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首页 *新书上架*隐喻、寓言和古典传统:古代思想与现代修正

*新书上架*隐喻、寓言和古典传统:古代思想与现代修正.pdf

*新书上架*隐喻、寓言和古典传统:古代思想与现代修正

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*隐喻、寓言和古典传统:古代思想与现代修正pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

METAPHOR,ALLEGORY,ANDTHECLASSICALTRADITIONThispageintentionallyleftblankMetaphor,Allegory,andtheClassicalTraditionAncientThoughtandModernRevisionsEditedbyGRBOYSSTONESGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandBangkokBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiSãoPauloShanghaiTaipeiTokyoTorontoOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©OxfordUniversityPressThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataappliedforISBN–––TypesetbyRegentTypesetting,LondonPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyTJInternational,Padstow,CornwallPREFACEInHilaryTermof,baffledasIhadbecomebyancientdefinitionsofallegoryinthecourseofmyownresearchintothephilosophicaluseoftheterm,IorganizedaseminaronmetaphorandallegoryatCorpusChristiCollegeOxford,undertheaegisoftheCentrefortheStudyofGreekandRomanAntiquityTheideawasthat,sinceancientrhetoriciansdefinedallegoryintermsofmetaphor,thestudyofeachmightcontributetoourunderstandingoftheotherJoiningmeintheattemptwerePaulCrowther,AndrewLaird,ChristophLeidl,GeoffreyLloyd,GlennMost,DonaldRussell,AnneSheppard,andMichaelSilkIwouldliketothankallofthemformakingasuccessfulandenjoyableseriesinthefirstplacealsoStephenHarrison,whowasDirectoroftheCentrewhentheseminarwasheldThatIwasabletodownpenandorganizeaseminarlikethisforthefrivolous(andnotentirelyunusual)circumstancethatIfoundsomethingbaffling,IowetotheBritishAcademyandCorpusChristiCollegeitself,foraJuniorResearchFellowshipeachThepresentvolumeis,ofcourse,basedontheseminarIthasbeenhelpedandhinderedonitscourseinvariousways:amongourbenefactorshavebeen,fromitsearliestdays,HilaryO’Shea,andtheanonymousreadersatOxfordUniversityPressDuringthelateststageofitsproduction,itwasmateriallybenefitedbyTonyWoodman’sadviceandhelpMostregrettableofthehindranceswasthedeathofDonFowler,whowaspartoftheoriginalproposalsubmittedtoOUPintheSummerofWetakethisopportunityonceagaintoregrethispassingGBSAprilThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSListofContributorsixAbbreviationsxIntroductionGRBoysStonesMetaphor,Simile,andAllegoryasOrnamentsofStyleDoreenInnesPartI:MetaphorTheHarlot’sArt:MetaphorandLiteraryCriticismChristophGLeidlPlatoonMetaphorsandModelsEEPenderLiteraryMetaphorandPhilosophicalInsight:TheSignificanceofArchilochusPaulCrowtherTheProblemofMetaphor:ChineseReflectionsGERLloydMetaphorandMetonymy:Aristotle,Jakobson,Ricoeur,andOthersMichaelSilkPartII:AllegoryFiguresofAllegoryfromHomertoLatinEpicAndrewLairdAllegoryandExegesisintheDerveniPapyrus:TheOriginofGreekScholarshipDirkObbinkTheStoics’TwoTypesofAllegoryGRBoysStonesTheRhetoricoftheHomericProblemsDonaldRussellOrigenonChrist,Tropology,andExegesisMarkEdwardsBibliographyIndexofPassagesCitedGeneralIndexviiiContentsLISTOFCONTRIBUTORSGRBoysStonesisLecturerinClassicsattheUniversityofDurhamPaulCrowtherisProfessorofArtandPhilosophyattheInternationalUniversityofBremenMarkEdwardsisLecturerinPatristicsattheUniversityofOxford,andTutorinTheologyatChristChurchOxfordDoreenInnesisEmeritusFellowofStHilda’sCollegeOxfordAndrewLairdisReaderinClassicsattheUniversityofWarwickChristophGLeidlisLecturerinClassicsattheUniversityofHeidelbergGERLloydisEmeritusProfessorofAncientPhilosophyandScienceattheUniversityofCambridgeDirkObbinkisLecturerinPapyrologyandGreekLiteratureattheUniversityofOxford,andTutorinGreekandMacArthurFellowofChristChurchOxfordEEPenderisLecturerinClassicsattheUniversityofLeedsDonaldRussellisEmeritusProfessorofClassicalLiterature,andEmeritusFellowofStJohn’sCollegeOxfordMichaelSilkisProfessorofGreekLanguageandLiteratureatKing’sCollegeLondonABBREVIATIONSANRWHTemporiniandWHaase(edd),AufstiegundNiedergangderrömischenWelt:GeschichteundKulturRomsimSpiegelderneuerenForschung(Berlin:deGruyter,–)CEGPAHansen(ed),CarminaEpigraphicaGraeca,vols(BerlinNewYork:deGruyter,–)CPFCorpusdeipapirifilosoficigrecielatiniTestielessiconeipapiridiculturagrecaelatina(Florence:Olschki,–)CPGCAustinandRKassel(edd),PoetaeComiciGraeci(Berlin:deGruyter,–)DKHDielsandWKranz,DieFragmentederVorsokratiker,vols,thedn(DublinZurich:Weidmann,)FGrHFJacoby,DieFragmentedergriechischenHistoriker,vols(Berlin,Weidmann:–)FHSGWWFortenbaugh,PHHuby,RWSharples,andDGutas(edd),TheophrastusofEresusSourcesforhisLife,Writings,ThoughtandInfluence,vols(LeidenNewYorkCologne:Brill,)LSJGreek–EnglishLexicon,compiledbyHGLiddellandRScott,revisedbyHSJones,thedn(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,)OCDSHornblowerandASpawforth(edd),TheOxfordClassicalDictionary,rdedn(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,)SE,MSextusEmpiricus,AdversusmathematicosSVFJvonArnim(ed),StoicorumVeterumFragmenta,vols(Stuttgart:Teubner,–)voliv(indexes)byMAdlerIntroductiongrboysstonesAtropeisanexpressiontransferredfromitsnaturalandprincipalsignificationtoanother,forthesakeofembellishingspeech(ornandaeorationisgratia)(Quintilian)SoletusbeginfromthattropewhichisthemostcommonandmuchthemostbeautifulImeantransfer(tralatio),whichiscalledmetaphor(metafor)inGreek(Quintilian)Inthelastfortyyears,the‘classical’definitionofmetaphorinheritedfromtheancientrhetoricianshaslostitscanonicalstatusWhileargumentstillragesoverthekindofmodelneededtoreplaceit,thereisnowgeneralagreementatleastthatanaccountofmetaphorwhichmakesitmerelyanornamenttolanguage,verbalwrappingpaperbroughtinonlyaftertheseriousbusinessofmeaninghastakenplace,simplydoesnotholduptotherealitiesofmetaphoricalusageMetaphor(orwhatevershouldstandinitsplace)belongs,wenowbelieve,attheheartofthinkingaboutlanguageuseinallitsaspectsnotsidelinedasaformof‘deviant’usageofprimaryinterestonlytostudentsofliteratureButifthe‘classical’accountofmetaphorastraditionallyunderstoodstrikesusnowaslimitedandimplausible,itisworthconsideringwhetherthisisbecausetheSeeegSteen(),–forabriefsurveyoflandmarksincontemporarydiscussionsofmetaphor(andfurtherreferencesatInnesinthisvolume,n)Itisworthnotingatendencyamongthosewillingtoengagewithclassicaltheorytoskiptherhetoricians,whoaretheproximatesourceforthelaterWesterntradition,infavourofAristotle,theremotersourcefromwhoseworkstheyinturntooktheirriseCfegRicoeur()ancients’viewwas,asamatteroffact,limitedorwhetheritismoretodowiththewayinwhichtheirpositionwasrepresentedinthelatertraditionItiscertainlytruethatclaimsforthe‘classical’accountofmetaphor,basedastheyareprimarilyonancientrhetoricalhandbooks,arebased,thereby,onasurprisinglylimitedrangeoftexts:perhaps,then,thisgoessomewaytowardsexplainingthelimitationsofthetheoryreconstructedIfwelookagainatwhattherhetoricianssay,itquicklybecomesclearthattheydidnothaveanddidnotclaimtohaveamonopolyontheoriesoflanguageuseindeed,theythemselvesencourageustolocatetheircontributiontothesubjectwithinaratherwidercontextofthoughtAndoneoftheirmostsignificantpointerstowardsthepossibleexistenceofaratherfulleraccountofmetaphor,anaccountwhichtheyadaptedandrestrictedtotheirownparticularinterests,comesinthedefinitionofallegorytheyoffer:forallegory,theyclaim,isitselfaformofmetaphorWhentherehavebeenmoremetaphorsinacontinuousstream,anotherkindofspeechclearlyarises:andtheGreekscallthiskind‘allegory’(ållhgor≤a)(Cicero,Orator)Theword‘allegory’isnotattestedbeforethefirstcenturybc,anditseemsfairtoassumethatitwascoinedthenbyrhetoricianswhowishedtoassimilatetheconceptintotheirgrowingtaxonomiesoflanguageTheconceptitself,however,doesnotInadditiontothelinkbetweenrhetoricalandphilosophicaltheorysuggestedinthedefinitionofallegorythatfollows,onemightpointtocaseswhererhetoriciansexplicitlyindicatetheparameterswhichdefinethescopeoftheirtheoreticalconcernsConsiderforexampleQuintilian–,wherehesaysthathewill‘omitallargumentsconductedamonggrammariansandphilosopherswhichareirrelevanttotheinstructionoftheorator’Cfconversely,whereQuintilianappendsagrammarians’definitionofa‘trope’whichomitsnotonlythereferencetooratorypresentinhisown,butalso(significantly)thereferencetoornamentCfalsoDeOratoreCicero,RhetorictoHerenniusQuintilianCicero(Orator)andevenPlutarch(HowtoListentoPoetryef)areabletotalkasif‘allegory’isarathernewfangledwordOneofourearliestattestationsofthewordisatPhilodemus,OnRhetoriciSudhausanditmightnotbecoincidencethatitcomesintheworkofaphilosopherwritinghereaboutrhetoric(cfalsotheStoicCornutus,wholikewiseusesthewordonlyinarhetoricalcontext:seeArtofRhetoric,–GraevenwithHahn:andn)SeegenerallyforanilluminatingandcomprehensivehistoryofthetermWhitman(),–GRBoysStonesappeartohaveoriginatedwiththerhetoricians:arguably,itderivedfromtheancientpracticeofpoetscertainlyitreferredtoanexegeticalprinciplewhichhadbeenemployedforcenturiesbyphilosopherswhosawdeepermeaningsintextswhichappearedtobe‘sayingsomethingelse’Andiftheoreticalreflectiononallegorybeganwiththephilosophers,italwaysremained,notexclusively,butcharacteristicallyaphilosopher’stoolIfwearetounderstandancientthinkingaboutallegory,then,theobviousplacetogoistophilosophicaltextsWhenwedothis,however,wefindthatthereismuchmoretobesaidaboutthesubjectthanwemighthavebeenledtoexpectfromtherhetoricians’account,whichmakesallegoryan‘ornamental’tropejustlikemetaphor,ofwhichitislistedasaspeciesForthephilosophersmightagreethatallegoryhasanaestheticappealofitsownbuttheyrarelyarguethatallegoryisemployedsolely,orevenmainly,forthesakeofadornmentItwasnotforthesakeofadornmentthatOrpheuswroteinallegoryifonebelievesthewriteroftheDervenipapyrusnorforthesakeofadornmentthatMoseswrotetheTorahasallegoryaccordingtoPhiloofAlexandriaandthePlatonistcommentatorsontheancientpoetsappeartohavebelievedthatallegory,farfromadorningtheirmeaning,wasoftentheonlymeansavailableforexpressingwhatneededtobesaidAstudyofphilosophicalallegory,therefore,veryquicklyservestoputtherhetoriciansincontext,andtoshowuswhatweAPorphyrianscholiontoHomer(frDK)seesTheagnesofRhegium(thcentbc)asthefirstpractitionerofallegoricalexegesis,butsomescholarshavetracedthepracticebackevenearlier:seePépin(),–,Détienne(),–,andLamberton(),(Pythagoreans)Most()(Homerhimself)Thetermswhichwereemployed(andlatersubsumedunderthemoregeneralterm‘allegory’)includes»mbolon(‘symbol’,ofanimagewithinatext:egSVFii,,)andËpÎnoia(ofthe‘underlyingintention’ofatext:egPlato,Republic,dXenophon,SymposiumcfagainPlutarch,HowtoListenef)Indeed,therhetoriciansseeminterestedinallegoryprimarilytowarnoratorsagainstitsuse:cfQuintilian,andfurther,nbelow‘Grandeur’istheornamentalcontributionnormallyassociatedwithallegory:seeHermogenes,OnTypesDemetrius,OnStyle–(also–forpiquancy)OfteninPhiloitispreciselyviolationsofgoodrhetoricalstylewhichindicatethepresenceofallegory:egWhoistheHeirOnthePreliminaryStudiesIntroductionmighthaveexpectedallalong:that,whentherhetoricianstalkofallegory(andafortiorithesamewillbetrueofmetaphor),theytalkaboutitonlyinsofarasitisofrelevancetotheneedsoftheoratorandonlythenwithinacertainviewofthenature,notoflanguageassuch,butoforatoryinparticularThegapbetweenwhattherhetoriciansandthephilosopherssayaboutallegoryisnoillreflectionontheformer:whatitindicatesratheristherhetoricians’viewthattheorator’sartispreciselyamatterofbeingabletosaythesamethinginavarietyofstylesasappropriate,ofbeingabletomakeitattractivetoanygivenaudienceButiftheskilloftheoratoristobeabletoadapttheappearanceofhisargumenttotheparticularcircumstancesofitsdeliverywithoutalteringitssubstance,then,asfarasoratoryatleastisconcerned,itbecomesquitereasonabletothinkofthetropesastheverbalcosmeticsheneedsNooneeverclaimedthatthisistheonlyfunctionthatthe‘tropes’performinlanguagebutbyandlargeitwassimplynotthoughttobethejoboftheorator,asitmightbethejobofthepoetorphilosopher,tobesayingthingsthatcanonlybeexpressedinallegoricalor(moregenerally)inmetaphoricaltermsIfwereadtherhetoricianswithoutappreciatingthisvitallimitationtothescopeoftheirdiscussion,thenitisnowonderifwecomeawaywiththeideathattheclassicaltheoryofmetaphorisinadequatetotherealitiesoflanguageuseItisnaivefromthestarttotalkasiftherewasa‘classicaltheoryofmetaphor’itisproportionallymoremisleadingtosupposethattherhetoricaltextsofantiquitycouldontheirownprovideuswithanaccountofthattheoryIfwearetounderstandanythingofthebreadthofancientthoughtaboutmetaphor,weneedtocontextualizeoursourcesmorecarefullyandthebridgebetweenrhetoricandphilosophyfurnishedbythedefinitionofallegoryintermsofmetaphorprovidesaparticularlyfruitfulwayofdoingthisByconsideringphilosophicalQuintilianpointstoallegoryasalimitingcaseintheeffectiverhetoricaluseofmetaphor():whenmetaphorturnsintoallegory,hethinks,theoratorhasbecometooobscure,andobscurityissomethingtheoratorneedstoavoid(cfalsoAristotle,Poetics,a–Demetrius,OnStyleCicero,OratorpsLonginus,OntheSublime)Theorator,thatis,inparticular:hedoesnotapplythesamestricturetopoetsandphilosophers(seeQuintiliancfPhilodemus,OnPoems,col–alsoforthegeneralpointCicero,Orator:CiceropraisesobscurityinThucydideswherehecondemnsitinoratory)GRBoysStonesapproachestoallegorynexttorhetoricaldiscussionsofmetaphor,andbyplacingstudiesofclassicaltheoryalongsideanalysesofliterarypracticethatdrawonthetermsofcontemporarytheory,thechaptersthatfollowaimtocontributetoafairerpictureofclassicalapproachestolanguageSuchapictureisnotdestinedtoreversethe‘turn’incontemporarythoughtaboutmetaphorbutbychallengingtherathernarrowinterpretationofancienttheoryagainstwhichitturned,itmightatleastallowamorepositivedialoguebetweenmoderntheoryanditshistoricalrootsIntroductionThispageintentionallyleftblankMetaphor,Simile,andAllegoryasOrnamentsofStyledoreeninnesThetwonotionsbasictotheclassicaltheoryofmetaphoraresimilarityandsubstitutionThewordmetafor,foundfirstinthismeaninginAristotleandhiscontemporaries,isitselfametaphor:itmeans‘carryingacross’ortransference(cfLatintransferre,translatio),andvocabularyofmovement,changeexchange,andplacedomainisfrequent,reflectingthebasicideathatatermistransferredfromitsoriginalcontexttoanotherItis,inAristotle’swords,‘theintroductionofanalienterm’(ønÎmatoßållotr≤ouƒpifor:Poeticsb),anditisasuccessfulmetaphorifinitsnewplaceitseemstobelong:‘youwouldsayithadnotinvadedintoanalienplacebuthadmigratedintoitsown’(Cicero,Brutus:‘nonirruisseinalienumlocumsedmigrasseinsuum’)Suchvocabularyatleastinpartreflectsthefundamentaldistinctionwhichalmostallancientcriticsdrewbetweencontentandstyle:styleissomethingexternaltothethought,anornamentation(Latinornatus,cfGreekkÎsmoß),inthesamewayasdressadornsthebody,acommoncomparison,asinCicero,Brutus,whereCaesar’swritingsarestrippedofallornamentalclothingofstyle,tamquamvestedetractaItistruethatPrincipaltexts:Aristotle,Rhetoric,and–PoeticsbffTheophrastusF–FHSGPapyrusHamburgDemetrius–,–Philodemus,Rhetorici–SudhausRhetorictoHerennius–and–Cicero,DeOratore–,Orator–,–Quintilian–,–and–Longinus–psPlutarch,LifeandPoetryofHomer–,and–Trypho,OnTropesiii–and–SpengelAnon,OnTropesiii–SpengelPorphyry,HomericQuestionsandSodanoCfLausberg(),§§–(tropeandmetaphor),–(simile),and–(allegory)moresensitivecriticslikeLonginusandHoracesawcontentandstyleasacloselyinterlockingpartnership,andthattheEpicureansexploreanorganicapproachtospeech,but,intermsofextantclassicaltheory,metaphorisamodeofexpressionItsusedoesnotchangetheessentialmeaningofapassage,butsubstitutesonetermforanothertosetupacomparisonoftwothingswhichareperceivedasalikeThisapproachtometaphorisincontrasttomoremoderntheorywherelanguageandth

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*新书上架*隐喻、寓言和古典传统:古代思想与现代修正

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