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首页 *新书上架*性别、暴力和安全

*新书上架*性别、暴力和安全.pdf

*新书上架*性别、暴力和安全

九月虺
2009-07-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*性别、暴力和安全pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

gender,violenceandsecuritygender,violenceandsecuritydiscourseaspracticelaurajshepherdzedbooksLondonNewYorkGender,ViolenceandSecurity:DiscourseasPracticewasfirstpublishedinbyzedbooksLtd,Cynthiastreet,Londonnjf,ukandRoom,FifthAvenue,NewYork,ny,usawwwzedbookscoukCopyright©LauraJshepherdTherightsofLauraJshepherdtobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhavebeenassertedbyherinaccordancewiththeCopyright,designsandPatentsAct,designedandtypesetinMonotypeGaramondbyilluminati,Grosmont,wwwilluminatibookscoukCoverdesignedbyAndrewCorbettPrintedandboundintheeUbybiddlesLtd,king’sLynndistributedintheUsAexclusivelybyPalgraveMacmillan,FifthAvenue,NewYork,ny,usaAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopyingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofzedbooksLtdAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromthebritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationdataavailableisbnhbisbnpbcontentsacknowledgementsvilistofabbreviationsvii|introduction|analyticalstrategies|thestateofthediscipline(s)|thesecretarygeneral’sreports|unitednationssecuritycouncilresolution|exploringthenarrativesofproductionofunscr|conclusionsnotesreferencesindexacknowledgementsonbeginningmyMaster’sdegree,aftersometimeawayfromtheacademy,IfoundthelanguageofInternationalRelationsalmostentirelyimpenetrablestruggling,ImadeanappointmenttoseethecoursedirectortotellherthatIcouldn’tpossiblycontinuewiththeprogrammeshetoldmetohanginthere,thatitwouldallbecomeclearifIperseveredIntheweeksthatfollowed,aswebegantostudymorecriticaltheoriesofInternationalRelations,Ifoundmyfeet,andattheendofthesemesterthecoursedirectoraskedwhetherIhadeverconsidereddoingdoctoralresearchIrepliedthatIhadn’t,andshesaidsimply,‘Well,maybeyoushould’soIdid,andthecoursedirector,JuttaWeldes,eventuallycosupervisedthatresearchalongwithJudithsquiresItisnooverstatementtosaythatwithouttheirinspiration,guidanceandsupport,thisbookwouldnothavebeenwrittenIalsothankcolleaguesandfriendsfromtheUniversityofbristol,particularlyPennyGriffin,AnaJordanandChristinaRowley,forconversationsaboutdiscoursetheory,genderpoliticsandshoesoverpinkwine,andIamgratefultoJindyPettmanandMarysiazalewskifortheirenthusiasmaboutthisprojectandtheirencouragementofitsauthorFinally,Iwouldliketodedicatethisbooktomyextendedfamily,friendsbeingthefamilythatyougettochooseinlife,butmostspecificallymypartnerbrianandourbrandnewsonJoeLauraJShepherd,FebruarylistofabbreviationsAIAmnestyInternationalbPFAbeijingPlatformforActionbRIdGebriefingsondevelopmentandGenderCdACriticaldiscourseAnalysisCedAWConventionontheeliminationofAllFormsofdiscriminationAgainstWomenCoGGCommissiononGlobalGovernanceddRdisarmament,demobilizationandReintegrationdeVAWdeclarationontheeliminationofViolenceAgainstWomendTAdiscourseTheoreticalAnalysiseCAeconomicCommissionforAfricaeCosoCeconomicandsocialCouncilGAGeneralAssemblyHAPHagueAppealforPeaceHMsoHerMajesty’sstationeryofficeIAInternationalAlertICCInternationalCriminalCourtIdsInstituteofdevelopmentstudiesIGoInterGovernmentalorganizationINsTRAWUnitedNationsInternationalResearchandTrainingInstitutefortheAdvancementofWomenIRInternationalRelationsNGoNonGovernmentalorganizationNGoWGNonGovernmentalorganizationWorkingGroupoPsIofficeofPublicsectorInformationPPermanentmembersoftheUNsCPkoPeacekeepingoperationUkUnitedkingdomUNUnitedNationsUNdAWUnitedNationsdivisionfortheAdvancementofWomenUNdPUnitedNationsdevelopmentProgrammeUNdPkoUnitedNationsdepartmentofPeacekeepingoperationsUNesCUnitedNationseconomicandsocialCouncilUNIFeMUnitedNationsdevelopmentFundforWomenUNFWCWUnitedNationsFourthWorldConferenceonWomenUNsCUnitedNationssecurityCouncilUNsCRUnitedNationssecurityCouncilResolutionUNsGUnitedNationssecretaryGeneralUsAUnitedstatesofAmericaUssRUnionofsovietsocialistRepublicsWCRWCWomen’sCommissionforRefugeeWomenandChildrenWHoWorldHealthorganizationWILPFWomen’sInternationalLeagueforPeaceandFreedomviii|gender,violenceandsecurity|introductionWomen’sbodieshaveactuallybecomebattlegrounds…theviolenceisallaboutdestroying…theinbuiltstrengthofawomantobuildacommunityRuthojiamboochieng,Uganda,Wehavedocumented…systematicsexualviolence,committedbytheburmesemilitaryasaweaponofwarintheongoingconflict…wherewomenareraped…inordertoterrorizethewomen,andthelocalcommunity,morally,psychologically,andalsophysicallyNangCharmTong,burma,We’vehadreportsfromwomen…aboutsomeverydifficultsituationsthatlesbianshavebeengoingthroughThereismoreviolencetowardsthembecausethey’vebrokenawayfromthegenderroleexpectedofthemThisiswhythereismorerepression…theysufferdirectrepressionontheirbodiesandtheirliveselisabethCastillo,Colombia,Thesepersonalnarratives,providedbywomenreflectingonthedifficultiesofcoordinatingresearchonandactivismagainstgenderedviolence,aredisturbingtosaytheleastTakenfromthewebsiteofAmnestyInternational’s‘stopViolenceAgainstWomen’campaign,theabovetestimoniesdrawattentionnotonlytothecrucialneedtobettertheexperiencesofwomenwholiveunderthreatofviolence,butalsototheconceptualandpracticalimpedimentstocombating|gender,violenceandsecurityviolenceagainstwomenincontemporaryacademicandpolicyenvironmentsIntheacademicdisciplineofInternationalRelations(IR),oneofthemostsalientobstaclesisthewaysinwhichgenderedviolencehasbeenconventionallyandconceptuallyprecludedasanobjectofstudy(PetersonandRunyan:–)FeministchallengestothewelldefinedandequallywelldefendedboundariesofIRhavedrawnattentionnotonlytothepotentialoftransgressingthoseboundariesbutalsototheimportanceofunderstanding(gendered)violenceinrelationtosecurityTurningtheanalyticalfocusofthisresearchtogenderedviolenceismotivatedbytworelatedconcerns‘Violenceestablishessocialrelationships…itmarksandmakesbodies…itconstitutessubjectsevenasitrendersthemincomplete’(d’CruzeandRao:)Thislatterunderstandingofviolence,asconstitutiveofsubjectivity,hashistoricallybeenabsentedfromacademictheorizingofsecurity,whereviolenceisconventionallyconceivedofasafunctionalmechanismwithinananarchicinternationalsystemsecond,giventhatviolence‘marksandmakesbodies’,Iseektounderstandthetypesofbodythataremarkedandmadethroughviolencethatisspecificallygendered–thatis,violencethat‘emergesfromaprofounddesiretokeepthebinaryorderofgendernaturalornecessary’(butler:)stemmingfromadesiretoformulateatheorizationofsecurityinrelationtoviolence,IarguethatstudyingthesubjectsproducedthroughgenderedviolenceinthecontextofdebatesoverthemeaningandcontentofsecurityprovidesmorecoherentaccountsofbothviolenceandsecurityThenotionthatidentityiscentraltotheorizingsecurityhasbeenwellexplicatedbyscholarscriticalofconventional,statecentricapproachestosecurity‘Recognisinggenderasasignificantdimensionofidentityandsecurityopensthedoortononstatebasedviewsofsecurityandaptlyillustrateshowidentityshapesindividualandcollectivesecurityneeds’(HoogensenandRottem:)However,mostofthesecriticalvoicesseektointerjectintoacademicdebatesonsecuritybybroadeningtheacceptedagendaofsecurity–toincludetherecognitionofmultiplephenomena,fromearthquakestoeconomicdeprivation,asthreateningtosecurity–andproliferatingthereferentobjectsofsecuritydiscourse,suchthatsecurityisnolongersolelytheintroduction|concernofstatesbutalsoofcommunities,societiesandindividualsWhilescholarsofsecurityhavecontestedtheparametersofdebatesaboutsecurity,andfeministscholarsofsecurityhavedrawnattentiontotheimportanceofgenderasacategoryofanalysis,thereislittleworkbeingdoneonthewaysinwhichtheorganizationallogicsofsecurityandviolencearediscursivelyconstituted(seeshepherdandWeldes)contributionsofafeministpoststructuralistIidentifymyselfasafeministresearcher,andrecognizethatthisentailsacuriosityabout‘theconcept,natureandpracticeofgender’(zalewski:)Thiscuriosityquestionsthewaysinwhichgenderismademeaningfulinsocialpoliticalinteractionsandthepractices–orperformances–throughwhichgenderconfiguresboundariesofsubjectivityInthisbook,Itreatgenderasanoun,averbandalogicthatisproductproductiveoftheperformancesofviolenceandsecurityIinvestigatehereIespouseafeminismthatseekstochallengeconventionalconstructionsofgenderedsubjectivityandpoliticalcommunity,whileacknowledgingtheintellectualheritageoffeminismsthatseektoclaimrightsonbehalfofastablesubjectandmaintainfidelitytoaregimeoftruththatconstitutestheuniversalcategoryof‘women’(butler:–)Whileafeministprojectthatdoesnotassumeastableontologyofgendermayseemproblematic,Iargue,alongwithJudithbutler,that‘thedeconstructionofidentityisnotthedeconstructionofpoliticsrather,itestablishesaspoliticaltheverytermsthroughwhichidentityisarticulated’(:)Afocusonarticulationentailsafurthercommitmenttotheanalyticalcentralityoflanguage–or,asIseeit,discourseelizabethGroszarguesthatanintegralpartoffeministtheoryisthewillingnessto‘tacklethequestionofthelanguageavailablefortheoreticalpurposesandtheconstraintsitplacesonwhatcanbesaid’(:)Tome,thisaspectoffeministtheoryisdefinitiveofmyfeministpoliticsIf‘menandwomenarethestoriesthathavebeentoldabout“men”and“women”’(sylvester:),andthewaythat‘men’and‘women’bothactandareactedupon,thenthelanguageusedtotellthosestoriesanddescribethoseactionsisnotjustworthyofanalyticalattentionbut�|gender,violenceandsecuritycanformthebasisofanengagedcritiqueFurthermore,anapproachthatrecognizesthatthereismoretothediscursiveconstitutionofgender–thestoriesthataretoldabout‘men’and‘women’–thanlinguisticpracticescanenablethinkinggenderdifferentlyAlisonstone,readingbutler’sworkonfeminismandpoliticaltheory,arguesthatthistypeofapproachconstitutesa‘genealogicalfeminism’,inwhichtheorganizationallogicsoffeminism–historicallyassumedtobe‘women’andor‘gender’–are‘continuallyreenactedthroughcorporealactivities’(:)Thisapproachallowsforresearchthatinvestigatesthewaysinwhich‘women’assubjectsandobjectsact,speak,writeandrepresentthemselves,arerepresented,writtenabout,spokenaboutandactedonThereisnosingularfemininesubjectorfeministapproach,justas,inmyunderstanding,thenotionofasingularfeministprojectisunsustainableMystudythereforeseekstocontributetocontemporarydebatesinitsdesiretothinkdifferentlytheconceptsofgender,violence,securityandtheinternationalbyinvestigatinghowtheseconceptsare(re)presentedand(re)producedinaparticulardiscursivecontextespousingapoststructuralpoliticsisnotalwaysacknowledgedtobecompatiblewithacommitmenttoafeministpoliticsTraversingthisterrainentailsconstructingapoliticsthatspeaksof‘undecidability’(elam:)Withreferencetothedifficultiesofformulatingafeministpoliticswithoutadefinitivesubject,dianeelamarguesthat‘undecidabilityformspartofasituationofrepresentation,politicalaction,orethicaljudgement…Wemaynotyetknowwhatwomencandoorbe,butfeminismhasanobligationattheveryleasttothinkaboutwhatthismightmean’(elam:)Thus,thetheorypracticeoffeministpoststructuralismsinwhateverguisedoesnotrepresent‘simplyanotheroxymoron,anewquagmireofcontradictionforfeministstosinkin’(Moi:)butratheradynamicandthoroughexplorationofwhatfeminismitself‘mightmean’Thisinnowaysuggeststhatotherfeminismshavenotenabledthearticulationofcritiquesofgenderandotherrelationsofpowerthatarevalid,vigorousandvitalMypoliticalconsciousnessdevelopedthroughthetracingoffeministworkinthedisciplineofanthropologythatdrewattentiontothe‘margins,silencesandbottomrungs’ofthedisciplineItwasfromthisperspectivethatIlearnedwhatIintroduction|meantwhenIcalledmyselfafeminist,andwhatitmeantpoliticallytopaycloseattentiontothedevelopmentofgenderedsubjectivitiesThisbackgroundgavemeastrongappreciationfortheparticularratherthantheabstract,thespecificratherthanthegeneral,andmostofallforthepracticesofpowerthatareproductproductiveofwaysofbeingintheworldThevalueintellingadifferentstoryisinthetelling,inillustratingthewaysinwhichthesestoriesareconstructedandcouldbeconstructeddifferentlyThetransienceisbestencapsulatedinthisquotefromdeLauretis:Thisshiftimplies,inmyopinion,adisplacementandaselfdisplacement:leavingorgivingupaplacethatissafe,thatis‘home’…foranotherplacethatisunknownandrisky,…aplaceofdiscoursefromwhichspeakingandthinkingareatbesttentative,uncertainandunguaranteedbuttheleavingisnotachoice:onecouldnotlivethereinthefirstplace(citedinbrooks:)introducingInthisstudy,Iexplorethediscursiveconstitutionofconceptsof(gender)violenceand(international)securityinparticulartextsInusingthetextsthatIdoasvehiclesforanalysisIemphaticallydonotwanttosuggestthatthedocumentsastheystandaretooproblematictoserveasthefoundationforacademicandactivistworkthatseekstocombatgenderviolenceandframesuchviolenceasaninternationalsecurityconcernThetextsthemselvesaretreatedasvehiclesforthetheoreticalinvestigationIundertakehere:anexplorationofthepotentialforreconceptualizingtheconceptsof(gender)violenceand(international)securityHowever,thestudyundertakenhereisexplicitlynot‘merely’theoretical,or‘academic’inthepejorativesenseofthetermMyinterestintheconceptsof(international)securityand(gender)violenceisindeedmotivatedbyadesiretoseewhethertheseconceptscouldbereconceived,inkeepingwithacommitmenttothinkingtheseconceptsdifferentlyHowever,IalsoconsidertheimplicationsofsuchareconceptualizationonpolicyaswellasacademicworkIwishtoprovideforthoseundertakingsuchworkthepossibilityofalternativeconceptswithwhichtoproceedTherefore,thisbook,despiteitstheoreticalleaningandheritage,doesindeedhaveanavowedlypracticalapplication�|gender,violenceandsecurityInundertakingthisstudy,IwishtocontributetobothpolicyandacademicdebatesIofferareconceptualizationof(international)securityand(gender)violencethroughmyanalysis,drawingonbodiesofacademicliteraturetoestablishthelimitsoftherelevantdiscoursesFurthermore,Iillustratethewaysinwhichtheseconcepts,astheycurrentlyinformpolicyandacademicdebates,arebothaproductofandproductiveofthedifficultiesdescribedaboveThisbookusesUnitedNationssecurityCouncilResolution,andrelateddocumentationfromtheUnitedNationsandtheNGoWorkingGroupforWomen,Peaceandsecurity,asavehiclefortheanalysisofthequestion,‘Howaretheconceptsof(international)securityand(gender)violencediscursivelyconstituted,andwithwhateffects’ThesetwoinstitutionsbothclaimadegreeofauthorityovertheResolution,theUnitedNationsthroughthesecurityCouncilandtheNGoWorkingGroupthroughtheadvocacyofitsmembersthat,astheyclaim,successfullyresultedintheadoptionoftheResolution(NGoWG)UNsCRwasadoptedinwiththeaimofensuringthatalleffortstowardspeacebuildingandpostconflictreconstruction,aswellastheconductofarmedconflictitself,wouldentailsensitivitytowardsgenderedviolenceandgenderedinequalitiesTheResolutionisanappropriatevehicleforthisanalysis,providingasitdoesanarticulationoftheconceptsofgender,violence,securityandtheinternationalwithwhichIamconcernedTheResolutionrefersto‘theprimaryresponsibilityofthesecurityCouncilundertheCharterforthemaintenanceofinternationalpeaceandsecurity’(UNsCa:Preamble)and,further,totheneedfortheinternationalcommunityto‘protectwomenandgirlsfromgenderbasedviolence,particularlyrapeandotherformsofsexualabuse’(UNsCa:Article)intheprovisionofsecurityThus,ItreatUNsCRasasiteatwhichdiscoursesof(international)securityand(gender)violenceareincontact,asiteatwhichitispossibletoidentifydifferentarticulationsoftheconceptsofgender,violence,securityandtheinternationalthatconstitutedifferentdiscoursesof(gender)violenceand(international)securityThroughdiscoursetheoreticalanalysis,Iexplorethetensionsandinconsistenciesthatareproductproductiveofthecontactofthesediscoursesintroduction|�Thatis,specificconceptualizationsofsecurity(as‘international’)andviolence(as‘gender’)informtheResolutionThroughmyanalysisIunpickthediscursiveconstructionoftheseconceptsandinvestigatetheimplicationsoftheResolution,andthereforetheconceptsthatareproductproductiveofit,forpolicyandresearchinthisareaIconcludethattheorganizationoftheResolutionaroundliberalconceptsofinternationalsecurityandgenderviolencesuggeststhattransformationofsocialpoliticalcommunitycanonlybeachievedthroughprocessesofpeace(state)buildingandgendermainstreamingIndevelopingacritiqueoftheseprocesses,Iarguethattheycannotdelivertheradica

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