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首页 *新书上架*马基雅弗利、霍布斯和英格兰自由的共和主义的形式

*新书上架*马基雅弗利、霍布斯和英格兰自由的共和主义的形式.pdf

*新书上架*马基雅弗利、霍布斯和英格兰自由的共和主义的形式

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*马基雅弗利、霍布斯和英格兰自由的共和主义的形式pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

P:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:Machiavelli,Hobbes,andtheFormationofaLiberalRepublicanisminEnglandCertainEnglishwritersoftheseventeenthandearlyeighteenthcenturies,whomscholarsoftenassociatewithclassicalrepublicanism,werenot,infact,hostiletoliberalismIndeed,thesethinkerscontributedtoasynthesisofliberalismandmodernrepublicanismAsthisbookargues,MarchamontNedham,JamesHarrington,HenryNeville,AlgernonSidney,andJohnTrenchardandThomasGordon,thecoauthorsofaseriesofeditorialsentitledCato’sLetters,provideasynthesisthatrespondstothedemandsofbothrepublicansandliberalsbyofferingapoliticallyengagedcitizenryaswellastheprotectionofindividualrightsThebookalsoreinterpretsthewritingsofMachiavelliandHobbestoshowthateachcontributedinafundamentalwaytotheformationofthisliberalrepublicanismVickieBSullivanisAssociateProfessorofPoliticalScienceatTuftsUniversityinMedford,MassachusettsSheistheauthorofMachiavelli’sThreeRomes:Religion,HumanLiberty,andPoliticsReformedandtheeditorofTheComedyandTragedyofMachiavelli:EssaysontheLiteraryWorksandthecoeditorofShakespeare’sPoliticalPageant:EssaysinPoliticsandLiteratureShehaspublishedarticlesinAmericanPoliticalScienceReview,HistoryofPoliticalThought,PoliticalTheory,andPolityiP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:iiP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:Machiavelli,Hobbes,andtheFormationofaLiberalRepublicanisminEnglandVICKIEBSULLIVANTuftsUniversityiiicambridgeuniversitypressCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridgecbru,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatisbnisbn©VickieBSullivanInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressisbnisbnCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackeBook(NetLibrary)eBook(NetLibrary)hardbackP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:ToDaniel,Anne,andJoan“ObravenewworldThathassuchpeoplein’t!”–ShakespearevP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:viP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:ContentsAcknowledgmentspageixIntroductionparti:thefoundationsofliberalrepublicanismMachiavelli’sRepublicanismHobbesonPeace,thePassions,andPoliticspartii:theformationofthesynthesisMarchamontNedhamandtheBeginningsofaLiberalRepublicanismTheDistinctiveModernRepublicanismofJamesHarringtonHenryNeville’sProposalforaRepublicundertheFormofMonarchyAlgernonSidneyasAnticipatorofLockeandSecretAdmirerofMachiavelliCato’sThoughtastheReconciliationofMachiavellianRepublicanismandLockeanLiberalismConclusionWorksCitedIndexviiP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:viiiP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:AcknowledgmentsMichaelZuckertcounseledmetoturnmyattentiontotheEnglishMachiavelliansandencouragedmeintheproductionofthebook–evenbeforeIhaddecidedtowriteit–andgenerouslyreadandcommentedondraftsateverystageThisbookwouldnotexistwithouthisinsightandhelpIalsowishtoacknowledgethehelpandencouragementofmyotherteachers:JosephCropsey,NathanTarcov,andCatherineZuckertMycolleagueinpoliticaltheoryatTuftsUniversity,RobertDevigne,gavemethoughtfuladviceandcommentedwithalacrityonanyportionsthatIrequestedhereadHiscomments,aswellasourconversationsonmodernpoliticalthoughtaroundthedepartment,haveaidedmeinnumerouswayssome,Iamsure,IdonotevenrecognizeAnothergenerousfriendandcolleaguewhosehelpandinterestIvalue,MalikMufti,readandcommentedontheentiremanuscriptPaulRahe,inhisroleaseditorofMachiavelli’sRepublicanLegacy,helpedmetorefinemyargumentswithrespecttoAlgernonSidneyandCatoASemesterLeaveAwardfromtheFacultyResearchAwardsCommitteeatTuftsandaFellowshipResearchGrantfromtheEarhartFoundationallowedmetoproduceaninitialdraftofthemanuscript,andIgratefullyacknowledgetheirhelpIhadthebenefitoftalentedTuftsundergraduates,MichelleTolmanClarke,KatherineLevitt,andJustinRace,whoservedasresearchassistantsIalsowishtoacknowledgethechairofmydepartment,JamesGlaser,whomadethefundsavailableformetomakeuseoftheirtalentsIalsowishtoacknowledgethegenerousencouragementofanothermemberofmydepartment,JeffreyBerryTuftsUniversityprovidedmewithaccesstoHarvardUniversity’sWidenerLibraryIalsowishtoacknowledgethehelpfulstaffofHarvard’sHoughtonLibrary,wheretherarebooksthatIcitearehousedIwishtothankthereadersforCambridgeUniversityPresswhosethoughtfulcommentsimprovedthemanuscriptixP:GCOGKJP:GVhAggregationFMxmlSullivanDecember,:xAcknowledgmentsFinally,thededicationofthisbookexpressesmyappreciationtomyfamilyDanielhasaidedmewithhisinsightovertheyearsinwaystoonumeroustoenumerateAnneandJoan,too,offeredinspirationintheirownway,beingpresentateverymomentwhenIdraftedalargeportionofthemanuscript,inthemonthsbeforetheirbirthP:IBEintxmlSullivanDecember,:IntroductionThisworkexaminesthewritingsofselectedEnglishthinkersoftheseventeenthandearlyeighteenthcenturieswithrepublicansympathiesThesewriters,Iargue,contributetothereconciliationofelementsofrepublicanismwithliberalismthateventuatesinanewsynthesis–liberalrepublicanismThisparticularformulationisintendedtobedisruptiveofthecurrentthinkingontherelationbetweenrepublicanismandliberalism,becauserepublicanismwas,andcontinuestobe,aphenomenonassociated,forthemostpart,withantiquity,whereasliberalismisdecidedlyaproductofmodernityTherepublicanismoftheseEnglishthinkersisfundamentallyinfluenced,Iwillshow,bythewritingsofNiccolo`Machiavelli,andtheirliberalismderivesprimarilyfromtransformedelementsofThomasHobbes’sthoughtThereconciliationoftwosuchapparentlycontradictoryterms–liberalismandrepublicanism–isunlikelytobeasimplestoryinfact,thehistoryofthatreconciliationisacomplicatedoneThephilosopherCharlesLouisdeSecondat,barondeMontesquieu,forexample,givesvoicetothecomplicatedcharacterofthemeldingofrepublicanismandliberalism,ofelementsofantiquityandmodernityWhatthisphilosopherexpressesastheentanglementoftheseelementshasbecomeinthethoughtofcontemporaryscholarsandpoliticalthinkersastarkpolarization:republicanismandliberalismaremutuallycontradictoryIfthinkersevokerepublicanthemes,thentheyarealliedwithantiquityandarrayedagainsttheforcesofliberalmodernityBecauseelementsonceunderstoodasentangledarenowsimplifiedandportrayedasdichotomous,itisacruciallyimportanttasktoclarifywhateachoftheconstituentelementsis,howtheyinteracted,andhoweachaffectedtheotherTheplacetobegintheunravelingiswithMachiavelliandhisEnglishfollowers,whoinitiatedthisblendingofantiquityandmodernityandwhohaveoflatereceivedagreatdealofattentionThatattention,though,criesoutforevengreaterscrutinyoftheirwritingsbecauseithasfocusedexclusivelyontherepublicanandancientsideand,hence,hasoversimplifiedthecharacteroftheirthoughtP:IBEintxmlSullivanDecember,:TheFormationofaLiberalRepublicanismWecanbegintoseethecomplicated,intertwinednatureofliberalismandrepublicanismwhenweturntoconsidertheconstituentelementsoftheliberalrepublicanismoftheEnglishwritersItreatLiberalismpositsthatindividualsarethebearersofnaturalrightsandthatallarebynatureequalandfreeSuchnaturalequalityandfreedomdictatethattherearenonaturalgovernorsandnonaturalgovernedInorderforoneindividualtohavepoliticalauthorityoveranother,thatothermustconsenttoberuledPoliticalpower,then,findsitsoriginintheconsentofthegovernedContemplatingtheindividualapartfromthecommunityonthisunderstandingisnotmerelypossibleinfact,itisabsolutelynecessaryifwehopetounderstandtheproperroleandscopeofgovernmentSuchaconsiderationrevealsthatindividualsconstructgovernmentasamechanismthatprotectstheirnaturalrightsGovernmentsarenecessaryinordertokeeporder,becauserightscanonlybeprotectedwherelawisknownandsettledandapowerexiststoenforceitagainstviolatorsThus,liberalismemphasizesthatgovernmentservestheindividualbyprovidingthesecuritynecessarytoacquirepropertyandtopursueprivatehappinessandbyrefrainingfrominfringingontheindividual’slibertyOnthisview,governmentisahumanconstructintendedspecificallytoservetheindividualTheindividualispriortothestateBecausetheindividualreceivessuchpriorityinliberalism,thestatusofthepublicrealm,ifnotcompletelyuncertain,iscertainlydiminishedwithrespecttotheprivaterealmThenaturalrightsofindividualsareexercisedprimarilyintheprivaterealmThisrealmconsistsofthehousehold,wherepeopleacquirepossessionsandeducatetheirchildren,andofthosevoluntaryassociations,wheretheyworshipGodandorganizeprojectswithlikemindedneighbors,forexampleThepursuitoftheseactivitiesappearsnottorequirepoliticalactivityassuchPolitics,ofcourse,isinthebackground,foralifelivedinprivaterequiresorder,whichnecessitatesthatsomeothersmakethelaws,enforcethelaws,andjudgeandpunishoffendersBecausenotallneedtendtothesefunctions,liberalismdoesnotemphasizepoliticalparticipationandseemslargelyunconcernedwiththetypeofregime,althoughJohnLocke,whosenameprovidesanadjectivebywhichtospecifyatypeofliberalism,declaresthatpropertycannotbeproperlyprotectedunlessthelegislativepower“consists,whollyorinpart,inAssemblieswhicharevariable”Onthebasisofthisclaim,LockepointstoamoderatemonarchyasapreferredformofgovernmentHisspecificationarisesdirectlyfromaconcernforindividualrights,underliningthatfortheliberalwhatmattersmostaboutpoliticsisthegovernment’spromotionoftheindividuals’interestsandwellbeingRepublics,particularlythecitystatesofantiquity,notmonarchies,whetherabsoluteormoderatedbyparliaments,evincethetypeofintenseJohnLocke,TheSecondTreatiseofGovernment,parainTwoTreatisesofGovernment,edPeterLaslett(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),P:IBEintxmlSullivanDecember,:IntroductionpoliticalinvolvementofthecitizenrysocontrarytoaliberalsocietyIndeed,suchrepublics,wherethepeopleconductthebusinessoftheregime,seemnottoaccordwiththeprimaryinterestsofliberalism:acquisition,industry,andtheprivatepursuitofhappinessItisdifficultforindividualstopursuetheirowninterestswhentheyareconstantlybeingpulledintothepublicarenatodebatethepropermeasuresforthecommongoodand,then,askedtosacrificeinordertoinstitutethemThisreadycontrastbetweenthepoliticallifeoftheancientandmodernpolitiesdidnotescapethosepoliticalphilosopherswhocontemplatedtheimplicationsofaliberalismontheascendantMontesquieu,forexample,highlightsthechasmbetweenancientandmodernpoliticallife,bydescribingtheaweinspiringpoliticaldedicationofthecitizensoftheancientcitiesInaddition,though,hepointstothepossibilityofamodernformofrepublicanism,quitedifferentfromtheancientformModernrepublicanismhas,inhisview,absorbedliberalpurposesandimproveduponancientrepublicanpracticesInthisway,herevealsamorecomplicatedpictureoftherelationbetweenmodernliberalismandrepublicanismthantheonecontemporarycommentatorssooftendepictMontesquieudrawsastarkcontrastbetweenthepoliticallifeoftheancientsandthatofthemoderns:“ThepoliticalmenofGreecewholivedunderpopulargovernmentrecognizednootherforcetosustainitthanvirtueThoseoftodayspeaktousonlyofmanufacturing,commerce,finance,wealth,andevenluxury”Theengrossmentinindividualandprivateconcerns,socharacteristicofmodernity,pushesasidetheemphasisontheinculcationofpoliticalvirtue,socharacteristicofantiquity,MontesquieusuggestsHegoesontoexaminetheconsequencesofthatancientrepublicanemphasisonvirtuewhenhecommentsthat“mostoftheancientpeopleslivedingovernmentsthathadvirtuefortheirprinciple,andwhenthatvirtuewasinfullforce,thingsweredoneinthosegovernmentsthatwenolongerseeandthatastonishoursmallsouls”Whatthemodernsfindsostrikingaboutthedeedsoftheancientsisthedegreetowhichthecitizensputtheinterestsofthestatebeforetheirown:“Politicalvirtueisarenunciationofoneself,whichisalwaysaverypainfulthing”SoselfdenyingdoesMontesquieufindthecitizenvirtueoftheancientrepublicsthat,inhischapterentitled“WhatVirtueIsinthePoliticalState,”hecomparestheancientrepublicancitizenswiththeextremeasceticsofthemodernworld:“Loveofthehomelandleadstogoodnessinmores,andgoodnessinmoresleadstoloveofthehomelandThelesswecansatisfyourparticularpassions,themorewegiveCharlesdeSecondat,barondeMontesquieu,TheSpiritoftheLaws,transandedAnneMCohler,BasiaCarolynMiller,andHaroldSamuelStone(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),–Ibid,,Ibid,,P:IBEintxmlSullivanDecember,:TheFormationofaLiberalRepublicanismourselvesuptopassionsforthegeneralorderWhydomonkssolovetheirorderTheirlovescomesfromthesamethingthatmakestheirorderintolerabletothemThemoreaustereitis,thatis,themoreitcurtailstheirinclinations,themoreforceitgivestothosethatremain”Inthismanner,MontesquieuindicatestheextenttowhichthedemandsoftheancientpolitiestransformedthenaturalinclinationsofthosewhoinhabitedthemAlthoughMontesquieufindstheprincipleofvirtueasselfrenunciationsonecessarytotherepublicsofantiquity,hedoesnotassociatethatprinciplewithrepublicanismsimplyHefindsthatEnglandisa“republic”that“hidesundertheformofmonarchy,”andEngland,asMontesquieupresentsit,iscertainlynotarepublicthatpromotestheselfrenunciationofitscitizensThatmodernnation,wherethecitizensspeakofcommerce,finance,andevenofluxury,takesnotvirtueforitsprinciple,butrather“politicalliberty”for“itsdirectpurpose”Politicallibertyhedefines“inacitizen”as“thattranquillityofspiritwhichcomesfromtheopinioneachonehasofhissecurity”Individualsecurity,notselflessdedicationtothepolity,isthefocusofthemodernrepublic,heclaimsMoreover,themodernformofrepublicnolongerdemandsthatitscitizensconstantlydebateanddetermineitspolicyInmodernpractice,representationreplacesparticipationMontesquieuheartilyapprovesofthisinnovation:“AgreatviceinmostancientrepublicswasthatthepeoplehadtherighttomakeresolutionsforactionThepeopleshouldnotenterthegovernmentexcepttochoosetheirrepresentatives”Inthiscomment,hesuggeststhesuperiorityofmoderntoancientrepublicanismMontesquieufindsinEngland,therefore,notonlyamodelforanewtypeofrepublicanismbut,insomeimportantways,animprovementovertheancienttypeHismodernformofrepublicanismreliesneitheronthemoralcharacterofitscitizensnorontheirdirectpoliticalparticipationItisarepublicanismthatembracesthelibertyoftheindividual,understoodasthefeelingofindividualsecurity,asitspurposeThismodernrepublicreliesoninstitutionalmeanstoachievethatpurpose:theseparationofpowersasembodiedinEngland’sconstitutionMontesquieu’smodernrepublicanismhasthoroughlyreconcileditselftoliberalpurposesNotonlyancientpracticebutprominentelementsofancientphilosophy,ofcourse,furnishastarkcontrasttoliberalism’semphasisonindividualsandtheirdesiresAristotle,afterall,declaresboththatthecityispriortotheindividualandthatitisnaturalFurther,heexplicitlydeniesthataIbid,,–Ibid,,seealso,,and,–Ibid,,,and,Ibid,,Ibid,,–Aristotle,ThePolitics,transCarnesLord(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,),a–P:IBEintxmlSullivanDecember,:IntroductioncitycanbeaproductofacompactPolitics,accordingtohisconception,isintendedtoimprovecitizens,notmerelytopreventcitizensfromcommittinginjusticesagainsteachotherandtopromotebusinesstransactions,barerequirementsofpoliticallife,heconcedesAlthoughacknowledgingthatthelatterpurposes,which,infact,closelyapproximatetheliberalconceptionofpolitics,arenecessaryforacity,Aristotledeclaresthattheydonotapproachthecity’struefunctionOnthebasisofsuchdeclarations,ofcourse,Aristotle’sthoughtpermitsforamuchwiderswathoftheintrusionofpoliticsintothelivesofcitizensFurther,theancientphilosopherdefinesthepoliticalrelationshipasrulingandbeingruledinturnParticipation,again,callsliberalismtoaccountTheaspirationsbothofancientpoliticsandpoliticalphilosophy,then,insomesalientrespectsopposethemselvestotheverypurposesofliberalismContrarytoMontesquieu’ssuggestionthatsomenewvariantofrepublicanismcould,andhad,infact,accommodateditselftotheindividualismoftheliberalregime–asevidencedbythepoliticalexperienceoftheEnglish–recentscholarsofintellectualhistoryandpoliticaltheoryarguethatadherentsofrepublicanismnotonlyperseveredinmaintainingtheirallegiancetoancientthoughtbutalsosuccessfullycontainedtheencroachmentofmodern,liberalideas,inEnglandandinAmericaaswellInthisway,thesescholarsofferanexcessivelypolarizedviewoftherelationbetweenrepublicanismandliberalism:republicanismisnecessarilyancientandisthoroughlyhostiletoliberalisma

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*新书上架*马基雅弗利、霍布斯和英格兰自由的共和主义的形式

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