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首页 *新书上架*实践中的伦理学:律师的角色、责任和规则

*新书上架*实践中的伦理学:律师的角色、责任和规则.pdf

*新书上架*实践中的伦理学:律师的角色、责任和规则

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*实践中的伦理学:律师的角色、责任和规则pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

RepublicanismThesevolumesarethefruitsofamajorEuropeanScienceFoundationprojectandofferthefirstcomprehensivestudyofrepublicanismasasharedEuropeanheritageWhilstpreviousresearchhasmainlyfocusedonAtlantictraditionsofrepublicanism,ProfessorsSkinnerandvanGelderenhaveassembledaninternationallydistinguishedsetofcontributorswhosestudieshighlighttherichnessanddiversityofEuropeantraditionsVolumeifocusesontheimportanceofantimonarchisminEuropeandanalysestherelationshipbetweencitizenshipandcivichumanism,concludingwithstudiesoftherelationshipbetweenconstitutionalismandrepublicanismintheperiodbetweenandVolumeiiisdevotedtothestudyofkeyrepublicanvaluessuchasliberty,virtue,politenessandtolerationThisvolumealsoaddressestheroleofwomeninEuropeanrepublicantraditions,andcontainsanumberofindepthstudiesoftherelationshipbetweenrepublicanismandtheriseofcommercialsocietyinearlymodernEuropeMartinvanGelderenstudiedattheEuropeanUniversityInstituteandtaughtattheTechnischeUniversita¨tinBerlinpriortohisappointmentasProfessorofIntellectualHistoryattheUniversityofSussexinHispublicationsincludeThePoliticalThoughtoftheDutchRevolt(Cambridge,)andTheDutchRevolt(CambridgeTextsintheHistoryofPoliticalThought,),andheiscurrentlypreparing(alsofortheCambridgeTextsseries)anewEnglishrenditionofDeiurebelliacpacisbyHugoGrotiusQuentinSkinnerisRegiusProfessorofModernHistoryintheUniversityofCambridgeAFellowofChrist’sCollege,Cambridge,heisalsoafellowofnumerousacademicbodiesandtherecipientofseveralhonorarydegreesHismanypublicationsincludeTheFoundationsofModernPoliticalThought(Cambridge,twovolumes),Machiavelli(),ReasonandRhetoricinthePhilosophyofHobbes(Cambridge,),LibertybeforeLiberalism(Cambridge,)andthreevolumesofVisionsofPolitics(Cambridge,)TheEuropeanScienceFoundation(ESF)actsasacatalystforthedevelopmentofsciencebybringingtogetherleadingscientistsandfundingagenciestodebate,planandimplementpanEuropeanscientificandsciencepolicyinitiativesESFistheEuropeanassociationofsixtysevenmajornationalfundingagenciesdevotedtoscientificresearchintwentyfourcountriesItrepresentsallscientificdisciplines:physicalandengineeringsciences,lifeandenvironmentalsciences,medicalsciences,humanitiesandsocialsciencesTheFoundationassistsitsMemberOrganisationsintwomainways:bybringingscientiststogetherinitsscientificprogrammes,eurocores,forwardlooks,networks,exploratoryworkshopsandEuropeanresearchconferences,toworkontopicsofcommonconcernandthroughthejointstudyofissuesofstrategicimportanceinEuropeansciencepolicyItmaintainscloserelationswithotherscientificinstitutionswithinandoutsideEuropeByitsactivities,theESFaddsvaluebycooperationandcoordinationacrossnationalfrontiersandendeavours,offersexpertscientificadviceonstrategicissues,andprovidestheEuropeanforumforscienceRepublicanismASharedEuropeanHeritagevolumeiiTheValuesofRepublicanisminEarlyModernEuropeEditedbyMartinvanGelderenandQuentinSkinnerCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomFirstpublishedinprintformatisbnhardbackisbneBook(NetLibrary)©CambridgeUniversityPressInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThisbookisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressisbneBook(NetLibrary)isbnhardbackCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhisbook,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgContentsofVolumeiiContentsofVolumeiviiAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionPartIRepublicanismandPoliticalValuesClassicalLibertyandtheComingoftheEnglishCivilWarQuentinSkinnerEmpireandLiberty:ARepublicanDilemmaDavidArmitageRepublicanismandTolerationSimoneZurbuchenTheMechanisationofVirtue:RepublicanRitualsinItalianPoliticalThoughtintheSixteenthandSeventeenthCenturiesVittorioContiFromVirtuetoPolitenessIainHampsherMonkFromCivismtoCivility:D’Holbach’sCritiqueofRepublicanVirtueJeanFabienSpitzPartIIThePlaceofWomenintheRepublicRightsorVirtues:WomenandtheRepublicChristineFaurE´Women,RepublicanismandtheGrowthofCommerceCatherineLarrE`reFeministRepublicanismandthePoliticalPerceptionofGenderJudithAVegavviContentsofVolumeiiPartIIIRepublicanismandtheRiseofCommerceRepublicanismandCommercialSocietyintheScottishEnlightenment:TheCaseofAdamFergusonMarcoGeunaScots,Germans,RepublicandCommerceFaniaOzSalzbergerNeoRomanRepublicanismandCommercialSociety:TheExampleofEighteenthcenturyBerneBelaKapossyRepublicanismandCommercialSocietyinEighteenthcenturyItalyEluggeroPiiRepublicanism,StateFinancesandtheEmergenceofCommercialSocietyinEighteenthcenturyFrance–orfromRoyaltoAncientRepublicanismandBackMichaelSonenscherCommercialRealities,RepublicanPrinciplesDonaldWinchBibliographyContributorsIndexofNamesofPersonsIndexofSubjectsContentsofVolumeiContentsofVolumeiiviiAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionPartITheRejectionofMonarchy‘ThataRepublicisBetterthanaMonarchy’:AntimonarchisminEarlyModernDutchPoliticalThoughtWygerREVelemaAntimonarchisminEnglishRepublicanismMartinDzelzainisAntimonarchisminPolishRepublicanismintheSeventeenthandEighteenthCenturiesAnnaGrzes´kowiakKrwawiczClassicalRepublicanisminSeventeenthcenturyEnglandandtheNetherlandsJonathanScottPartIITheRepublicanCitizenCitizenshipandRepublicanisminElizabethanEnglandMarkkuPeltonenRepublicanCitizenshipandCivicHumanismintheBurgundianHabsburgNetherlands(–)KarinTilmansCivicHumanismandRepublicanCitizenshipinEarlyModernGermanyRobertvonFriedeburgCivicHumanismandRepublicanCitizenshipinthePolishRenaissanceEdwardOpalin´skiviiviiiContentsofVolumeiPartIIITheRepublicanConstitutionFromtheCrisisofCivilCulturetotheNeapolitanRepublicof:RepublicanisminItalybetweentheSixteenthandSeventeenthCenturiesVittorIvoComparatoAristotelians,MonarchomachsandRepublicans:SovereigntyandrespublicamixtainDutchandGermanPoliticalThought,–MartinvanGelderenDebatingtherespublicamixta:GermanandDutchPoliticalDiscoursesaroundHansErichBo¨dekerClassicalFoundationalMythsofEuropeanRepublicanism:TheJewishCommonwealthLeaCamposBoraleviRepublicanPoliticsinEarlyModernSpain:TheCastilianandCatalanoAragoneseTraditionsXavierGilTheIdeaofaRepublicanConstitutioninOldRe´gimeFranceJohnsonKentWrightRepublicanism,RegicideandRepublic:TheEnglishExperienceBlairWordenBibliographyContributorsIndexofNamesofPersonsIndexofSubjectsAcknowledgmentsInMaytheEuropeanScienceFoundation(ESF)acceptedaproposaltosetupanetworkforthestudyofrepublicanismasasharedEuropeanheritageTheproposalhadbeenworkedoutbyagroupofsixscholarsinterestedindifferentaspectsofthistheme:CatherineLarre`re(UniversityofBordeaux),HansErichBo¨deker(MaxPlanckInstitutfu¨rGeschichte,Go¨ttingen),IvoComparato(UniversityofPerugia),IainHampsherMonk(UniversityofExeter)andourselvesWewereinfluencedinourchoiceofsubjectbytwoearlierinternationalcollaborationsOneofthesewastheconvegnoheldattheEuropeanUniversityInstituteinontheplaceofrepublicanisminthepoliticaltheoryoftheRenaissanceOrganisedbyGiselaBock,MaurizioViroliandWernerMaihofer,thismeetingeventuallygaverisetothevolumeMachiavelliandRepublicanismpublishedbyCambridgeUniversityPressinOurothersourceofinspirationwastheESFprogrammeTheOriginsoftheModernStateinEurope,thtothCenturiesAspartofthisproject,JanetColemanchairedagroupstudyingmanyaspectsoftherelationshipbetweenthedevelopmentofnotionsofindividualityandtheformationoftheEuropeansystemofstatesTheroleplayedbyrepublicsandrepublicanvaluesinthisprocesswasasubjectofdiscussioninthegroup,butitwasnotoneofthethemesoftheESFprogrammeItwasspecificallynotedinthediscussionsofthegroupthatmoreattentionshouldbepaidtothehistoryofrepublicanismaftertheeraoftheRenaissanceandoutsidetheconfinesofItalyThisbecameourtheme,andbetweenSeptemberandSeptemberwedevotedfourArbeitsgespra¨che,workshopsandconvegnitodiscussingitWearedeeplyindebtedtotheinstitutionswhichagreedtoactasourhostsontheseoccasions,andtotheindividualmembersofournetworkwhoorganisedourmeetingsandmadethemsuchasuccessOurwarmestthanksgoixxAcknowledgmentstoHansBo¨dekerandtheMaxPlanckInstitutfu¨rGeschichteinGo¨ttingen,whereweheldourfirstmeetingon‘RepublicanismasAntiMonarchism’inApriltotheNetherlandsInstituteofAdvancedStudy(NIAS)inWassenaar,whereourmeetingon‘RepublicanismandtheRiseofCommercialSociety’tookplaceinSeptembertoIvoComparatoandhiscolleaguesattheUniversityofPerugia,whereweheldourthirdmeetingon‘ThePoliticalInstitutionsoftheRepublic:DiscourseandPractice’inAprilandtoCatherineLarre`reandtheUniversityofBordeaux,whereourfourthmeetingon‘LesMœursre´publicaines:thepoliticalcultureofRepublicanism’washeldinSeptemberWewereabletotakestockofourfindings,andtopursuetheirimplicationsinnewdirections,atafinalmeetinginSienainSeptemberThisadditionalconvegno,underthetitle‘TheHistoricalPerspectivesofRepublicanismandtheFutureoftheEuropeanUnion’,wasorganisedincooperationwiththeComunediSienaandtookplaceintheSaladellaPaceofthePalazzoPubblicoWearedeeplygratefultoSiena’ssindacoPierluigiPicciniandtoCarloInfantinofortheirinvaluablesupportandsplendidhospitalityWeshouldalsoliketothankMontedeiPaschidiSienaforcontributingagenerousgranttowardsourexpensesWealsowishtoexpressourthankstoChrist’sCollegeCambridgeforagreeingtoallowoursteeringcommitteetoholditsmeetingsthereWeinitiallymetinJunetoplanourworkshopsanddecidewhomtoinvitetothemWemetagaininJanuarytoevaluatetheactivitiesofournetworkincompanywithrepresentativesoftheEuropeanScienceFoundationandtodiscussourplansforpublicationwithCambridgeUniversityPressOnbothoccasionstheCollegemadeusverywelcomeandofferedusmuchhospitalityTheacademicsandadministratorsoftheEuropeanScienceFoundationhaveaidedusinverymanywaysIntheplanningphaseofournetworkMaxSparreboomofferedespeciallyvaluableadviceVuokkoLepistoattendedourfirsttwoworkshopsandgaveusmuchhelpandsupportDuringthelatterphasesofourprojectwewereespeciallyfortunatetoworkwithAntonioLamarra,whotookahighlyscholarlyinterestinouractivitiesaswellasprovidinguswithfurthergeneroussupportTheChairmanoftheESF’sStandingCommitteeintheHumanities,WimBlockmans,provedwillingatalltimestoofferacademic,administrativeandgoodhumoureddiplomaticadviceonavarietyofEuropeanacademicmattersTheperiodsinceourmeetingscametoanendhasbeenoneofunexpectedlyheavyeditorialworkThebusinessoftranslating,reshaping,revisingandaddingtoouroriginalconferencepapershashadtheeffectofAcknowledgmentsxitransformingthemalmostoutofrecognition,butithastakenusalongtimeWearedeeplygratefultotheeditorialstaffatCambridgeUniversityPressfortheirpatienceandencouragementthroughoutthisperiodWeoweparticularthankstoRichardFisher,whogaveusexcellentadviceattheoutsetandhaseditedourvolumeswithgreatgoodhumourandunwaveringefficiencyThePressalsoprovideduswithahandsomegranttowardsourtranslationexpenses,matchedbyanolesshandsomesumfromtheEuropeanScienceFoundationWeshouldnotethatthesevolumesarenottheonlyfruitsofournetwork’sresearchIvoComparato,CatherineLarre`reandHansErichBo¨dekerareeditingavolumeofessayson‘RepublicanFoundingandRepublicanModels’tobepublishedbyOlschkiinFlorenceMeanwhileanumberofpapersfromourconvegnoinSienahavealreadybeenpublishedinDemandsofCitizenship(London,),editedbyIainHampsherMonkandCatrionaMcKinnonWeendwiththeexpressionofourgreatestdebt,whichisofcoursetoourfriendsandfellowmembersofthenetworkWearedeeplygratefultoourfellowcoordinatorsCatherineLarre`re,HansErichBo¨deker,IvoComparatoandIainHampsherMonk,allofwhomdiscussedeveryaspectofourprojectwithusatnumerousmeetingsinCambridge,inAmsterdamcafe´sandinrestaurantsinPerugia,BordeauxandSienaWearelikewisegratefultoallourcontributors,eachofwhomparticipatedinatleasttwoofourworkshopsTheysucceededinturningeachoneoftheseoccasionsintoahighlysuccessfulcombinationofhardwork,intensediscussionandexemplarysociabilityWearegratefultoofortheirforbearanceinthefaceofoursubsequentcallsfortherevision–andinmanycasesthecompleterewriting–oftheirindividualchaptersAsthesevolumesgotopress,wearedelightedtolearnthatthereisstilltimetoofferourwarmestthankstooursubeditorVirginiaCatmur,whohasbroughttobearanextraordinarylevelofskillandmeticulousness,andhassucceededinsortingoutaverylargenumberoflastminutedifficultiesWhileourvolumeswereinfinalpreparation,ourfriendEluggeroPiidiedafteraterribleillnessstoicallyborneItisanhonourtopublishherehisfinalpaper,thelasttestimonytothedepth,breadthandgraceofhisscholarshipQuentinSkinnerMartinvanGelderenIntroductionThefollowingchaptersstandinlittleneedofintroduction,sincetheyarealltheworkofrecognisedexpertsonthehistoryandtheoryofEuropeanrepublicanismAworddoesneedtobesaid,however,abouttheeditorialdecisionswehavemadeinrespectofthetopicswehavechosentocoverandthechronologicallimitsofourcoverageChronologicallyourtwovolumesfocusontheperiodroughlyextendingfromthemidsixteenthtothelateeighteenthcenturyThisreflectsoursensethattheearlierhistoryofrepublicanismintheRenaissance,andthelaterfortunesofthemovementinthenineteenthcentury,havebothbeenbetterservedintheexistingscholarlyliteratureInparticular,itisworthnotingthatseveralcontributorstothesepresentvolumestookpartintheproductionofMachiavelliandRepublicanism(),inwhichtheoriginsandinfluenceoftheFlorentinemodelofthevivereliberowereextensivelysurveyedThebasicdecisionwemadeinsettingupourmorerecentnetworkwasthattheperiodmostinneedoffurtherstudywastheonefollowingthedemiseoftheRenaissancecityrepublicsandprecedingtherecrudescenceofrepublicantheoryandpracticeintheeraoftheFrenchRevolutionAwordnextneedstobesaidaboutthespecificthemesonwhichwehavechosentoconcentrateThesereflectoursenseofhowthevaluesandpracticesassociatedwithEuropeanrepublicanismcanmostilluminatinglybemadetofittogetherWeaccordinglybegin,inPartiofVolumei,withtherejectionofmonarchyWhateverelseitmayhavemeanttobearepublicaninearlymodernEurope,itmeantrepudiatingtheageoldbeliefthatmonarchyisnecessarilythebestformofgovernmentWealreadyfindthisassumptionimplicitlyquestionedinsomeHuguenotpoliticalwritingsoftheFrenchreligiouswars,andweencounterafarmoreexplicitchallengeamongtheenemiesofabsolutismineasternEurope,perhapsaboveall(asChapterreveals)inIntroductionPolandButitwasintheNetherlands,andlaterinEngland,thattherepudiationofmonarchyassumeditsmostdramaticformsTheDutchabjuredtheirallegiancetotheiroverlord,PhilipII,inandwentontofightsuccessfullyfortheestablishmentofafederatedrepublic,whiletheEnglishexecutedtheirlawfullyanointedking,CharlesI,inandsetup‘aCommonwealthandFreeState’Chapters,andofPartiexaminetheroˆleofantimonarchicalsentimentintheunfoldingoftheseunprecedentedeventsWeturninPartiiofVolumeitothefigureofthecitizen,thefigurewhomwetaketobepivotaltotherepublicanpoliticsofearlymodernEuropeOnecrucialfact,dulyemphasisedbyallthecontributorstothissection,isthattheimageofcitizenshipprojectedbytherepublicanwritersofourperiodwaslargelydrawnfromclassicaland‘civichumanist’sourcesThisgeneralisationisshowntoholdacrossmuchoftheEuropeanmap,fromEngland(Chapter)andtheNetherlands(Chapter)toGermany(Chapter)andPoland(Chapter)Accordingtotheclassicalauthoritiesbelovedofearlymodernrepublicans,theessenceofwhatitmeanstobeacivisorcitizenistobeinpossessionofone’slibertyasopposedtobeingaslaveThisassumptionnotonlyunderliesmuchofwhatourcontributorshavetosayabouttheconceptofcitizenshipinVolumei,butresurfacesinPartiofVolumeiiinthediscussionsoffreedom(Chapter)anditsconnectionswithempire(Chapter)Thepredicamentoftheslave,aswelearnfromtherubricDestatuhominisintheDigestofRomanLaw,washeldtobethatofsomeonecondemnedtolivinginpotestatedomini,withinthepowerandhenceatthemercyofamasterpossessedofarbitrarypowersAsHobbeswastocomplaininLeviathan,therepublicanand‘democratical’writersproceededtoextendthisdefinitioninsuchawayastoargue‘thattheSubjectsinaPopularCommonwealthenjoyLibertybutthatinaMonarchytheyareallSlaves’Ifweliveassubjectsofrulerswitharbitraryorprerogativepowers,theyclaimed,wearelivingattheirmercyandhenceinastateofservitudeHobbeswasonlythemostprominentamongnumerousdefendersofmonarchywhoraisedanobviousobjectiontothislineofargumentHowcanthemerefactoflivingunderamonarchylimitouroptionsandtherebydepriveusoflibertyTheanswerdrawnbytheexponentsofrepublicanismfromtheirclassicaland‘civichumanist’authoritieswasthatslaveryinevitablybreedsslavishnessthat

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*新书上架*实践中的伦理学:律师的角色、责任和规则

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