theworkofartἄλλοἀγορεύει,communicatessomethingelse,issomethingotherthanthematerialthatcontainsitButthereareobjectsforexample,ablockofstone,adropofwater,andgenerallyallnaturalobjectsinwhichformseemstobedeterminedandalmostcanceledoutbymatter,andotherobjectsavase,aspade,oranyothermanmadeobjectinwhichformseemstobewhatdeterminesmatterThedreamoftheTerroristocreateworksthatareintheworldinthesamewayastheblockofstoneorthedropofwateritisthedreamofaproductthatexistsaccordingtothestatuteofthething"Leschefsd'oeuvressontbêtes,"wroteFlaubert"ilsontlaminetranquillecommelesproductionsmêmesdelanature,commelesgrandsanimauxetlesmontagnes"("Masterpiecesarestupid:theyhaveplacidfacesliketheveryproductsofnature,likebiganimalsandmountains")andDegas,Valérywrites,usedtosay"C'estplatcommelabellepeinture!"("It'sjustasdullasbeautifulpainting!")ThepainterFrenhofer,inBalzacTheUnknownMasterpiece,istheperfecttypeoftheTerroristFrenhoferhasattemptedfortenyearstocreateonhiscanvassomethingthatwouldnotbejustaworkofart,albeitthatofageniuslikePygmalion,hehaserasedartwitharttomakeoutofhisSwimmernotanassemblageofsignsandcolorsbutthelivingrealityofhisthoughtandhisimaginationHetellshistwovisitors,"Mypaintingmapeintureisnotapainting,butafeeling,apassion!Borninmystudio,itellemustremainhereasavirginandnotleaveifnotcovered"Andlater:"Youareinfrontofawoman,andyouarelookingforapictureThereissuchdepthonthiscanvas,itsairissotrue,thatyoucan'tdistinguishitfromtheairthatsurroundsusWhereisartLost,vanished!"Butinthisquestforabsolutemeaning,Frenhoferhassucceededonlyinobscuringhisideaanderasingfromthecanvasanyhumanform,disfiguringitinto"achaosofcolors,tones,hesitatingnuances,akindofshapelessfog"Infrontofthisabsurdwallofpaint,theyoungPoussin'scry"butsoonerorlaterhewillhavetorealizethatthereisnothingonhiscanvas!"soundslikeanalarmrespondingtothethreatthattheTerrorstartsposingforWesternartButletustakeasecondlookatFrenhofer'spaintingOnthecanvasthereisonlyaconfusedmassofcolorscontainedinsideajumbleofindecipherablelinesAllmeaninghasbeendissolved,allcontenthasvanished,exceptthetipofafootthatstandsoutfromtherestofthecanvas"likethetorsoofaVenussculptedinParosmarblestandingamongtheruinsofacitydestroyedbyfire"(Chefd'oeuvre,p)Thequestforabsolutemeaninghasdevouredallmeaning,allowingonlysigns,meaninglessforms,tosurviveBut,then,isn'ttheunknownmasterp

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