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首页 *新书上架*语言哲学

*新书上架*语言哲学.pdf

*新书上架*语言哲学

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*语言哲学pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SystemsPHILOSOPHYOFLANGUAGE“Thisexceptionaltextfulfillstwoessentialcriteriaofagoodintroductorytextbookinthephilosophyoflanguage:itcoversabroadrangeoftopicswell,allofwhicharethebasisofcurrentactiveresearch,anddoessoinanaccuratemanneraccessibletoundergraduatestudents”MikeHarnish,UniversityofArizona“IlikedthebookverymuchandthinkitwillmakeanexcellenttextbookforteachingTheexamplesthroughoutaredelightfulandstudentswilllovethem”EdwinMares,VictoriaUniversityofWellingtonThephilosophyoflanguagehasbeenmuchinvoguethroughoutthetwentiethcentury,butonlysincetheshavetheissuesbeguntoappearinhighresolutionThisbookisanintroductiontothoseissuesandtoavarietyoflinguisticmechanismsPartIexploresseveraltheoriesofhowpropernames,descriptions,andothertermsbearareferentialrelationtononlinguisticthingsItisarguedthatthereisapuzzle,nearlyaparadox,regardingthereferenceofpropernamesPartIIsurveysseventheoriesofmeaningmoregenerally:theIdeationalTheory,thePropositionTheory,aWittgensteinian“Use”Theory,theVerificationTheory,andtwoversionsoftheTruthConditionTheoryandshowstheiradvantagesanddisadvantagesPartIIIconcernslinguisticpragmaticsandPartIVexaminesfourlinguistictheoriesofmetaphorWilliamGLycanisaleadingphilosopheroflanguageandmindHeisWilliamRandKenan,JrProfessorattheUniversityofNorthCarolinaHispublishedworksincludeoverarticlesaswellassixbooks,amongthemLogicalForminNaturalLanguage(),Consciousness(),JudgementandJustification(),ModalityandMeaning(),andConsciousnessandExperience()RoutledgeContemporaryIntroductionstoPhilosophySeriesEditor:PaulKMoser,LoyolaUniversityofChicagoThisinnovative,wellstructuredseriesisforstudentswhohavealreadydoneanintroductorycourseinphilosophyEachbookintroducesacoregeneralsubjectincontemporaryphilosophyandoffersstudentsanaccessiblebutsubstantialtransitionfromintroductorytohigherlevelcollegeworkinthatsubjectTheseriesisaccessibletononspecialistsandeachbookclearlymotivatesandexpoundstheproblemsandpositionsintroducedAnorientatingchapterbrieflyintroducesitstopicandremindsreadersofanycrucialmaterialtheyneedtohaveretainedfromatypicalintroductorycourseConsiderableattentionisgiventoexplainingthecentralphilosophicalproblemsofasubjectandthemaincompetingsolutionsandargumentsforthosesolutionsTheprimaryaimistoeducatestudentsinthemainproblems,positionsandargumentsofcontemporaryphilosophyratherthantoconvincestudentsofasinglepositionTheinitialeightcentralbooksintheseriesarewrittenbyexperiencedauthorsandteachers,andtreattopicsessentialtoawellroundedphilosophycurriculumEpistemologyRobertAudiEthicsHarryGenslerMetaphysicsMichaelJLouxPhilosophyofArtNoelCarrollPhilosophyofLanguageWilliamGLycanPhilosophyofMindJohnHeilPhilosophyofReligionKeithEYandellPhilosophyofScienceAlexanderRosenbergPHILOSOPHYOFLANGUAGEAcontemporaryintroductionWilliamGLycanLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,©WilliamGLycanAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataLycan,WilliamGPhilosophyoflanguage:acontemporaryintroductionWilliamGLycanpcm(Routledgecontemporaryintroductionstophilosophy)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexLanguageandlanguagesPhilosophyITitleIISeriesPL–dc–CIPISBN(hb)ISBN(pb)ISBNXMasterebookISBNISBN(GlassbookFormat)ToBobandMargeTurnbull,withgratitudeContentsPrefacexiiiAcknowledgementsxvChapter:Introduction:meaningandreferenceOverviewMeaningandunderstandingTheReferentialTheorySummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingPARTI:REFERENCEANDREFERRINGChapter:DefinitedescriptionsOverviewSingulartermsRussell’sTheoryofDescriptionsObjectionstoRussell’stheoryDonnellan’sdistinctionAnaphoraSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:Propernames:theDescriptionTheoryOverviewRussell’sNameClaimOpeningobjectionsSearle’s“ClusterTheory”Kripke’scritiqueSummaryviiiCONTENTSQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:Propernames:DirectReferenceandtheCausalHistoricalTheoryOverviewPossibleworldsRigidityandpropernamesDirectReferenceTheCausalHistoricalTheoryProblemsfortheCausalHistoricalTheoryNaturalkindtermsand“TwinEarth”SummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingPARTII:THEORIESOFMEANINGChapter:TraditionaltheoriesofmeaningOverviewIdeationaltheoriesThePropositionTheorySummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:“Use”theoriesOverview“Use”inaroughlyWittgensteiniansenseObjectionsandsomerepliesSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingCONTENTSixChapter:Psychologicaltheories:Grice’sprogramOverviewGrice’sbasicideaSpeakermeaningSentencemeaningSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:VerificationismOverviewThetheoryanditsmotivationSomeobjectionsThebigoneTwoQuineanissuesSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:TruthConditionTheories:Davidson’sprogramOverviewTruthconditionsTruthdefiningnaturallanguagesInitialobjectionsSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:TruthConditionTheories:possibleworldsandintensionalsemanticsOverviewTruthconditionsreconceivedAdvantagesoverDavidson’sviewRemainingobjectionsxCONTENTSSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingPARTIII:PRAGMATICSANDSPEECHACTSChapter:SemanticpragmaticsOverviewSemanticvspragmaticpragmaticsTheproblemofdeixisTheworkofsemanticpragmaticsSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:SpeechactsandillocutionaryforceOverviewPerformativesRulesandinfelicitiesForce,content,andperlocutionCohen’sproblemSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingChapter:ImplicativerelationsOverviewConveyedmeaningsandinvitedinferencesConversationalimplicature“Presupposition”andconventionalimplicatureIndirectforceSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingCONTENTSxiPARTIV:THEDARKSIDEChapter:MetaphorOverviewAphilosophicalbiasTheissues,andtwosimpletheoriesTheFigurativeSimileTheoryThePragmaticTheoryMetaphorasanalogicalSummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingGlossaryBibliographyIndexPrefaceAsitstitleslylysuggests,thisbookisanintroductiontothemainissuesincontemporaryphilosophyoflanguagePhilosophyoflanguagehasbeenmuchinvoguethroughoutthetwentiethcentury,butonlysincetheshavetheissuesbeguntoappearinhighresolutionOnecrucialdevelopmentinthepastthirtyyearsistheattentionofphilosophersoflanguagetoformalgrammarorsyntaxasarticulatedbytheoreticallinguistsIpersonallybelievethatsuchattentionisvitaltosuccessinphilosophizingaboutlanguage,andinmyownworkIpayasmuchofitasIamableWithregret,however,IhavenotmadethatathemeofthisbookUnderseverespacelimitations,Icouldnotexpendasmanypagesaswouldbeneededtoexplainthebasicsofformalsyntax,withouthavingtoomitpresentationofsomephilosophicalissuesIconsideressentialtocompetenceinthefieldSincearound,somephilosophersoflanguagehavetakenaturntowardthephilosophyofmind,andsomehaveengagedinmetaphysicalexplorationoftherelationorlackthereofbetweenlanguageandrealityTheseadversionshavecapturedmanyphilosophers’interest,andsomefinetextbookshavefocusedononeorboth(forexample,Blackburn()andDevittandSterelny())ButIhavechosenotherwiseWhateverthemeritsofthosesortsofwork,IhavenotfoundthateitherhelpsussufficientlytounderstandspecificallylinguisticmechanismsorthecoreissuesofphilosophyoflanguageitselfThisbookwillconcentrateonthosemechanismsandissues(Readerswhowishtopressonintometaphysicsorphilosophyofmindshouldconsult,respectively,MichaelJLoux’sMetaphysicsandJohnHeil’sPhilosophyofMind,bothoftheRoutledgeContemporaryIntroductionsseries)Manyofmychaptersandsectionswilltaketheformofpresentingdatapertinenttoalinguisticphenomenon,expoundingsomeone’stheoryofthatphenomenon,andthenlistingandassessingobjectionstothattheoryIemphasizehere,becauseIwillnotalwayshavethespacetodosointhetext,thatineachcasewhatIwillsummarizeforthereaderwillbeonlytheopeningmovesmadebythevarioustheoristsandtheiropponentsandobjectorsInparticular,IdoubtthatanyoftheobjectionstoanyofthetheoriesisfatalchampionsoftheoriesareremarkablygoodatavoidingorrefutingobjectionsTherealtheorizingbeginswherethisbookleavesoffIhaveusedsomenotationofformallogic,specificallythepredicatecalculus,forthosewhoarefamiliarwithitandwillfindpointsmadeclearerbyitButineachcaseIhavealsoexplainedthemeaninginEnglishxivPREFACEManyofthewritingstobediscussedinthisbookcanbefoundinthefollowinganthologies:JFRosenbergandCTravis(eds)ReadingsinthePhilosophyofLanguage(EnglewoodCliffs,NJ:PrenticeHall,)RMHarnish(ed)BasicTopicsinthePhilosophyofLanguage(EnglewoodCliffs,NJ:PrenticeHall,)AMartinich(ed)ThePhilosophyofLanguage,rdedn(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,)PLudlow(ed)ReadingsinthePhilosophyofLanguage(Cambridge,MA:BradfordBooksMITPress,)AcknowledgementsIthankmyeditor,MoiraTaylor,forherbracingencouragementand(especially)forherpatienceThelatterwasseverelytriedMikeHarnish,GregMcCulloch,andEdMareseachverykindlyreadanearlydraftandsuppliedmewithmanythoughtfulcommentsandsuggestionsIbelievethebookismuchimprovedasaresult,andIammostgratefulPeterAlwardandLauraMorganproducedmuchoftheearlydraftbytranscribingmanyhoursoflecturesfromverybadaudiorecordingsIthankthemwarmlyandIhopethateachofthemwillsoonmakeafullrecoverySeanMcKeever’smonthsofeditorialhelpandadvicehavebeeninvaluable(Hesufferedthroughsometranscribingaswell)ThanksespeciallytoSeanforsuggestingsomeneededcuts,andfororganizingthebibliographyThelastfewchaptersofthisbookwerecompletedduringmytenureasaFellowoftheNationalHumanitiesCenter,in–IthanktheCenteranditswonderfulstafffortheirgeneroussupportForadditionalfundingIamindebtedtotheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanities(#RA––)Introduction:meaningandreferenceOverviewMeaningandunderstandingTheReferentialTheorySummaryQuestionsNotesFurtherreadingOverviewThatcertainkindsofmarksandnoiseshavemeanings,andthatwehumanbeingsgraspthosemeaningswithouteventhinkingaboutit,areverystrikingfactsAphilosophicaltheoryofmeaningshouldexplainwhatitisforastringofmarksornoisestobemeaningfuland,moreparticularly,whatitisinvirtueofwhichthestringhasthedistinctivemeaningitdoesThetheoryshouldalsoexplainhowitispossibleforhumanbeingstoproduceandtounderstandmeaningfulutterancesandtodothatsoeffortlesslyAwidespreadideaaboutmeaningisthatwordsandmorecomplexlinguisticexpressionshavetheirmeaningsbystandingforthingsintheworldThoughcommonsensicalandatfirstattractive,thisReferentialTheoryofmeaningisfairlyeasilyshowntobeinadequateForonething,comparativelyfewwordsdoactuallystandforthingsintheworldForanother,ifallwordswerelikepropernames,servingjusttopickoutindividualthings,wewouldnotbeabletoformgrammaticalsentencesinthefirstplaceMeaningandunderstandingNotmanypeopleknowthatin,AdolfHitlermadeavisittotheUnitedStates,inthecourseofwhichhedidsomesightseeing,hadabriefaffairwithaladynamedMaxineinKeokuk,Iowa,triedpeyote(whichcausedhimtohallucinatehordesoffrogsandtoadswearinglittlebootsandsingingtheHorstWesselLied),infiltratedamunitionsplantnearDetroit,metsecretlywithVicePresidentCurtisregardingsealskinfutures,andinventedtheelectriccanopenerThereisagoodreasonwhynotmanypeopleknowallthat:noneofitistrueButtheremarkablethingisthatjustnow,asyoureadthroughmyopeningsentenceletuscallitsentence()youunderstooditperfectly,whetherornotyouwerereadytoacceptit,andyoudidsowithouttheslightestconsciouseffortRemarkable,IsaidItprobablydoesnotstrikeyouasremarkableorsurprising,evennowthatyouhavenoticeditYouareentirelyusedtoreadingwordsandsentencesandunderstandingthematsight,andyoufinditnearlyasnaturalasbreathingoreatingorwalkingBut,howdidyouunderstandsentence()NotbyhavingseenitbeforeIamcertainthatneverinthehistoryoftheuniversehasanyoneeverwrittenorutteredthatparticularsentence,untilIdidNordidyouunderstand()byhavingseenaverysimilarsentence,sinceIdoubtthatanyonehaseverproducedasentenceevenremotelysimilarto()Youmaysaythatyouunderstood()becauseyouspeakEnglishand()isanEnglishsentenceThatistruesofarasitgoes,butitonlypushesthemysterytoarm’slengthHowisitthatyouareableto“speakEnglish,”giventhatspeakingEnglishinvolvesbeingabletoproduceandunderstand,notonlyelementaryexpressionslike“I’mthirsty,”“Shutup,”and“Moregravy,”butnovelsentencesascomplexas()Thatabilityistrulyamazing,andmuchhardertoexplainthanhowyoubreatheorhowyoueatorhowyouwalk,eachofwhichabilitiesisalreadywellunderstoodbyphysiologistsOneclueisfairlyobviousuponreflection:()isastringofwords,Englishwords,thatyouunderstandindividuallySoitseemsthatyouunderstand()becauseyouunderstandthewordsthatoccurin()andyouunderstandsomethingabouthowtheyarestrungtogetherAsweshallsee,thatisanimportantfact,butfornowitisonlysuggestiveSofarwehavebeentalkingaboutahumanability,toproduceandunderstandspeechButconsiderlinguisticexpressionsthemselves,asobjectsofstudyintheirownright()wgfjsdkhjjiobfglglfud()It’sdangeroustosplashgasolinearoundyourlivingroomINTRODUCTION:MEANINGANDREFERENCE()Goodofoffprimlytheathethewhy()–()areallstringsofmarks(orofnoises,ifutteredaloud)Buttheydifferdramaticallyfromeachother,()and()aremeaningfulsentences,while()and()aregibberish()differsfrom()incontainingindividuallymeaningfulEnglishwords,butthewordsarenotlinkedtogetherinsuchawayastomakeasentence,andcollectivelytheydonotmeananythingatallCertainsequencesofnoisesormarks,then,haveafeaturethatisbothscarceinnatureandurgentlyinneedofexplanation:thatofmeaningsomethingAndeachofthosestringshasthemorespecificpropertyofmeaningsomethinginparticularForexample,()meansthatitisdangeroustosplashgasolinearoundyourlivingroomSoourphilosophicalstudyoflanguagebeginswiththefollowingdata•Somestringsofmarksornoisesaremeaningfulsentences•Eachmeaningfulsentencehaspartsthatarethemselvesmeaningful•Eachmeaningfulsentencemeanssomethinginparticular•Competentspeakersofalanguageareabletounderstandmanyofthatlanguage’ssentences,withouteffortandalmostinstantaneouslytheyalsoproducesentences,inthesamewayAndthesedataallneedexplainingInvirtueofwhatisanysequenceofmarksornoisesmeaningfulInvirtueofwhatdoessuchastringmeanwhatitdistinctivelydoesAndhow,again,arehumanbeingsabletounderstandandproduceappropriatemeaningfulspeechTheReferentialTheoryThereisanattractiveandcommonsensicalexplanationofalltheforegoingfactssoattractivethatmostofusthinkofitbythetimewearetenorelevenyearsoldTheideaisthatlinguisticexpressionshavethemeaningstheydobecausetheystandforthingswhattheymeaniswhattheystandforOnthisview,wordsarelikelabelstheyaresymbolsthatrepresent,designate,name,denoteorrefertoitemsintheworld:thename“AdolfHitler”denotes(theperson)Hitlerthenoun“dog”referstodogs,asdotheFrench“chien”andtheGerman“Hund”Thesentence“Thecatsatonthemat”representssomecat’ssittingonsomemat,presumablyinvirtueof“Thecat”designatingthatcat,“themat”designatingthematinquestion,INTRODUCTION:MEANINGANDREFERENCEand“saton”denoting(ifyoulike)therelationofsittingonSentencesthusmirrorthestatesofaffairstheydescribe,andthatishowtheygettomeanthosethingsForthemostpart,ofcourse,wordsarearbitrarilyassociatedwiththethingstheyrefertosomeonesimplydecidedthatHitlerwastobecalled“Adolf,”andtheinscriptionorsound“dog”couldhavebeenusedtomeananythingThisReferentialTheoryofLinguisticMeaningwouldexplainthesignificanceofallexpressionsintermsoftheirhavingbeenconventionallyassociatedwiththingsorstatesofaffairsintheworld,anditwouldexplainahumanbeing’sunderstandingasentenceintermsofthatperson’sknowingwhatthesentence’scomponentwordsrefertoItisanaturalandappealingviewIndeeditmayseemobviouslycorrect,atleastsofarasitgoesAndonewouldhaveahardtimedenyingthatreferenceornamingisourcleanestcutandmostfamiliarrelationbetweenawordandtheworldYetwhenexamined,theReferentialTheoryverysoonrunsintoseriousobjectionsObjectionNoteveryworddoesnameordenoteanyactualobjectFirst,therearethe“names”ofnonexistentitemslikePegasusortheEasterBunny“Pegasus”doesnotdenoteanything,becausethereisinrealitynowingedhorseforittodenote(WeshalldiscusssuchnamesatsomelengthinChapter)Orconsiderpronounsofquantification,asin:()IsawnobodyItwouldbeatiredjoketotake

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