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首页 【汉娜·阿伦特】康德哲学讲演录

【汉娜·阿伦特】康德哲学讲演录.pdf

【汉娜·阿伦特】康德哲学讲演录

九月虺
2009-08-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【汉娜·阿伦特】康德哲学讲演录pdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

LECTURESONKANTSPoliticalPhilosophyTHELIFEOFTHEMINDPartIIIJUDGINGVictrixcausadiisplacuitsedvictaCatonsKgnnt'IchMagievonmeinemPfadentfernen,DieZaubersprucheganzundgarverlernenStandichNaturvorDir,einMannallein«Dawar'sderMuhewerteinMenschzuseinJudgingwastohavebeenthethirdandfinalvolumeofHannahArendt'sTheLifeoftheMindAllthatsheactuallywrotewasthistitlepage,which,withitstwQepigraphs,wasfoundinhertypewritershortlyafterherdeathHannahArendtLECTURESONKANTSPoliticalPhilosophyEDITEDANDWITHANINTERPRETIVEESSAYBYRonaldBeinerTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESSTheUniversityofChicagoPress,ChicagoTheHarvesterPress,Limited,Brighton,Sussex©byTheUniversityofChicagoAllrightsreservedPublishedPaperbackeditionPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataArendt,HannahLecturesonKant'spoliticalphilosophyIncludesbibliographicalreferencesKant,Immanuel,Addresses,essays,lecturesIBeiner,Ronald,IITitleJCKA''AACRISBN(pbk)HannahArendt's"Postscriptum"toTheLifeoftheMind,volumeone,©,byHarcourtBraceJovanovich,Inc,isreprintedwiththepermissionofthepublishers,HarcourtBraceJovanovich,Inc,andMartinSeckerWarburg,LimitedThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsoftheAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSIZContentsPreface,byRonaldBeinerviiPARTONETextsbyArendtPostscriptumtoThinkingLecturesonKant'sPoliticalPhilosophyImaginationPARTTWOInterpretiveEssayHannahArendtonJudging,byRonaldBeinerNotesPrefaceHANNAHARENDTneverlivedtowrite"Judging,"whichwastohavebeenthethirdandconcludingpartofherworkTheLifeoftheMindYetstudentsofherthoughtwouldhaveamplejustificationforbelievingthat,haditbeenwritten,itwouldhavebeenhercrowningachievementThepurposeofthepresentbookistodrawtogetherthemainavailabletextsbyArendtonthisimportanttopicObviously,thesetextscanbenosubstitutefortheworkthatwasnotwritten,butIthinktheycanoffercluestothelikelydirectionHannahArendt'sthinkingwouldhavetakeninthisarea,especiallywhentheyareviewedinthecontextofherworkasawholeInmyinterpretiveessayIhavehopedtoshowthatsomethingcoherentcanindeedbegleanedfromthesetextsandtohelpgivethereadersomesenseoftheirimportanceNomorethanthisisclaimedformyspeculativereconstructionThefirsttextisArendt'sPostscriptumtovolumeoneofTheLifeoftheMindThisformsapreludeto"Judging,"sinceitoffersabriefplanoftheprojectedworkandindicatesthebasicthemesandoverallintention(ThePostscriptum,thelastchapteroiThinking,formsatransitionbetweenthetwovolumesofTheLifeoftheMind,andannouncesthemaintopicsintendedfortreatmentinvolumetwo)TheLecturesonKant'sPoliticalPhilosophy,thecoreofthepresentvolume,areanexpositionofKant'saestheticandpoliticalwritings,designedtoshowthattheCritiqueofJudgmentcontainstheoutlinesofapowerfulandimportantpoliticalphilosophyonethatKanthimselfdidnotdevelopexplicitly(andofwhichhewasperhapsnotfullyconscious)butthatmay,nonetheless,constitutehisgreatestlegacytopoliticalphilosophersHannahArendtgavetheseKantLecturesfirstattheNewSchoolforSocialResearch,duringtheFallsemesterofShehadpresentedanearlierversionofthemattheUniversityofChicagoin,andmaterialonjudgingwasalsoincludedinVllVlllPREFACElecturesshegaveonmoralphilosophyatChicagoandattheNewSchoolduringandArendtwasscheduledtolectureagainontheCritiqueofJudgmentintheSpringsemesterofattheNewSchool,butherdeathcameinDecember,ThenotesonImaginationarefromaseminarontheCritiqueofJudgmentgivenattheNewSchoolduringthesamesemesterastheKantLectures(Arendtcommonlygaveseminarsconcurrentlywithlecturesoncloselyrelatedtopicsinordertoexplorecertainideasingreaterdepth)TheseseminarnoteshelptoelaboratetheKantLecturesbyshowingthatthenotionofexemplaryvaliditythatemergesinthethirdCritiqueandthedoctrineoftheSchematisminthefirstCritiquearelinkedbytheroleofimagination,whichisfundamentaltoboth,providingschemataforcognitionaswellasexamplesforjudgmentMyaimhasbeentoprovideasfullaselectionoftextsasthereaderwouldneedinordertoglimpseHannahArendt'semergingreflectionsonjudgingOtheravailablelecturematerialshavebeenleftoutbecausetohaveincludedthemwouldhaveproducedeitherrepetitiveness,whereherviewshadnotchanged,orinconsistency,whereherviewshaddevelopedbeyondthoseexpressedintheearliersketchesIhave,however,madeuseoftheseothermaterials,wheretheyarerelevant,inmycommentaryThewritingsassembledinthisvolumeare,inthemain,lecturenotesthatwereneverintendedforpublicationAlthoughchangeshavebeenmadewherethewordingorpunctuationseemedungrammaticalorinsufficientlyclear,thesubstancehasnotbeenaltered,andtheyretaintheiroriginalformasnotesforlecturesThusthecontentsofthisvolumeshouldinnowaybemistakenforfinishedcompositionsThereasonfortheirbeingmadeavailableissimplytogiveaccesstoideasofsignalimportanceideasthattheauthorherselfdidnotlivetodevelopinthewayshehadintendedArendt'scitationsofsourcesinthelectureandseminarnoteswereoftenrathersketchy,andsomewereplainlyinaccurateTheresponsibilityforthenotesaccompanyingArendt'stextsis,therefore,entirelymineIamdeeplyindebtedtoMaryMcCarthyforherconstanthelpandunfailingkindness,withoutwhichthisvolumewouldnothavebeenpossibleIamobligedalsotothestaffoftheManuscriptDivisionoftheLibraryofCongressfortheirhelpfulcooperationPARTONETextsbyArendtPostscriptumtoThinkingFromTheLifeoftheMind,VolumeOneINTHESECONDVOLUMEofthisworkTheLifeoftheMindIshalldealwithwillingandjudging,thetwoothermentalactivitiesLookedatfromtheperspectiveofthesetimespeculations,theyconcernmattersthatareabsenteitherbecausetheyarenotyetorbecausetheyarenomorebutincontradistinctiontothethinkingactivity,whichdealswiththeinvisiblesinallexperienceandalwaystendstogeneralize,theyalwaysdealwithparticularsandinthisrespectaremuchclosertotheworldofappearancesIfwewishtoplacateourcommonsense,sodecisivelyoffendedbytheneedofreasontopursueitspurposelessquestformeaning,itistemptingtojustifythisneedsolelyonthegroundsthatthinkingisanindispensablepreparationfordecidingwhatshallbeandforevaluatingwhatisnomoreSincethepast,beingpast,becomessubjecttoourjudgment,judgment,inturn,wouldbeamerepreparationforwillingThisisundeniablytheperspective,and,withinlimits,thelegitimateperspective,ofmaninsofarasheisanactingbeingButthislastattempttodefendthethinkingactivityagainstthereproachofbeingimpracticalanduselessdoesnotworkThedecisionthewillarrivesatcanneverbederivedfromthemechanicsofdesireorthedeliberationsoftheintellectthatmayprecedeitThewilliseitheranorganoffreespontaneitythatinterruptsallcausalchainsofmotivationthatwouldbinditoritisnothingbutanillusionInrespecttodesire,ononehand,andtoreason,ontheother,thewillactslike"akindofcoupd'etat,"asBergsononcesaid,andthisimplies,ofcourse,that"freeactsareexceptional":"althoughwearefreewheneverwearewillingtogetbackintoourselves,itseldomhappensthatwearewilling"Inotherwords,itisimpossibletodealwiththewillingactivitywithouttouchingontheproblemoffreedomPARTONEThreeparagraphsoftheoriginaltext,pertainingtotheaccountofwillinginvolumetwoofTheLifeoftheMind,areomittedhereRBIshallconcludethesecondvolumewithananalysisofthefacultyofjudgment,andherethechiefdifficultywillbethecuriousscarcityofsourcesprovidingauthoritativetestimonyNottillKant'sCritiqueofJudgmentdidthisfacultybecomeamajortopicofamajorthinkerIshallshowthatmyownmainassumptioninsinglingoutjudgmentasadistinctcapacityofourmindshasbeenthatjudgmentsarenotarrivedatbyeitherdeductionorinductioninshort,theyhavenothingincommonwithlogicaloperationsaswhenwesay:Allmenaremortal,Socratesisaman,hence,SocratesismortalWeshallbeinsearchofthe"silentsense,"whichwhenitwasdealtwithatallhasalways,eveninKant,beenthoughtofas"taste"andthereforeasbelongingtotherealmofaestheticsInpracticalandmoralmattersitwascalled"conscience,"andconsciencedidnotjudgeittoldyou,asthedivinevoiceofeitherGodorreason,whattodo,whatnottodo,andwhattorepentofWhateverthevoiceofconsciencemaybe,itcannotbesaidtobe"silent,"anditsvaliditydependsentirelyuponanauthoritythatisaboveandbeyondallmerelyhumanlawsandrulesInKantjudgmentemergesas"apeculiartalentwhichcanbepracticedonlyandcannotbetaught"Judgmentdealswithparticulars,andwhenthethinkingegomovingamonggeneralitiesemergesfromitswithdrawalandreturnstotheworldofparticularappearances,itturnsoutth*themindneedsanew"gift"todealwiththem"Anobtuseornarrowmindedperson,"Kantbelieved,"mayindeedbetrainedthroughstudy,eventotheextentofbecominglearnedButassuchpeoplearecommonlystilllackinginjudgment,itisnotunusualtomeetlearnedmenwhointheapplicationoftheirscientificknowledgebetraythatoriginalwant,whichcanneverbemadegood"InKant,itisreasonwithits"regulativeideas"thatcomestothehelpofjudgmentbutifthefacultyisseparatefromotherfacultiesofthemind,thenweshallhavetoascribetoititsownmodusoperandi,itsownwayofproceedingAndthisisofsomerelevancetoawholesetofproblemsbywhichmodernthoughtishaunted,especiallytotheproblemoftheoryandpracticeandtoallattemptstoarriveatahalfwayplausibletheoryofethicsSinceHeg':!andMarx,thesequestionshavebeentreatedintheperspectivecfHistoryandontheasPostscriptumtoThinkingsumptionthatthereissuchathingasProgressofthehumanraceFinallyweshallbeleftwiththeonlyalternativethereisinthesemattersEitherwecansaywithHegel:DieWeltgeschichteistdasWeltgericht,leavingtheultimatejudgmenttoSuccess,orwecanmaintainwithKanttheautonomyofthemindsofmenandtheirpossibleindependenceofthingsastheyareorastheyhavecomeintobeingHereweshallhavetoconcernourselves,notforthefirsttime,withtheconceptofhistory,butwemaybeabletoreflectontheoldestmeaningofthisword,which,likesomanyothertermsinourpoliticalandphilosophicallanguage,isGreekinorigin,derivedfromhistorein,"toinquireinordertotellhowitwas"legeintaeontainHerodotusButtheoriginofthisverbisinturnHomer(IliadXVIII),wherethenounhistör("historian,"asitwere)occurs,andthatHomerichistorianisthejudgeIfjudgmentisourfacultyfordealingwiththepast,thehistorianistheinquiringmanwhobyrelatingitsitsinjudgmentoveritIfthatisso,wemayreclaimourhumandignity,winitback,asitwere,fromthepseudodivinitynamedHistoryofthemodernage,withoutdenyinghistory'simportancebutdenyingitsrighttobetheultimatejudgeOldCato,withwhomIstartedthesereflections"NeveramIlessalonethanwhenIambymyself,neveramImoreactivethanwhenIdonothing"hasleftusacuriousphrase,whichaptlysumsupthepoliticalprincipleimpliedintheenterpriseofreclamationHesaid:"Victrixcausadelsplacuit,sedvictaCatoni"("Thevictoriouscausepleasedthegods,butthedefeatedonepleasesCato")LecturesonKant'sPoliticalPhilosophyDeliveredattheNewSchoolForSocialResearch,Fall,FirstSessionToTALKABOUTandinquireintoKant'spoliticalphilosophyhasitsdifficultiesUnlikesomanyotherphilosophersPlato,Aristotle,Augustine,Thomas,Spinoza,Hegel,andothersheneverwroteapoliticalphilosophyTheliteratureonKantisenormous,butthereareveryfewbooksonhispoliticalphilosophy,and,ofthese,thereisonlyonethatisworthstudyingHansSaner'sKantsWegvomKriegzumFriedenlInFrancethereappeared,veryrecently,acollectionofessaysdevotedtoKant'spoliticalphilosophy,someofwhichareinterestingbuteventhereyouwillsoonseethatthequestionitselfistreatedasamarginaltopicasfarasKanthimselfwasconcernedOfallthebooksonKant'sphilosophyasawhole,itisonlyJaspers'treatmentthatdevotesatleastaquarterofthespacetothisparticularsubject(Jaspers,theonlydiscipleKanteverhadSaner,theonlyoneJasperseverhad)TheessaysthatmakeupOnHistoryortherecentcollectioncalledKant'sPoliticalWritings*cannotcompareinqualityanddepthwithKant'sotherwritingstheycertainlydonotconstitutea"FourthCritique,"asoneauthorcalledthem,eagertoclaimforthemthatstaturesincetheyhappenedtobehissubjectKanthimselfcalledsomeofthemamere"playwithideas"ora"merepleasuretrip"AndtheironicaltoneofPerpetualPeace,byfarthemostimportantofthem,showsclearlythatKanthimselfdidnottakethemtooseriouslyInalettertoKiesewetter(October,),hecallsthetreatise"reveries"(asthoughhethoughtofhisearlyfunwithSwedenborg,hisDreamsofaGhostSeer,ElucidatedbyDreamsofMetaphysics)AsfarasTheDoctrineofRight(orofLaw)isconcernedwhichyouwillfindonlyinthebookeditedbyReissandwhich,ifyoureadit,youwillprobablyfindratherboringPARTONEandpedanticitisdifficultnottoagreewithSchopenhauer,whosaidaboutit"Itisasifitwerenottheworkofthisgreatman,buttheproductofanordinarycommonmangewöhnlicherErdensohn"TheconceptoflawisofgreatimportanceinKant'spracticalphilosophy,wheremanisunderstoodasalegislativebeingbutifwewanttostudythephilosophyoflawingeneral,wecertainlyshallnotturntoKantbuttoPufendorfforGrotiusorMontesquieuFinally,ifyoulookattheotheressayseitherintheReissbookorintheothercollection(OnHistory),youwillseethatmanyofthemareconcernedwithhistory,sothat,atfirst,itlooksalmostasthoughKant,likesomanyafterhim,hadsubstitutedaphilosophyofhistoryforapoliticalphilosophybutthen,Kant'sconceptofhistory,thoughquiteimportantinitsownright,isnotcentraltohisphilosophy,andwewouldturntoVicoorHegelandMarxifwewantedtoinquireintohistoryInKant,historyispartofnaturethehistoricalsubjectisthehumanspeciesunderstoodaspartofthecreation,thoughasitsfinalendandcreation'scrown,sotospeakWhatmattersinhistory,whosehaphazard,contingentmelancholyheneverforgot,arenotthestories,notthehistoricalindividuals,nothingthatmendidofgoodorevil,butthesecretruseofnaturethatcausedthespeciestoprogressanddevelopallofitspotentialitiesinthesuccessionofgenerationsThelifespanofmanasanindividualistooshorttodevelopallhumanqualitiesandpossibilitiesthehistoryofthespeciesisthereforetheprocessinwhich"alltheseedsplantedinitbyNaturecanfullydevelopandinwhichthedestinyoftheracecanbefulfilledhereonearth"Thisis"worldhistory,"seeninanalogytotheorganicdevelopmentoftheindividualchildhood,adolescence,maturityKantisneverinterestedinthepastwhatinterestshimisthefutureofthespeciesManisdrivenfromParadisenotbecauseofsinandnotbyanavengingGodbutbynature,whichreleaseshimfromherwombandthendriveshimfromtheGarden,the"safeandharmlessstateofchildhood"Thatisthebeginningofhistoryitsprocessisprogress,andtheproductofthisprocessissometimescalledculture,sometimesfreedom("fromthetutelageofnaturetothestateoffreedom")andonlyonce,almostinpassing,inaparenthesis,doesKantstatethatitisaquestionofbringingabout"thehighestendintendedforman,namely,sociabilityGeselligkeit"(Weshallseelatertheimportanceofsociability)Progressitself,thedominantconceptoftheeighteenthcentury,isforKantaKantLecturesrathermelancholynotionherepeatedlystressesitsobviouslysadimplicationforthelifeoftheindividualIfweacceptthemoralphysicalconditionofmanhereinlifeevenonthebestterms,thatistosay,ofaperpetualprogressionandadvancetothehighestgoodwhichismarkedoutashisdestination,hestillcannotunitecontentmentwiththeprospectofhisconditionenduringinaneternalstateofchangeFortheconditioninwhichmannowexistsremainseveranevil,incomparisontothebetterconditionintowhichhestandsreadytoproceedandthenotionofaninfiniteprogressiontotheultimatepurposeisstillsimultaneouslyoneprospectinanunendingseriesofevilswhichdonotpermitcontentmenttoprevailAnotherwayofraisingobjectionstomychoiceoftopic,asomewhatindelicatebutbynomeansentirelyunjustifiedway,istopointoutthatalloftheessaysthatareusuallychosenandthatItoohavechosendatefromKant'slastyearsandthatthedecreaseofhismentalfaculties,whichfinallyledintosenileimbecility,isamatteroffactTocounteractthisargument,IhaveaskedyoutoreadtheveryearlyObservationsontheFeelingoftheBeautifulandSublimeToanticipatemyownopiniononthismatter,whichIhopetojustifytoyouinthecourseofthisterm:ifoneknowsKant'sworkandtakesitsbiographicalcircumstancesintoaccount,itisrathertemptingtoturntheargumentaroundandtosaythatKantbecameawareofthepoliticalasdistinguishedfromthesocial,aspartandparcelofman'sconditionintheworld,ratherlateinlife,whenhenolongerhadeitherthestrengthorthetimetoworkouthisownphilosophyonthisparticularmatterBythisIdonotmeantosaythatKant,becauseoftheshortnessofhislife,failedtowritethe"fourthCritique"butratherthatthethirdCritique,theCritiqueofJudgmentwhichindistinctionfromtheCritiqueofPracticalReasonwaswrittenspontaneouslyandnot,liketheCritiqueofPracticalReason,inanswertocriticalobservations,questions,andprovocationsactuallyshouldhavebecomethebookthatotherwiseismissinginKant'sgreatworkAfterhehadfinishedthecriticalbusiness,therewere,fromhisownviewpoint,twoquestionsleft,questionsthathadbotheredhimallhislifeandthathehadinterruptedworkoninorderfirsttoclearupwhathecalledthe"scandalofreason":thefactthat"reasoncontradictsitself"orthatthinkingtranscendsthelimitationsofwhatwecanknowandthengetscaughtinitsPARTO

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【汉娜·阿伦特】康德哲学讲演录

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