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首页 *新书上架*语言和思想

*新书上架*语言和思想.pdf

*新书上架*语言和思想

九月虺
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kumudinimafcoverpbjpgLanguageandThoughtThisbookfulfilstheneedforaclearoverviewofthisareaofcognitivepsychologywhichencompassesbothlanguageandthoughtFocusingongoaldirectedthinkinganddecisionmaking,NickLundlooksattherelationshipbetweenourgraspoflanguageandourproblemsolvingabilitiesDifferentpositionsontheissuesarecontextualisedanddiscussedinawaysuitablefortheAQAAAlevelsyllabusSupplementarydetailmeansthatthebookwillalsobevaluabletootherAlevelspecificationcandidatesandundergraduatescomingtothisareaforthefirsttimeNickLundisSeniorLecturerinPsychologyatManchesterMetropolitanUniversityandisauthorofAnimalCognitionandAttentionandPatternRecognitionintheRoutledgeModularPsychologyseriesRoutledgeModularPsychologySerieseditors:CaraFlanaganisaReviserforASandAlevelPsychologyandanexperiencedteacherandexaminerPhilipBanyardisAssociateSeniorLecturerinPsychologyatNottinghamTrentUniversityandaChiefExaminerforASandAlevelPsychologyTheRoutledgeModularPsychologyseriesisacompletelynewapproachtointroductorylevelpsychology,tailormadetothenewmodularstyleofteachingEachshortbookcoversatopicinmoredetailthananylargetextbookcan,allowingteacherandstudenttoselectmaterialexactlytosuitanyparticularcourseorprojectThebookshavebeenwrittenespeciallyforthosestudentsnewtohigherlevelstudy,whetheratschool,collegeoruniversityTheyincludespeciallydesignedfeaturestohelpwithtechnique,suchasamodelessayatanaveragelevelwithanexaminer’scommentstoshowhowextramarkscanbegainedTheauthorsareallexaminersandteachersattheintroductorylevelTheRoutledgeModularPsychologytextsarealluserfriendlyandaccessibleandincludethefollowingfeatures:•practiceessayswithspecialistcommentarytoshowhowtoachieveahighergrade•chaptersummariestoassistwithrevision•progressandreviewexercises•glossaryofkeyterms•summariesofkeyresearch•furtherreadingtostimulateongoingstudyandresearch•crossreferencingtootherbooksintheseriesFormoredetailsonourAS,AandRoutledgeModularPsychologypublicationsvisitourwebsiteatwwwalevelpsychologycoukAlsoavailableinthisseries(titleslistedbysyllabussection):ATYPICALDEVELOPMENTANDABNORMALBEHAVIOURPsychopathologyJohnDStirlingandJonathanSEHellewellTherapeuticApproachesinPsychologySusanCaveClassificationandDiagnosisofAbnormalPsychologySusanCaveBIOPSYCHOLOGYCorticalFunctionsJohnStirlingThePhysiologicalBasisofBehaviour:NeuralandhormonalprocessesKevinSilberAwareness:Biorhythms,sleepanddreamingEvieBentleyCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGYMemoryandForgettingJohnHendersonPerception:Theory,developmentandorganisationPaulRookesandJaneWillsonAttentionandPatternRecognitionNickLundDEVELOPMENTALPSYCHOLOGYEarlySocialisation:SociabilityandattachmentCaraFlanaganSocialandPersonalityDevelopmentTinaAbbottPERSPECTIVESANDRESEARCHControversiesinPsychologyPhilipBanyardEthicalIssuesandGuidelinesinPsychologyCaraFlanaganandPhilipBanyard(forthcoming)IntroducingResearchandDatainPsychology:AguidetomethodsandanalysisAnnSearleTheoreticalApproachesinPsychologyMattJarvisDebatesinPsychologyAndyBellSOCIALPSYCHOLOGYSocialInfluencesKevinWrenInterpersonalRelationshipsDianaDwyerSocialCognitionDonaldCPenningtonCOMPARATIVEPSYCHOLOGYDeterminantsofAnimalBehaviouriiiJoAnneCartwrightEvolutionaryExplanationsofHumanBehaviourJohnCartwrightAnimalCognitionNickLundOTHERTITLESSportPsychologyMattJarvisHealthPsychologyAnthonyCurtisPsychologyandWorkChristineHodsonPsychologyandEducationSusanBenthamPsychologyandCrimeDavidPutwainandAidanSammonsSTUDYGUIDEExamSuccessinAQA(A)PsychologyPaulHumphreys(forthcoming)ivLanguageandThoughtNickLundLONDONANDNEWYORKFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeChurchRoad,Hove,EastSussexBNFASimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”Copyright©RoutledgeAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataLund,Nick,–LanguageandthoughtNickLundpcm(Routledgemodularpsychology)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover)ISBN(pbk)LanguageandlanguagesThoughtandthinkingLanguageacquisitionITitleIISeriesPL–dcISBNMasterebookISBNISBNX(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ContentsListoffiguresxIntroductionLanguageandthoughtThenatureoflanguageMethodsofstudyinglanguageProblemsolvinganddecisionmakingThestudyofproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingSummaryTherelationshipbetweenlanguageandthoughtIntroductionThelinguisticrelativityhypothesisThoughtdetermineslanguageTheinterdependenceoflanguageandthoughtSummaryReviewexerciseSocialandculturalaspectsoflanguageIntroductionSocialclassEthnicbackgroundGenderSummaryReviewexerciseLanguageacquisitionIntroductionThestagesoflanguageacquisitionPrelinguisticstageOnewordstageDevelopmentofgrammarMeaningandpragmaticsSummaryReviewexerciseTheoriesoflanguageacquisitionIntroductionEnvironmentaltheoriesoflanguageacquisitionNativisttheoriesoflanguageacquisitionSocialinteractionisttheoriesoflanguageacquisitionSummaryReviewexerciseProblemsolvingIntroductionTypesofproblemsGestaltapproachInformationprocessingapproachInformationprocessingand‘insight’UseofanalogyinproblemsolvingProblemsolvingineverydaylifeSummaryReviewexerciseDecisionmakingIntroductionviiiTheheuristicsandbiasesapproachtojudgementsOtherfactorsthatinfluencejudgementsEvaluationoftheheuristicsandbiasesapproachTheoriesofdecisionmakingSummaryReviewexerciseStudyAidsImprovingyouressaywritingskillsPracticeessayPracticeessayKeyResearchSummariesArticleHuntAgnoli()ArticleSaxton()ArticlesandKahnemanTversky()Gigerenzer()GlossarySolutionstoproblemsBibliographyIndexixFiguresTheeffectoflabelsonthesubsequentredrawingofpicturesThehierarchyoftheelevenbasiccolourtermsAnexperimenttotestwhetherchildrenuserulesofgrammarTheninedotproblemTowerofHanoiTheHobbitsandOrcsproblemSolutiontotheninedotproblem(Figure)SolutiontotheHobbitsandOrcsproblem(Figure)IntroductionLanguageandthoughtThenatureoflanguageMethodsofstudyinglanguageProblemsolvinganddecisionmakingThestudyofproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingSummaryLanguageandthoughtThisbook,LanguageandThought,isoneoftheRoutledgeModularPsychologyseriesthatdealswithcognitivepsychologyTherearemanywaysofdescribingcognitivepsychology,butSolso()definesitas‘thescientificstudyofthethinkingmind’(p)Cognitivepsychologythereforecoversawidevarietyofareasofresearchincludingperception,attention,memory,languageandthoughtLanguageandthoughtarecentraltoallhumanactivitiessincetheyarethemediumofourmentalandsociallivesLanguageisusedbothtocommunicatewithothersandtomonitorourinternalthoughts,or,asHarley(,p)notes,‘insomeformoranotheritsodominatesoursocialandcognitiveactivitythatitwouldbedifficulttoimaginewhatlifewouldbewithoutit’ManypeopleregardtheabilitytouselanguageandrationalthoughtasuniquelyhumanqualitiesandbelieveitistheseabilitiesthatdistinguishhumansfromotheranimalsForexampleHarley(,p)considerslanguagetobe‘anessentialpartofwhatitmeanstobehuman,anditispartlywhatsetsusapartfromotheranimals’SimilarlyGarnhamandOakhill(,p)suggest‘thenatureandcomplexityofourthoughtprocesses…appeartosetpeopleapartfromotheranimals’Thisbookisthereforeconcernedwithtopicsthatlieattheheartofcognitivepsychologyand,possibly,humanityThenatureoflanguageHumanlanguageisacomplexskillthatdefiesasimpledefinitionInadditionitcantakemanyformsandcanbespoken,writtenorsignedOnewaytoencompassthecomplexityoflanguageistoidentifyarangeofcharacteristicsthatdescribeitsessentialfeaturesForexample,Hockett()describedsixteen‘designcharacteristics’whichhebelievedwereessentialforhumanlanguageSomeofthemoreimportantcharacteristicsaredisplacement,arbitrariness,semanticityandproductivity:•Displacementistheabilitytouselanguagetodiscussthingsremovedinspaceandtime(forexample,youcouldtalkofeventsthathappenedyesterdayinDenmark)•Arbitrarinessreferstothesymbolicnatureoflanguagethesounds,symbolsorsignsweusetorepresentideasorobjectsarearbitrary(forexample,theword‘dog’doesnotsoundlikeadogorlooklikeadogwhenwritten,itjustrepresentsadog)•SemanticityisthemeaningweassignthesearbitrarysymbolsWordshavesharedmeaningthatcommunicatesideasbetweenpeople•ProductivitydescribesthecreativityoflanguageWecancreateandunderstandavastnumberofnovelsentencesbecausewecancombineandrecombinewordsusingrulesEvenabizarresequenceofwordsthatwehavenotheardbeforecanbeunderstoodiftheyarepresentedasasentenceThephrase‘Theaardvarkbentthemelonslowly’isodd,butifIaskyouwhattheaardvarkdidyoucouldanswer!Thereareanumberofcomponentstolanguage,eachofwhichisafieldofstudyinitselfForexample,phonologyisthestudyofthesoundsmadeinspeechandthewaythesesoundsarecombinedtogetherMorphologyisconcernedwiththestructureofwordssincewordsaremadeupofoneormoresmallerunitscalledmorphemesSemanticsisthestudyofthemeaningofwordsorcombinationofwordsSyntax,ontheotherhand,referstotherulesofhowwordsandphrasescanbecombinedtogetherLANGUAGEANDTHOUGHTItistherulesofsyntaxthatgovernwhetherwordcombinationsaregrammaticalornotFinally,pragmaticsisthestudyoftheuseoflanguagetocommunicateThereismoretoaconversationthansharingcommonsemanticsandsyntaxbecauseconversationrequiresturntaking,beingresponsivetoanotherperson,etcPragmaticslooksattheuseoflanguageinsocialinteractionDifferenttheoriesoflanguageacquisitiontendtofocusondifferentcomponentsoflanguage,withsomeconcentratingonsyntaxandothersonpragmatics(seeChapter,p)Languageaffectsmuchofourlivesandcoversawidevarietyoftopicareas,suchasspeech,reading,writing,etcanditisbeyondthescopeofthisbooktostudyeveryaspectoflanguageThisbookwillfocusoncertainaspectsoflanguageand,aslanguageandthinkingseemsointerdependent,onefocusistherelationshipbetweenlanguageandthought(Chapter)Sincelanguageseemstohavesomeinfluenceonourperceptionofothersanotherfocuswillbethesocialandculturalaspectsoflanguage(Chapter)Afinalfocuswillbeonthedevelopmentoflanguage,startingwithstudiesoftheprocessoflanguageacquisition(Chapter)beforediscussingthetheoriesoflanguageacquisition(Chapter)MethodsofstudyinglanguageThecomplexityoflanguagehasledtoawiderangeofmethodsbeingusedtostudyitThestudyoftherelationshipbetweenlanguageandthoughthasoftenbeenexaminedusingcrossculturalstudiesoflanguagesThesestudieslookbothatdifferencesingrammarbetweenlanguagesandatthenumberofwordsusedtorefertoobjectssituationsindifferentculturescountriesHowever,thesestudiescanbeproblematicsinceitisnotpossibletododirecttranslationsfromonelanguagetoanother(seep)AnotherapproachistolookatthetypeoflanguagechildrenuseatdifferentstagesofcognitivedevelopmenttotrytoestablishwhethercognitiveandlinguisticdevelopmentarelinkedSocialandculturalaspectsoflanguagealsoinvolvecomparisonsbetweengroupsThesecomparisonscanbeusedtoinvestigatewhetherlinguisticdifferencesbetweengroupsaffectthinkingThedevelopmentoflanguageisstudiedintwomainwayseithernaturalobservationormoreformalstructuredtesting(Owens,)Naturalobservationinvolvescollectingexamplesofchildren’sspeechinnaturalsettingssuchashomeorschoolThisINTRODUCTIONdatacanbecollectedinavarietyofways(audiotaping,videotaping,parentaldiaries,etc)andcanbeunstructured(wheretheresearchersimplyrecordsconversationswiththechild)ormorestructured(wheretheresearchertriestoelicitspeechaboutatopic)Theobviousadvantageofnaturalobservationisthatitprovidesapictureofachild’snormalspeechthatmightnotbeheardinamoreformalstudyHowever,althoughthismethodmayprovideageneralpictureofspeechproduction,itmaymisslanguagethatisinfrequentInadditionthebehaviourofthechildmaynotreflectlinguisticcompetence(Owens,)MoreformaltechniquessuchasstructuredtestingorexperimentsallowresearcherstocollectinformationthatmaynotbeaccessiblefromnaturalobservationForexample,itisdifficulttoassessachild’scomprehensionoflanguagefromnaturalobservationbutitisrelativelyeasyusingstructuredtestsTestsalsoenableresearcherstostudyformsofspeechthatdonotoccuroften(egpassivesentences,seep)However,thesetechniquesdonotshowhowthechilduseslanguageineverydayuseandmayreflectthechild’suseoflanguageintestsratherthannormallanguageAnothermeasureusedinthestudyoflanguagedevelopmentisthemeanlengthofutteranceorMLUThisisameasureoftheaveragenumberofwordsinasentencethatachildusesandisnormallycalculatedbycountingthenumberofwordsusedinsentencesanddividingbyTheMLUisonemeasureofthecomplexityofchildren’sspeechItisimportanttonotethatchildren’sunderstandingoflanguage,orcomprehension,isnotnecessarilyreflectedintheirspeech(production)IntheearlystagesoflanguageacquisitioncomprehensiontypicallyprecedesproductionProblemsolvinganddecisionmakingThinkingisacomplexprocessthataffectseveryaspectofourlivesandyetissomethingwetakeforgrantedTheterm‘thinking’coversawiderangeofactivitiesandisdifficulttodefine,butSolso(,p)definesitas‘aprocessbywhichanewmentalrepresentationisformedthroughthetransformationofinformationbycomplexinteractionofthementalattributesofjudging,abstracting,reasoning,imaging,andproblemsolving’HenotesthattherearethreebasicideasaboutthinkingFirstly,thinkingiscognitiveinotherwords,thinkinginvolvesaninternalprocessingofinformationSecondly,thinkinginvolvesLANGUAGEANDTHOUGHTmanipulationofknowledgeLastly,thinkingisdirectedtowardssolutionsHowever,EysenckandKeane()suggestthatthinkingcanvaryintheextentinwhichitisdirectedfromrelativelyundirected(eg‘daydreaming’)todirected(egsolvingamathematicalequation)ThisbookislargelyconfinedtothethoughtprocessesinvolvedingoaldirectedthinkingorthetypeofthoughtinvolvedinproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingProblemsolvingisacommonfeatureofnearlyeveryaspectofourlivesProblemsoccuratwork,insocialinteractions,etcAproblemoccurswhenwehaveagoalbutdonotknowhowtoreachitForexample,youmightwanttocontactafriendwhohaslosttheirmobilephoneHerethereisacleargoalbutnotaclearwayofachievingitProblemsolvingiscoveredinChapterDecisionmakingisconcernedwithjudgementsandinvolvesassessingthenchoosingfromanumberofalternativesForexample,youmayhavetodecidewhethertotakeashortholidayinanexpensivelocationoralongholidayinacheaperlocationDecisionmakingiscoveredinChapterEysenckandKeane()pointoutthatthedivisionbetweenproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingreflectsthewayresearchaboutthinkinghasdevelopedhistoricallyandisunlikelytobereflectedineverydaythoughts(sinceoftenthedecisionswemakeareaboutproblemsinourlives)However,thedivisiondoesserveasausefuldistinctiontostudythesubjectmatterThestudyofproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingOnonelevelthestudyofproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingisrelativelystraightforwardResearcherscanmanipulatevariablessuchastheinstructionsgiven,thetypeofproblem,etcandrecordtheparticipants’responsessuchasthespeedofproblemsolving(Robertson,)However,mostresearchersareinterestedinwhathappensbetweenthepresentationoftheproblemandtheanswerInotherwordstheyareinterestedinthethoughtprocessesthatledtotheanswer,andthiscanonlybeinferredfromstudyingbehaviourThequestionofhowtostudymentalactivity,suchasproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking,hastroubledpsychologiststhroughoutthehistoryofpsychologyandhasbeenattheheartofdisputesaboutthesubjectmatterofpsychologyEarlypsychologywaslargelythestudyofmentallifeandinvolvedintrospectivemethodsInotherwordsitinvolvedINTRODUCTIONparticipantstryingtodescribetheirownthoughtsThischangedwiththeemergenceofbehaviourism

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