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首页 *新书上架*人性:二十世纪道德史

*新书上架*人性:二十世纪道德史.pdf

*新书上架*人性:二十世纪道德史

九月虺
2009-07-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*人性:二十世纪道德史pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MorepraiseforHumanity"ThehistoryGloveroffersusisindeedhorrifying,butitisalsofascinatingandinstructivebecauseofthesensehetriestomakeofitGlover'sdisturbinghistoricalsurveyshowsushowmoralidentitycanerodethroughdehumanizingothersindividuallyandcollectively,throughestablishingdistanceenoughtomaketheirsufferinginvisible,throughthesharingofresponsibilityforaction,throughutilitarianandUtopianrationalizationThisinstructivebookiswellworthreading"MichaelJKerlin,America"Animpressiveandaccessibleanalysisoftwentiethcenturybrutality"KirkusReviews"Thisisanextraordinarybook,incisiveandfarreaching,thatbothconfrontsunpleasanthistoricalfactsandofferssomehopefulsuggestionsaboutwhatconcernedhumanbeingscandoaboutthem"MarthaNussbaum"Humanityraisessomeofthemostimportantissuesofourtime"RobertConquest"ItishardtoimagineamoreimportantbookGlovermakesanoverwhelmingcasefortheneedtounderstandourowninhumanityandreduceoreliminatethewaysinwhichitcanexpressitselfandhethenbeginsthetaskhimselfHumanityisanextraordinaryachievement"PeterSingerBythesameauthorRESPONSIBILITYCAUSINGDEATHANDSAVINGLIVESWHATSORTOFPEOPLESHOULDTHEREBEI:THEPHILOSOPHYANDPSYCHOLOGYOFPERSONALIDENTITYHUMANITYAMoralHistoryoftheTwentiethCenturyJonathanGloverYALENOTABENEYALEUNIVERSITYPRESSNEWHAVENANDLONDONToRuthFirstpublishedasaYaleNotaBenebookinPrintedintheUnitedStatesinbyYaleUniversityPressFirstpublishedinGreatBritaininbyJonathanCapeCopyright©byJonathanGloverAllrightsreservedThisbookmaynotbereproduced,inwholeorinpart,includingillustrations,inanyform(beyondthatcopyingpermittedbySectionsandoftheUSCopyrightLawandexceptbyreviewersforthepublicpress),withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublishersForinformationaboutthisandotherYaleUniversityPresspublications,pleasecontact:USofficesalespressyaleeduEuropeofficesalesyaleupcoukPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTheLibraryofCongresscardnumber:ISBN(pbk)AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryioThechiefbusinessoftwentiethcenturyphilosophyistoreckonwithtwentiethcenturyhistoryRGCollingwood,AnAutobiographyContentsPrefaceixAcknowledgementsxiNeverSuchInnocenceAgainPARTONEETHICSWITHOUTTHEMORALLAWNietzsche'sChallengeSelfinterestasaRestraintTheMoralResources:HumanityTheMoralResources:MoralIdentityTheFestivalofCrueltyAnsweringNietzschePARTTWOTHEMORALPSYCHOLOGYOFWAGINGWARCloseCombatTheCaseofMyLaiTheShifttoKillingataDistanceBombingHiroshimaWarandtheMoralResourcesPARTTHREETRIBALISMRwandaTheTribalTrapThePoliticalContainmentofTribalismTheRootsofTribalConflictTheCapacitytoUnchainOurselvesPARTFOURWARASATRAPTheTrapoftheTrenchesTheHomeFrontTheStoneHasStartedtoRoll:SlidingOutoftheTrap:WaysOutPARTFIVEBELIEFANDTERROR:STALINANDHISHEIRSInThoseYearsTheTrapofTerrorBelief:EndsandMeansStalinismandtheMoralResourcesTheWorkingoftheBeliefSystemStalinism,TruthandMoralIdentityMao'sUtopianProjectOverturningtheBasket:CambodiaUtopiaandBeliefPARTSIXTHEWILLTOCREATEMANKINDANEW:THENAZIEXPERIMENTTheCoreofNazismObedienceandConformityTheAttackonHumanityTheErosionofMoralIdentityTheNaziMoralIdentityTheWillingnesstoBelievePhilosophersBystandersInterpretingtheNaziEpisodePARTSEVENONTHERECENTMORALHISTORYOFHUMANITYSomePeopleandNotOthersEthicsHumanizedEpilogue:ThePastAliveinthePresentReferencesSourcesandAcknowledgementsIndexPrefaceIhavebeenwritingthisbookforovertenyearsOnestimuluscamefromafirstvisittoPoland,whereTonyQuintonhadgenerouslyinvitedmetohearhisTannerLectureonHumanValuesinWarsawandtotakepartintheassociatedconferenceonethicsPolandthenhadaCommunistgovernmentAtlunchonthefirstday,IsatnexttoaPolishphilosopher,KlemensSzaniawskiDuringourconversationhetoldmeabouthislifeHewasateenagerwhentheNazisinvadedinHisfather,ajournalist,wasshotforrefusingtowriteforaNazinewspaperKlemensstudiedphilosophyattheUndergroundUniversityandtookpartintheWarsawuprising,inwhichmanyofhisfriendswerekilledHewasarrestedandsenttoAuschwitzLaterhewasmovedtoMauthausen,whereheworkedasaslavelabourerinthequarriesAttheendofthewarhewasliberatedbytheAmericansHewentbacktoPolandandtaughtphilosophythroughtheStalinistperiodandafterHewasoneofthefoundersofadiscussiongroupwhichlaterplayedapartintheSolidaritymovementWhenwemet,hehadrecentlybeenelectedRectoroftheUniversityofWarsaw,butthegovernmenthadrejectedhimonpoliticalgroundsandhadremovedhispassportAshishistoryemerged,IwasstruckbytherangeofexperiencethatheandotherPolishphilosopherscouldbringtothinkingaboutethics,andalsobythewaymuchEnglishlanguagewritingonethicsislimitedbyrelativeinsulationfromsomeofthetwentiethcentury'smanmadedisastersTheremustbelessonsforethicsintheeventsofthisviolentcenturyEnglishpeopleofmygenerationandthesubsequentonehavebeenluckyinbeinglargelysparedbothwarandotheratrocitiesOnlyafoolwouldregretthisbutthinkingaboutethicsislikelytobeenrichedbylearningwhatwecanaboutthecausesoftheeventswehavebeenluckytoavoidThisbookwaswrittenpartlyinresponsetothisthoughtBut,inanotherway,IhavebeenthinkingaboutthisbookformostofmyadultlifeSinceIfirstheardabouttheNazigenocide,IhavewonderedhowpeoplecouldbringthemselvestocommitsuchactsThequestionhasxHumanitykeptrecurringandhasbeenpresentinmostofwhatIhavewritteninphilosophyIhavewrittenbooksonethicalissuesabouttakinglifeandabouttheapplicationsofgeneticknowledgeTherelevanceofthosetopicstotheprojectofbuildingmoresecuredefencesagainstanyrevivalofNazipoliciesisobviousBut,evenwhenwritingaboutapparentlymoreneutraltopicssuchaspersonalidentity,IfoundmyobsessionwithrecenthumanbarbarismburstingoutalmostagainstmywillSoitseemedsensibletosaywhatIhadtosaydirectlyratherthaninthemarginsofanothersubjectThisbookisanattempttogiveethicsanempiricaldimensionItusesethicstoposequestionstohistoryandituseshistorytogiveapictureofthepartsofhumanpotentialitywhicharerelevanttoethicsTodothisIhavehadtodiscussmanyissueswhichotherpeopleknowandunderstandbetterthanIdoWheretheythinkIhavegotthestorywrong,IwouldbedelightedtoprovokethemtocarryouttheprojectbetterTenyearsisalongtimetospendwritingabookInthattimemuchhashappenedtoVivetteandmeandtoourthreenowgrownupchildren,Daniel,DavidandRuthIhopethebookreflectssomeofthewaysIhavebeenshapedbysharinglifewithVivetteIhopeitalsoreflectssomeofthemanythingsIhavelearntfromeachofourchildrenovertheseyearsIdedicatethisbooktoRuthWithsomehesitation,asshemayhavereservationsaboutbeinglinkedwithabookaboutthehorrorsofthecenturyButinplacesitisaboutpeoplewithhumanityandcourageWiththosepartsofthebookinmind,IdedicateittoRuthwithadmirationandloveAcknowledgementsPartsofthisbookhavebeenusedelsewhereAnearlyversionofpartofthesectionontheNaziswasusedinalecturetothePrograminEthicsandtheProfessionsattheKennedySchoolofGovernmentatHarvard,andinlecturesattheUniversityofColoradoatBoulderAlaterversionwasusedinmyGilbertRyleLecturesatTrentUniversity,Ontario,andinsomelecturesattheUniversityofCopenhagenSomeofthechapteronbombingwasusedinatalkattheFreeUniversityinBerlinPartsofthediscussionofmoralidentityandofnationalismwereusedintalksattheMaisondesSciencesdel'HommeandattheCentreNationaldelaRechercheScientifiqueinParisManypartsofthebookhavealsobeenusedintalks,bothinNewYorkandinOxfordattheConsortiuminMedicalEthics,whichlinksMountSinaiHospital,theUniversityofOxfordandKing'sCollegeLondonIamgratefultoallthosewhoseinvitationstogivethosetalksencouragedmetomakeprogresswiththebookandwhosecommentsonthoseoccasionshavestimulatedmythinkingInevitably,onthissubject,mostofthetimeIamtrespassingonterritorywhichothershavefarmoreknowledgeofthanIhaveItwillbeobvioushowmuchIhavedrawnontheworkofhistoriansandjournalistsIcannotpossiblythankthemallhere,butIhopetheReferenceswillgivesomeideaofwhatIowethemThebookalsousespeople'saccountsoftheirownexperiencesIdonotwishtothanktyrants,torturersandthosewhohavesupportedthem,but,withthoseexceptions,IamgratefultoallwhoseexperiencesandreflectionsIhavedrawnonIhopetheywillapproveoftheusestowhichtheiraccountsareputhereFarmorepeoplehavegivenmehelporencouragementthanitispossibletomention,butamongthosewhohelped,eitherbyansweringspecificqueries,bydirectingmetowhatIshouldread,byturningmetowardsaparticulartopic,bytellingmetheirownexperiences,orbymakingcommentsondraftsofchapters,are:TomandBobbieFarsides,ChristophFehige,PatrickGardiner,MichaelHechter,PollyMarkandya,AlexeiMedvedev,IgorNovovic,StevePaulsson,HilaryPutnam,Scottxii•HumanityRhind,ThomasSchramme,GerrySmith,DavidSpurrett,DanStone,LaurenceThomas,BarryTrachtenberg,GeoffreyWarnock,JeffWilsonandDavidWorswickOtherpeoplehavegivenmeagreatdealofencouragementandsupportwhileIhavebeenwritingthisbookTheyinclude:CatherineAtherton,AviBarbasch,StefanBaumrin,KarinBoxer,MichaelBurleigh,JohnCampbell,AnnDavis,JuliaDriver,JimGriffin,DickHare,JohnHarris,TonyHope,DoloresIorizzo,DaleJamieson,NathanKase,JeffMcMahan,DanMoros,MarthaNussbaum,GunillaOberg,OnoraO'Neill,AnthonyPrice,FrankieRaben,RosamondRhodes,AlanRyan,DavidShapiro,JimStrain,DavidWiggins,BernardWilliamsandDanWiklerFelicityBryanhasactedasmyagent,butherencouragementandpatiencehavegonefarbeyondwhatthatsuggestsIhavebeenluckywithmypublisherstooThemixtureofcriticalcommentsandhelpfulsuggestionsprovidedbyWillSulkinandJorgHensgenatJonathanCapehavegreatlyimprovedthebookMostofallIhavebeenhelpedbyRichardKeshenManyyearsagoIsupervisedhisgraduateworkIwishIcouldbelieveIgavehimthenanythingliketheencouragementandconstructivecriticismhehasgenerouslygivenmewiththisbookCHAPTERINeverSuchInnocenceAgainInEuropeatthestartofthetwentiethcenturymostpeopleacceptedtheauthorityofmoralityTheythoughttherewasamorallaw,whichwasselfevidentlytobeobeyedImmanuelKanthadwrittenofthetwothingswhichfillthemindwithadmirationandawe,'thestarryheavensabovemeandthemorallawwithinme'InCambridgein,acenturyafterKant,LordActonstillhadnodoubts:'Opinionsalter,mannerschange,creedsriseandfall,butthemorallawiswrittenonthetabletsofeternity'Atthestartofthetwentiethcentury,reflectiveEuropeanswerealsoabletobelieveinmoralprogress,andtoseehumanviciousnessandbarbarismasinretreatAttheendofthecentury,itishardtobeconfidenteitheraboutthemorallaworaboutmoralprogressSome,however,arestillunwaveringaboutthemorallawInalettertoanewspaperabouttheGulfWar,FatherDenisGeraghtywrote,'TheuseofweaponsofmassdestructionisacrimeagainstGodandmanandremainsacrimeeveniftheyareusedinretaliationorforwhatisregardedasamorallyjustifiedendItisforbiddentodoevilthatgoodmaycomeofit'Manyotherpeople,includingsomewhoaresympathetictohisopinions,willviewFatherGeraghty'stonewithamixtureofenvyandscepticismConfidencesuchashiswaseasieracenturyagoSinceActon,thewritingonthetabletsofeternityhasfadedalittleThechallengetothemorallawisintellectual:tofindgoodreasonsforthinkingthatitexistsandthatithasanyclaimonusTheproblemishardlynewPlatowroteaboutitButthecollapseoftheauthorityofreligionanddeclineinbeliefinGodarereasonsforitnowbeingaproblemformanywhoarenotphilosophersThereisafurtherchallengetoreligiousethics,onewhichDostoyevskyputintothemouthofIvanKaramazovPointingtofeaturesoftheworldwhichGodissaidtohavecreated,KaramazovquestionsGod'scredentialsfortheroleofamoralauthorityHefirstconcedesmuchofthereligiouspictureHebelievesinawiseGodwithapurposeunknowntous,andinanultimateharmony:'somethingso•Humanitypreciousthatitwillsufficeforallhearts,toallayallindignation,toredeemallhumanvillainy,allbloodsheditwillsufficenotonlytomakeforgivenesspossible,butalsotojustifyeverythingthathashappenedwithmen'ThisultimateharmonyisnotsomethingIvanKaramazovcanacceptItwillbetheculminationofauniversewhichincludeswhattheTurksdidinBulgaria,wheretheyburnt,killedandrapedwomenandchildrenTheyhangedprisonersafterfirstmakingthemspendtheirlastnightnailedbytheeartoafence('Noanimalcouldeverbesocruelasaman,soartfully,soartisticallycruel')Theyuseddaggerstocutbabiesoutofwomen'swombsTheytossednursinginfantsintheair,catchingthemonbayonets:'themaindelightcomesfromdoingitbeforetheirmothers'eyes'Whatclaimcanthecreatorofaharmony,ofwhichallthisisapart,havetobeamoralauthorityTheotherbelief,inmoralprogress,hasalsobeenunderminedTheproblemshavecomefromeventsThetwentiethcenturyhistoryoflargescalecrueltyandkillingisonlytoofamiliar:themutualslaughteroftheFirstWorldWar,theterrorfamineoftheUkraine,theGulag,Auschwitz,Dresden,theBurmaRailway,Hiroshima,Vietnam,theChineseCulturalRevolution,Cambodia,Rwanda,thecollapseofYugoslaviaThesenameswillconjureupothersBecauseofthishistory,itis(orshouldbe)hardforthinkingaboutethicstocarryonjustasbeforeThisbookisanattempttobringethicsandthishistorytogetherThetitle,Humanity:aMoralHistoryoftheTwentiethCentury,needssomeexplanationThetopicisthetwentiethcenturymoralhistoryofthehumanraceBut'humanity'isalsobeingusedinadifferentsense,inwhichitiscontrastedwithinhumanityOneofthebook'saimsistofilloutthisideaofhumanityTheprojectofdiscussingtherecentmoralhistoryofthehumanracemaystrikethereader(asitstrikesme)asrathergrandioseItisworthindicatingatoncesomelimitationsofscopeThehistoryishighlyselectiveintheepisodesdiscussedSomeplaces(India,andmanyothers)areeitherhardlymentionedorquiteunmentionedThisdoesnotreflectaviewthatthehistoryofsomepartsofhumanityisunimportant,butratherthelimitationsofwhatiswelloravailablydocumentedItalsoreflectsthemuchmoreseverelimitationsofmyownknowledgeThereismoretoourrecentmoralhistorythantheethicaldebatesandthemanmadehorrorsdiscussedhereAmoregenerousconceptionwouldalsoincludechangesinthefamily,inthewaychildrenaretreated,andintherelationsbetweenmenandwomenAmongmuchelse,itwouldalsoincludeattitudestopoverty,religiouschanges,theimpactofscienceonourthinkingabouthowtolive,attitudestosexandtodeath,therelationsbetweendifferentcultures,andattitudestowardsanimals,tothenaturalNeverSuchInnocenceAgain•worldandtotheenvironmentNosinglediscussioncouldhopetocoverallthiswithoutsuperficialityanyseriousdiscussionhastobeselectiveTheseotheraspectsrepaystudybutperhapsnoapologyisneededforgivingthetwentiethcenturyatrocitiesacentralplaceinourrecentmoralhistoryTobringoutthelinksbetweenethicsandtwentiethcenturyhistoryitisworthsayingsomethingabouttheapproachfirsttohistoryandthentoethicsFirst,historyTotalkofthetwentiethcenturyatrocitiesisinonewaymisleadingItisamyththatbarbarismisuniquetothetwentiethcentury:thewholeofhumanhistoryincludeswars,massacres,andeverykindoftortureandcruelty:therearegroundsforthinkingthatovermuchoftheworldthechangesofthelasthundredyearsorsohavebeentowardsapsychologicalclimatemorehumanethanatanyprevioustimeButitisstillrightthatmuchoftwentiethcenturyhistoryhasbeenaveryunpleasantsurpriseTechnologyhasmadeadifferenceThedecisionsofafewpeoplecanmeanhorroranddeathforhundredsofthousands,evenmillions,ofotherpeopleTheseeventsshockusnotonlybytheirscaleTheyalsocontrastwiththeexpectations,atleastinEurope,withwhichthetwentiethcenturybeganOnehundredyearsoflargelyunbrokenEuropeanpeacebetweenthedefeatofNapoleonandtheFirstWorldWarmadeitplausibletothinkthatthehumanracewasgrowingoutofitswarlikepastInthepoetCharlesSorley,writinghomeafewmonthsbeforebeingkilledinbattle,founditnaturaltosay,'Afterall,warinthiscenturyisinexcusable:andallpartiesengagedinitmusttakeanequalshareintheblameofitsoccurrence'Morerecently,someofthosegoingtofightintheGulfmayalsohavefeltwartobeinexcusable,buttheyarelesslikelytohavefounditparticularlysointhetwentiethcenturyIn'MCMXIVPhilipLarkindescribesthequeuestoenlistatthestartoftheFirstWorldWar:Thecrownsofhats,thesunOnmoustachedarchaicfacesGrinningasifitwereallAnAugustBankHolidaylarkHislatecenturycommentwas'Neversuchinnocenceagain'Thethoughtsdevelopedhereontwentiethcenturyhistoryareanattempttoseesomeofthecentury'seventsinanappropriatehumanperspectiveWehaveanincessantflowofinformationabouttheunfoldingstoryofourtimes,somanyfactsthatitishardtostandbackandthinkabouttheirmeaningandtheirrelativeimportanceMilanKunderadescribedoneoftheeffectsoftheflowofnews:•HumanityThebloodymassacreinBangladeshquicklycoveredthememoryoftheRussianinvasionofCzechoslovakia,theassassinationofAllendedrownedoutthegroansofBangladesh,thewarintheSinaidesertmadepeopleforgetAllende,theCambodianmassacremadepeopleforgetSinai,andsoonandso

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*新书上架*人性:二十世纪道德史

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