加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 *新书上架*无家可归、公民和身份:晚期现代性的危机

*新书上架*无家可归、公民和身份:晚期现代性的危机.pdf

*新书上架*无家可归、公民和身份:晚期现代性的危机

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*无家可归、公民和身份:晚期现代性的危机pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Homelessness,Citizenship,andIdentityTheUncanninessofLateModernityKATHLEENRARNOLDHOMELESSNESS,CITIZENSHIP,ANDIDENTITYSUNYseriesinNationalIdentitiesThomasMWilson,editorHomelessness,Citizenship,andIdentityTheUncanninessofLateModernityKATHLEENRARNOLDSTATEUNIVERSITYPRESSOFNEWYORKPublishedbyStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,Albany©StateUniversityofNewYorkAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutwrittenpermissionNopartofthisbookmaybestoredinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeansincludingelectronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublisherForinformation,addressStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,StateStreet,Suite,Albany,NYProductionbyMarilynPSemeradMarketingbyJenniferGiovaniandSusanMPetrieLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataArnold,KathleenR,–Homelessness,citizenship,andidentity:theuncanninessoflatemodernityKathleenRArnoldpcm(SUNYseriesinnationalidentities)IncludesindexISBN(alkpaper)HomelessnessHomelessnessGovernmentpolicyHomelesspersonsITitleIISeriesHVA'dcFormymotherContentsAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionCitizenshipandPoliticalIdentityIntroductionCitizenshipandPropertyintheLiberalTradition:PoliticalPowerandEconomicIndependenceversusDependenceJuridicalConceptionsofCitizenshipSocialDimensionsofCitizenshipConclusionDasUnheimlicheIntroductionHomeHomelessPowerDynamicsofHomeHomeless:TheUncannyPoliticalManifestationsoftheUncannyHomelessnessandPanopticismIntroductionHistoryandBackgroundHomelessnessandPanopticismConclusionHomeland,Homelessness,andCosmopolitanismIntroductionviiSelfOtherStatePower,Identity,andtheNationStateCapitalismandGlobalizationIdentityandCosmopolitanism:APoliticsofHomelessnessCosmopolitanCitizenshipDebt,Guilt,andResponsibility:SchuldNotesIndexviii�ContentsAcknowledgmentsThisbookistheculminationofworkbegunmyfirstyearofgraduateschoolatUCLAIntheearlystagesofthisproject,VictorWolfensteinandRayRoccowereveryencouragingandhelpfulIamalsoindebtedtothelateRichardAshcraftforhisguidanceandpatienceatthistimeWhilehewasclearlydisinterestedinpoststructuraltheory,headmittedtomeonedaythatifheweremyage,hewouldbeheadedtoIrvineforJacquesDerrida’slectures,tooIndeed,Ashcraft’srigorousthinking,considerationofmethodologicalquestions,attentiontohistoricaldetailandcontext,andpassionatebeliefinthereconcilabilityofMarxismandliberalismbridgedanydifferenceswehadTherearefewprofessorswholivewhattheybelieveandallowstudentstopursuetheirindividualpathshewascertainlyoneofthemSamWebergavemetheopportunitytothinkabouttheoriesofidentityanddifferencemoredeeply,aswellasthechancetoattendDerrida’slecturesinParisSamhasnotonlysupportedmyprojectthisentiretime,buthasbeenasignificantintellectualinfluenceIamgratefulforthecarehehastakenincritiquingmyideasaswellashisowninsightsintohomelessnessThedebtIoweNickXenosisdifficulttoexpressHehassupportedmyworkconsistentlysinceIwasanundergraduateDuringthefirststages,hereadnearlyeverydraftofthisbookHehasbeenawonderfulcriticandsupporterofthiswork,nottomentionanintellectualinfluenceandgoodfriendMostrecently,GlynMorganandEugeneSheppardhavebeenkindenoughtoreadandcommentonvariouspartsofthisbookIamalsogratefultoHarvardUniversityforfundingawonderfulresearchassistant,LisaSchwartz,duringmyrevisionsLast,Iamappreciativeofthesupportoffriendsandfamily,especiallymymotherandfather,whoeachreadeverychapterCoverphotobyThomas,aparticipantintheLanguageofLightPhotovoiceWorkship,JuneixIntroductionMoreoftenthannot,homelessnessisstudiedasasociologicalproblemandthedynamicsofpoweronthepartofthehomelessontheonehand,andpolicymakersandfullcitizensontheother,arenotexaminedItistemptingtoengagethissubjectatthepolicylevelinordertorespondtohomelessstudies,recommendations,andpoliciesHowever,thepoliticsofhomelessnessisalargerproblemthatreflectsuponoursocietyandthestatusofdemocracyratherthanbeingamerepolicyissueTheforcesthathomelesspeopledealwitharedisenfranchisementandsocial“death”:degradingmythsandstereotypes,punitivetreatmentbycaseworkers,deficientschoolsystemsthatperpetuateilliteracyandjoblessness,andmostimportantly,thelossofrightsasacitizen,andthus,asahumanthattheseindividualssufferPerhapssomepeopleareresponsiblefortheirhomelessness,butinthismilieu,itisdifficulttotellAndwhyshouldtheysuffersuchdireconsequencesWhenonecannolongerinhabitpublicspace,haveone’spossessionsandshantytowns(home,bysomedefinitions)burnedorbulldozed,bearrestedforone’sstatusratherthanacrime(hencesignalingalossofcivilrights),andonlyexercisepoliticalpowerwithextremedifficulty,onecannotbesaidtobeacitizenThisisexacerbatedbythedisappearanceoftrulypublicspaceDecisionsarenolongertheprerogativeoftheindividualrather,theyaremadeforthehomelessbycommunitiesintheformofNIMBYism(NotInMyBackYard),bythepoliceintheformofsweeps,andbylocalofficialsinoutlawingpanhandlingorbusingthehomelesstoothertowns,forexampleWhetherfullcitizensorpoliticiansdecidetohelpthehomelessornot,theirfreedomtomakechoicesexistsinaverynarrowmannerMoreover,thehelpreceivedbythehomelesscanbeauthoritarianandpunitiveinnatureHomelessindividualsaretobelievethattheyhavebecomesothroughtheirmoralfailingsandeverydayareremindedofthisManysheltersandagenciesgobeyondsimpleadmonitions,however,andissueultimatumsSomearecontradictoryandputthehomelessinadoublebindIndeed,thesystemthathelpsthemcanoftenbeerratic,disorganized,andpathologicalOfcourse,thesetermsareoftenreservedforthehomeless,not“us”ThefactthatthehomelesshavelessagencythanfullcitizensinthemodernnationstateisapoliticalandnotanindividualproblemWhencertainindividualscannotoccupypublicspace(ormanyprivatecommercialspaces)becauseoftheirstatusandwhendecisionsaremadeforthemundertheguiseofprotection(thus,protectionascoercion),itisevidentthathomelessnessisnotamatterofbadluckorpersonalproblemsRather,itisanissuethataffectshundredsofthousandsofpeople,andyetithasbeentreatedacademically,culturally,andpoliticallyasanindividualproblemHence,althoughsociologicalorpsychologicalstudies,forexample,mayhavevalue,itisworthwhiletoexplorethebroaderpoliticalandeconomicramificationsofhomelessnessHomelessness,Iwilldemonstrate,needstobeviewedintermsofeconomicidentityontheonehandandnationalidentity,ontheotherItisapoliticoeconomicproblemthatunderminesthenotionofuniversalcitizenshipdomesticallyandchallengestheadequacyofcitizenshipasanidentityonaninternationallevel,giventhepermanentcharacterofstatelessness(refugees,exiles,andimmigrantswhoareincamps,detainment,orothersitesoflegallimboforexample)Insum,Iamquestioningthenotionofaunifiedsubjectinthepoliticalidentityofcitizenshipand,correspondingly,theideaofaunifiedlocationforcitizenshipInthefirstplace,justasraceandgenderareideologicalconstructsbuiltonpolitical,economicandculturalnorms,economicclasscanalsobedeconstructedasanidentitythathasbeenviewedasfixedandunitaryThenotionofeconomicidentityasaconceptualcategoryhasbeenquestionedforseveralreasonsInSupremeCourtdecisions,ithasbeenruledthatwhilegenderandracearesuspectclassifications(todifferentdegrees),classisnotsuspectbecauseitismalleable(seechapter)Indeed,povertyisoftenviewedasaproblemofindividualresponsibilityandsowealthdiscriminationappearstobeconceptuallydifferentfromracismorsexism,forexampleAlternatively,inpoliciessuchasaffirmativeaction,economicclasshasbeenasecondaryconsiderationOntheotherhand,progressivetheoristsalsohold(albeitfordifferentreasons)thateconomicclassisdifferentfromrace,forexample,becauseit�Homelessness,Citizenship,andIdentityisrealwhereraceisnot(seeEdnaBonacich,forexample)Nevertheless,regardlessofwhetherpovertyisreal,thepoorandespeciallythehomelessaresubjecttoideologicalconstructsoftheiridentitythatmakethemOtherinwaysbothsimilartoanddifferentfromraceandgender(nottomentiontheintersectionofrace,gender,andclass)Homelessnessrepresentstheextremecaseofthiseconomicmarginalizationandthusisworthexploringforwhatittellsusaboutpoliticaleconomicnorms,thestatusofdemocracy,andthedeploymentofprerogativepowerinthemodernnationstateThesecondcategoryunderwhichthehomelessshouldbeconsideredisthatofnationalidentityandthelogicofthemodernnationstateIcontendthatratherthansimplybeingaproblemofpoverty,homelessnessissymptomaticoftheuprootedness(inthewordsofSimoneWeil)ofthenationstateTheformationofnationalidentitydoesnotmerelyentailtheconstructionofanidealcitizen,butnormativecriteriabasedoneconomic,gender,andracialstatus,allowingsometobe“athome”andpoliticallyuprootingothersInthisway,homelessnessisanalogoustointernational“homelessness”andbothgroupsaresubjecttodisenfranchisement,theexerciseofprerogativepower,andprocessesthateitherdemandassimilationorattempttoextinguishtheirpresenceThehomerepresentsthesynthesisofthetworubricsofnormativecriteriadefiningcitizenship:itsignifieseconomicindependenceandisthepreconditionforanydegreeofcitizenshipandfurther,itsymbolizespoliticalidentityInanincreasinglyuprootedworld,homeandhomelandareconstructedassitesofretreatfromanxietyandtensionDifference,politicalstruggle,andeconomicproblemsaredisplacedontothehomelessandimmigrantsThelackofahomesignalsanasymmetricalpowerdynamic:homelessindividualsarenotmerelyinconveniencedbytheirhomelessnessbutculturallystigmatizedandpoliticallydisenfranchisedInthisway,thosewhohavebecomehomelessalsoexperienceexclusionfromthemodernnationstateOntheotherhand,thisisnottosaythatlackofastablehomeshouldleadtodisenfranchisementIndeed,nohomeistrulystableRather,thepoliticizationofhomeandhomelessnesssignalsapoliticalsplittingbetweennormalabnormal,rationalirrational,economicallyindependentdependent,andsoonthatisradicallysignifiedintheperceptionofhomeastherepositoryforpositiveattributesandhomelessness,thatofnegativecharacteristicsItfollowsthatwhilemanystudiesfocusonthehomelessthemselves,whatalsoneedstobeexploredisthepoliticalselfintheselfOtherIntroduction�relationshipThissortofexplorationisnotcommonincountrieswhosemembershipisdefinedbyjussoliAsColetteGuillauminnotes,thetendencyistofocussolelyontheOther:thereisan“occultationoftheSelf,ofwhichpeoplehavenospontaneousawarenessthereisnosenseofbelongingtoaspecificgroup,sothegroupitselfalwaysremainsoutsidetheframeofreference,isneverreferredtoasagroup”Incontrast,incountriesthathavebasedmembershiponjussanguinissuchasapartheidSouthAfricaorNaziGermany,the“self”partoftheselfOtherequationwasfirmlyestablishedThatis,nationalidentitywasafunctionofidentifyinganddefiningwhowasincludedasmuchasexcludedInthecontextofananalysisofhomelessness,examiningthepoliticalsignificanceofhomeandhomelessnessinthemodernnationstateilluminatesfacetsofcitizenshipandpoliticalnormsthathaveimplicationsforusallthathavenotbeensufficientlyexploredIngeneral,thepresentworkcouldbeviewedasaresponsetomoreconservative,empiricalworkandpoliciesaboutthehomeless(andsomeimmigrants)thatpositionthehomelessasOtherandfailtoconsidertheconceptofhomesufficientlyThisbookexploresthenotionofhomeasacritiqueofpoliticalfreedominthemodernnationstateThehomebothrepresentsandtranscendstheconceptofcitizenshipandsignifiesautonomy,theabilitytopursuelongtermgoals,maintainasocialnetwork,andhavesomeprivacyPolitically,itsymbolizesaunitarysubject,freeofconflictandtensionHomelessness,incontrast,cansignifyafocusonshorttermpursuits,theabsenceofprivacy,thebreakdownofsocialnetworksandthelossofautonomyinbothprivateandpoliticalrealms,where,inthelattercaseevenoccupyingpublicspacebecomesillegalThebasisofthisspaceofothernessorpoliticalhomelessnessispovertypovertyanddislocationarethenexusesaroundwhichpoliticaldifferencehasbeencreatedinthemodernnationstateHowever,itisparadoxicallycitizenshipasanidealizedhomethatinstitutionalizesthesepoliticallypolarizedidentitiesandthus,thepoliticalhomelessnessofcertaingroupsAccordingly,thehomelessexperiencedislocationonthelevelsofbothdomicileandpoliticalcommunityInfact,citizenshipasastatushastakenprecedenceoverhumanityinthemodernnationstateasoneisonlyconsideredhumanandcanoccupyspacewhenacitizenIfcitizenshipwereindeeduniversal(andthus,“homeless”)inthemodernnationstate,thisrigiddistinctionwouldbetheexceptionandnottheruleAccordingly,withinthisparadigmofhomeasafundamentalelementofenfranchisement,Icritiquecontemporaryconceptionsofcitizenship�Homelessness,Citizenship,andIdentityAlthoughpoliticalequalityintheliberalcapitaliststatehasbeenguaranteedregardlessofeconomicstatus,anexaminationofthepowerdynamicsregardingthehomelessdemonstratesthatthishasnotbeenachievedRather,citizenshipisconfiguredundertherubricsofnationalidentityandeconomicindependenceRegardingnationalidentity,thedevelopmentofnationalisminthemodernnationstatehasledtotheconstructionofahomogeneousidealthatrenderstheseeminglyuniversalqualityofcitizenshipexclusiveTheimportanceofnationalidentityandnationalisminconsiderationsofcitizenshipisatleastthreefold:thereisanemphasisonidentityoverinterestorpracticalutility,aconsequentemotiveelementtonationalidentityandcitizenship,andthegrowthofstatepowerandbureaucracyinwhichtheprimaryvaluesarestabilityandorderAlthoughIwanttoavoid“conceptualinflation,”thedeploymentofnationalidentitiesbringstotheforefrontthecomplexinterweavingofgender,race,andclasswithregardtocitizenshipThus,althougheachoftheserubricsisconceptuallyseparateandhasitsownhistoryofexclusion,theirpointofcommonalityliesintheconstructionofanaturalseparationofpeoplesalonggender,race,andclasslinesjustasthenationstateisconceivedofasanaturallyboundedlinguisticandpoliticalcommunityConsequently,althoughconceptuallydistinct,thenaturalizationoftheabovecategoriesworksinwaysthathavean“electiveaffinity”(MaxWeber’sterm)withnationalismMoreover,Iwillarguethattherehasoftenbeenamaterialbasisforthehierarchycreatedbynationalidentityinitspresentmanifestations(Nevertheless,thisisnotalwaysthecase,asisevidentinthetreatmentofArabAmericans)Second,citizenshipisalsodefinedbyemploymentandeconomicindependenceandtherearevaryingdegreesofcitizenshipbasedontheseunexpressednormsTheexclusivecharacterofthelatternormcanbetiedtocertainpresuppositionsofcapitalism:thatfromitsinception,therehasbeenequalityofconditionsdifferencesinclasswillbemitigatedbythemoneyorhelpthat“tricklesdown”andthepoorreceivehelpandsubsidieswhereastherichareselfmadeThesepresuppositionsnotonlyinformlegislationregardingthepoorandhomelessbutalsocreateanormofeconomicindependence,autonomy,andselfsufficiencyIfthehomeisthepreconditionforandsymbolofthiseconomicselfsufficiency,thenhomelessnessanddislocationindicatepartialorfulldisenfranchisementThiswouldmeanthatthepoorhaveonlyapartialcitizenshipandthehomelessandsomeimmigrantslosetheircitizenshipIntroduction�entirelyHence,Iwilldemonstrate,thereislittletoleranceforeconomicdifferenceandtheothercategoriesofidentitythatintersectwithpovertyonpoliticaleconomiclevelsThenormativecriteriathatformtheidealtypeofcitizendonotallowfordifferencerather,differenceisdisplacedontononcitizensForthisreason,thehomelessaresubjecttothedeploymentofprerogative(thatis,nondemocratic)powerRelatedtothispoliticaldisaffiliation,immigrants,too,arehomeless,inwaysbothsimilartoanddifferentfromthe“real”homelessImmigrantscanbeconceivedofintwoways:inanabstractsense,theyarepoliticallyhomelessandoftentreatedassuchbythe“native”populationandsecond,onanempiricallevel,poorerimmigrantssharecertainproblemsandsituationswiththehomelessWhileprerogativepowerisoftenmanifestininternationalrelations,thestudyofimmigrationevidencesthatstatepowerisnotclearlydistinctfromtheexerciseofliberalpoweratthedomesticlevelRather,prerogativepowerinmodernityisdefinedbythecommongood,whethernationalorinternationalPrerogativepoweristhe“legitimatearbitrarypowerinpolicymakingandlegitimatemonopoliesofinternalandexternalviolenceinthepoliceandmilitaryAstheovertpowerpoliticaldimensionofthestate,prerogativeincludesexpressionsofnationalpurposeandnationalsecurityaswellasthewholerangeoflegitimatearbitrarystateactionfromfiscalregulationtoincarcerationprocedures”Indeed,itspringsfromthesameconceptualwellinthewritingsoftheearlyliberalsandthosewhohelpedbuildmodernnationstatesForexample,itisevidentintheworkofMachiavelli,Hobbes,theprerogativepowerofLocke,andlater,CarlSchmitt,thatprerogativepower,ontheonehand,andliberalorliberalcapitalistpower,ontheother,havebeensignificantinbuildingthemodernnationstateInfact,intimesofcrisis,thesethinkersbelievedthatabsolute(prerogative)powersupersedesdemocraticpowerIncontemporaryterms,sovereignpowerisconceivedofasthepreconditionforliberalordemocraticpowerstabilityandorderaretheprimaryvaluesofthestateinordertoachievethesecondaryvaluesofliberalismanddemocracyMichelFoucault’snotionofbiopoweranormativepowerthathashistoricallydevelopedaspopulat

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/44

*新书上架*无家可归、公民和身份:晚期现代性的危机

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利