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首页 *新书上架*【马克思主义研究】超越《资本论》:马克思的工人阶级政治经济学

*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】超越《资本论》:马克思的工人阶级政治经济学.pdf

*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】超越《资本论》:马克思的工人阶级…

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】超越《资本论》:马克思的工人阶级政治经济学pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MichaelALebowitzBeyondCapitalMarx’sPoliticalEconomyoftheWorkingClassSecondEditionBeyondCapitalBeyondCapitalMarx’sPoliticalEconomyoftheWorkingClassSecondEditionMichaelALebowitzProfessorEmeritusofEconomics,SimonFraserUniversity,Canada©MichaelALebowitz,AllrightsreservedNoreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermissionNoparagraphofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWTLPAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorizedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedhisrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirsteditionpublishedbyMacmillanSecondeditionpublishedbyPALGRAVEMACMILLANHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSandFifthAvenue,NewYork,NYCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPALGRAVEMACMILLANistheglobalacademicimprintofthePalgraveMacmillandivisionofStMartin’sPress,LLCandofPalgraveMacmillanLtdMacmillan®isaregisteredtrademarkintheUnitedStates,UnitedKingdomandothercountriesPalgraveisaregisteredtrademarkintheEuropeanUnionandothercountriesISBN–––hardbackISBN–––paperbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd,ChippenhamandEastbournevContentsListofFiguresviPrefacetotheSecondEditionviiPrefacetotheFirstEditionxiiAcknowledgementsxvWhyMarxAStoryofCapitalWhyBeyondCapitalTheMissingBookonWageLabourTheOneSidednessofCapitalThePoliticalEconomyofWageLabourWagesOneSidedMarxismTheOneSidednessofWageLabourBeyondCapitalFromPoliticalEconomytoClassStruggleFromCapitaltotheCollectiveWorkerNotesBibliographyNameIndexSubjectIndexviListofFiguresThedegreeofimmiserationTheconstructionofcapitalasatotalityThecircuitofcapitalasawholeThecircuitofcapitalandwagelabourCapitalismasawholeasatotalityCapitalismasawhole,Capitalismasawhole(II)TheworkerincapitalismThecontradictionofcapitalismviiPrefacetotheSecondEditionAreviewerofthefirsteditionofthisbookwrotethatitmightbetheworstpossibletimetopublishabookaboutMarxAnditwasCapitalismwastriumphant(withlittleapparentopposition)anditsputativealternative,‘ActuallyExistingSocialism’(AES),appearedtohaveendedinamiserablefitofthebluesForthoseontheRight,thatcombinationwassufficienttoprovetheerrorofMarxismManywondered–howcouldyoustilltalkaboutMarxAreyoustillteachingMarxisteconomics(Ofcourse,inoneofthoseironiesthatMarxwouldhaveappreciated,itwaspossibletofindconservativesofvarioushuesquotingscripturesanddeclaringthatcapitalism’ssuccessesandthefailuresofAESconfirmedthatMarxwasright)SomeontheLeftconcluded,simply,thatcapitalistrelationsofproductiondonotyetfetterthedevelopmentofproductiveforcesWhatcanyoudoagainstHistoryAndsoitwasthat,ratherthansocialism,forsometheonlyfeasiblealternativetobarbarismbecamebarbarismwithahumanfaceOthersontheLeftrespondedtotheabsenceofthe‘revoltoftheworkingclass’thatMarxprojectedbyconcludingthatMarxhaditallwrong–thathisprivilegingofworkersasthesubjectsofsocialchangeconstitutedthesinsofclassreductionismandessentialismForthese‘postMarxists’,themultiplicityofmoderndemocraticstrugglescountsasacritiqueofMarx’stheoryinplaceofananalysiscentreduponcapitalistrelationsofproduction,theyoffertheheterogeneityofpoliticalandsocialrelations,theequalityandautonomyofallstruggles,andthemarketplaceofcompetingdiscoursesBeyondCapitalshouldbeunderstoodasachallengetothisretreatfromMarxItarguesthattheonlywaythattheycanseparatestrugglessuchasthoseoverhealthandlivingconditions,airandwaterquality,women’srights,governmentsocialprogrammes,thecostsandconditionsofhighereducation,anddemocraticstrugglesingeneralfromworkersisbybeginningwiththetheoreticalreductionofworkerstoonesidedoppositesofcapitalOnlybylimitingtheneedsofworkerstowages,hoursandconditionsofworkcanthe‘postMarxists’theoreticallypositnewsocialmovementsasthebasisforacritiqueofclassanalysisratherthanconsideringtheworkerasasociallydevelopedhumanbeingwithinmoderncapitalistsociety,theyutilizethenarrowstereotypeoftheAbstractProletarianYet,the‘postMarxists’didnotinventthatstereotypeBeyondCapitalarguesthattheconceptoftheAbstractProletarianistheproductofaonesidedMarxismthathasdistortedMarx’sownconceptionofworkersassubjectsItsituatestherootsofthisonesidedMarxisminthefailuretorecognizethatMarx’sCapitalwasneverintendedasthecompleteanalysisofcapitalismbut,rather,asanexplanationanddemystificationforworkersofthenatureofcapitalForonesidedMarxists,CapitalexplainswhycapitalismwillcometoanendInexorableforcesmakehistoryItisaworldofthingsandinhumanforces,ofonesidedsubjects(if,indeed,thereareanysubjects)–ratherthanliving,strugglingbeingsattemptingtoshapetheirlivesAnd,inthisworld,theAbstractProletariatfinallyrisestoitsappointedtaskandunlockstheproductiveforcesthathaveoutgrowntheircapitalistshellIfthefactsdonotappeartosupportCapital,somuchtheworseforthefactsAsMarxcommentedaboutdisciples(seeChapter),thedisintegrationofatheorybeginswhenthepointofdepartureis‘nolongerreality,butthenewtheoreticalforminwhichthemasterhadsublimatedit’ButthisisnottheonlyaspectofthedisintegrationofMarxisttheoryBothintheoryandpractice,Marxismhasattemptedtofreeitselffromtheconstraintsimposedbytheonesidednessinherentintheexegesisofthesacredtext–andithasdonesothrougheclecticismInpractice,ithasattemptedtoextendbeyondnarroweconomisticappealstoitsAbstractProletariatand,intheory,itengagesinmethodologicaleclecticismtomodifythedoctrineunderlyingpracticeBothintheoryandpractice,‘modernization’becomestherallyingcryandthelatestfadNothing,ofcourse,iseasierthaneclecticismYet,thefreedomattainedthroughsuchsophisticationisneitherabsolutenorwithoutapriceFor,thetextremains,unsulliedbyitseclecticaccretionsandtheonesidedreadingitpermitsprovidesastandingrebukeandneverlacksforpotentialbearersofitspositionThus,notfreedombutavulnerabilitytofundamentalistcriticismand,notnewdirectionsbutswings,moreorlessviolent,betweenthepolesoftherealsubjectandthereifiedtextThereis,inshort,fertilegroundforanendlessdisputebetweenfundamentalismandfaddismNorisitselfevidentwhatpreciselyissavedbyeclecticism–whetherMarxismasatheory‘sufficientuntoitself’survivestheadditionofalienelements,whetherthenewcombinationsmaystillbecalledMarxismIthasbeenthebasicinsightoffundamentaliststhateclecticandsyncreticcombinationsthreatentheverycoreofMarxismasanintegralconceptionInshort,neitherthepurveyorsoftheAbstractProletariatofCapitalviiiPrefacetotheSecondEditionnortheeclecticdissidentstraversethegapbetweenthepuretheoryofCapitalandtherealityofcapitalismBothareformsofonesidedMarxism,differentaspectsofthedisintegrationofMarxisttheoryTheyaretheresult,ontheonehand,ofthefailureofMarxtocompletehisepistemologicalprojectinCapitaland,ontheotherhand,ofthedisplacementoftheunderstandingofMarx’smethodbytheexegesisofsacredtextsBeyondCapitalshouldbeunderstoodasacallforthecontinuationofMarx’sprojectBystressingthecentralityofMarx’smethodandusingittoexplorethesubjectmatterofMarx’sunfinishedwork–inparticular,hisprojectedbookonWageLabour,itfocusesonthemissingsideinCapital–thesideofworkersBeyondCapitalrestoreshumanbeings(andclassstruggle)tothehubofMarxiananalysisbytracingouttheimplicationsofthatmissingbookItchallengesnotonlytheeconomicdeterminismandreductionismofonesidedMarxismbutalsotheaccommodationsofthe‘postMarxists’Marx’sconceptionofthepoliticaleconomyoftheworkingclasscomestotheforenexttoitsfocusuponthecollectiveproducer(whichcontainsimplicitwithinitthevisionofanalternativesociety),the‘postMarxist’viewofhumanbeingsasconsumers(with,ofcourse,heterogeneousneeds)standsrevealedassomanyemptyabstractionsThisisnotatallanargument,however,thatclassstruggleisabsentfromCapitalorthatreferencestoclassstrugglebyworkersaremissingBut,Capitalisessentiallyaboutcapital–itsgoalsanditsstrugglestoachievethosegoalsItsthemeisnotworkers(exceptinsofarascapitaldoessomethingtoworkers),notworkers’goals(excepttomentionthattheydifferfromthoseofcapital)andnotworkers’classstruggle(exceptinsofarasworkersreactagainstcapital’soffensives)EvenwhereMarxmadesporadiccommentsinCapitalaboutworkersassubjects,thosecommentshanginmidairwithoutanythingcomparabletothesystematiclogicaldevelopmentheprovidesforthesideofcapitalTheresult,Iargue,isthatsomequitesignificantaspectsofcapitalismaremissingandnotdevelopedinCapitaland,indeed,thatthereareproblematicaspectsofthelatterThosewhothinkthat‘it’sallinCapital’shouldexplainthecontinuingreproductionofaonesidedMarxismInthePrefacetothefirstedition,InotedthatthisbooktookalongtimetocometogetherandthatitwasstillintheprocessofdevelopmentThisedition,writtenelevenyearslater,demonstratesthispointwellInfact,inpreparingthisedition,IcametolookuponthefirsteditionasafirstdraftEverychapterfromtheoriginaleditionwaschangedSomealterationswererelativelyminorandmerelyupdatedandPrefacetotheSecondEditionixstrengthenedpointsmadeearlier(drawingnow,forexample,uponthepublicationofMarx’s–EconomicManuscripts)However,thiseditionalsoreflectsthefurtherdevelopmentofmythinkingonthequestionsraisedOneofthemostsignificantchangesinvolvesthedivisionoftheoriginalconcludingchapter(‘BeyondPoliticalEconomy’)intotwoseparatechapters(‘FromPoliticalEconomytoClassStruggle’and‘FromCapitaltotheCollectiveWorker’)ThisallowedmetoexpandinparticularupontheconceptsoftheWorkers’Stateandofthecollectiveworker,respectively–areasIhavebeenexploringinthecontextofrecentpapersandabookinprogressonthetheoryofsocialisteconomiesWhilethiselaborationhadbeenintendedfromtheoutsetofplansforanewedition,twoothernewchaptersemergedinthecourseoftherevisionThenewChapter(‘Wages’)explicitlyconsiderstheeffectuponthetheoryofwagesofrelaxingMarx’sassumptioninCapitalthatworkersreceivea‘definitequantityofthemeansofsubsistence’inthecourseofthisinvestigation,thedegreeofseparationamongworkers(avariablenotedinthefirstedition)takesonsignificantlymoreimportanceFinally,thereisacompletelynewopeningchapter(‘WhyMarxAStoryofCapital’)InthecourseofwritingachapteronMarxrecentlyforacollectionontheviewsofeconomistsoncapitalism,itoccurredtomethatBeyondCapitalwasmissinganintroductiontoMarx’sanalysisofcapitalItwasn’tthereoriginallybecauseIhadconceivedofthebookasasupplementtoCapitalhowever,giventhewaythisnewchapteropensupquestionstowhichIsubsequentlyreturn,itishardformetobelievenowthatthechapterwasn’talwaysthereIamextremelygratefultothemanypeoplewhohaveencouragedmeinthisworksinceitsoriginalpublicationAmongthoseIwantespeciallytothankareGibinHong,translatoroftheKoreanlanguageedition,JesusGarciaBrigosandErnestoMolina(whotoldmeChewouldhavelikedthebook)Atthispoint,though,IamespeciallyappreciativeforthecriticalfeedbackonnewmaterialforthiseditionthatI’vereceivedfromvariousreadersSomeofthisfeedbackhassavedmefromseriouserrorsso,thankyoutoGregAlbo,JimDevine,AlfredoSaadFilho,SamGindin,MartaHarnecker,LeoPanitch,SidShniadandTonySmithAtthetimeofthewritingofthisPreface,chronologicallythefinalpartofthisedition,capitalism’striumphisnotasunproblematicasitmayhaveseemedatthetimeofthefirsteditionStrongprotestmovementshaveemergedinoppositiontotheformsofcapitalistglobalization,andthedevelopmentofnewinternationallinksinthestrugglexPrefacetotheSecondEditionagainstglobalcapitalproceedsFurther,capitalappearstobeundergoingoneofitscharacteristiccrises,andthecontestastowhichparticularcapitalsandlocationsistobeartheburdenofexcessglobalcapacityaswellasthedepthofthecrisisareyettobedeterminedIfthereisoneimportantmessagefromthisbook,however,itisthateconomiccrisesdonotbringaboutanendtocapitalismOnceweconsidertheworkerassubject,thentheconditionswithinwhichworkersthemselvesareproduced(andproducethemselves)emergeasanobviouspartoftheexplanationforthecontinuedexistenceofcapitalismBeyondCapitalstressesthemannerinwhichtheworker’sdependenceuponcapital,withinexistingrelations,isreproducedundernormalcircumstancesand,thus,itpointstothecriticalimportancenotonlyofthatdemystificationofcapitaluponwhichMarxhimselflabouredbutalsooftheprocessofstrugglebywhichworkersproducethemselvesassubjectscapableofalteringtheirworldThisessentialpointaboutthecentralityofrevolutionarypracticeforgoingbeyondcapitalaffordsmetheopportunitytoclosewiththequotationfromGeorgeSandwithwhichMarxconcludedhisPovertyofPhilosophy(Marx,a:)(Inthecontextofcapital’sdemonstratedtendencytodestroybothhumanbeingsandNature,thestatementhastakenonaddedmeaning)Until‘therearenomoreclassesandclassantagonisms…,thelastwordofsocialsciencewillalwaysbe…Combatordeath,bloodystruggleorextinctionThusthequestionisinexorablyput’PrefacetotheSecondEditionxixiiPrefacetotheFirstEdition()IdatethebeginningsofthisbookbacktowhenIfirstreadtheEnglishlanguagetranslationofMarx’sGrundrisseThere,asideofMarxwhichhadnotbeenapparentsincehisearlywritingssurfaced–afocusonhumanneedsAnd,IbecameconvincedthatthiswasasidewhichhadbeenobscuredbyMarx’sfailuretowritethebookthatheatthattimehadplannedtowrite,thebookonwagelabourMyinitialthoughtsonthisquestionwerebroughttogetherinapaper,‘HumanNeeds,AlienationandImmiseration’,presentedtotheCanadianEconomicsAssociationSubsequently,anabridgedversionofthispaperwaspublishedinas‘CapitalandtheProductionofNeeds’(whichservesasafoundationforChapternow)Theideaofamissingbook,however,offeredmorethanalinkbetweentheYoungMarxandthelaterwritingsItalsoseemedtoprovideanexplanationforthegapthatfeministMarxistswereatthattimepointingout–Marx’ssilenceonhouseholdlabourThiswasaquestionaddressedinanarticlepublishedin,‘ThePoliticalEconomyofHousework:aComment’,aswellasinanunpublishedtalkfromthesameyear,‘ImmiserationandHouseholdLabour’elementsofbothcanbefoundinChapternowHowsignificant,though,wasamissingbookonwagelabourItwasn’tenoughtoattempttogleantheGrundrisseforquotationsthatmighthavefoundtheirwayintosuchabookhaditbeenwrittenTherealissuewaswhatsuchasilenceimpliedabouttheadequacyofCapitalEventoposethisquestion,however,meantthenecessitytodevelopastandardbywhichtojudgeCapitalAsithappened,inIturnedmyattentiontoanexplicitstudyofMarx’smethodologyThestimuluscamefromanentirelydifferentsourceForseveralyears,NeoRicardians(andothersinfluencedbyPieroSraffa)hadbeencriticizingMarx’seconomicsWhileIwasconvincedthattheywerewrongintheirdescriptionandcriticismofMarx’stheory,IwasunsatisfiedbythelackofcoherenceinmyalternativeunderstandingIwentback,then,toHegeltodevelopanargumentstressingthedistinctioninMarxbetweenananalysisconductedatthelevelofEssence(capitalingeneral)andoneatthelevelofAppearance(‘manycapitals’orthecompetitionofcapitals)Myconclusioninanunpublishedpaper(‘Marx’sMethodologicalProject’)wasthattheNeoRicardians(andmanyothers)werefixatedatthelevelofAppearancewhereasthemorecentralproblemstoexploreinMarx’stheorywereatthelevelofEssenceBut,thisbroughtmebacktotheimplicationsofthemissingbookonwagelabourInapaperpresentedlaterthatyear,‘CapitalasFinite’,IattemptedtoreconstructthelogicofCapitalandarguedthattherewasacriticalproblemof‘onesidedness’inthetheorypresentedinCapital–asjudgedbyMarx’sownmethodologicalstandardsSomeideasfromthispaperappearinChaptersandnowChaptersandthemainsection,however,waspublishedinas‘TheOneSidednessofCapital’andisthebasisforChapternowThiswasfollowedbyasubsequentarticle,‘MarxafterWageLabour’,elementsofwhichappearinChaptersandnowandAllthisbecameforseveralyearsthe‘book’thatIwouldsomedaywrite–abookonthemissingsideofwagelabourthatIwasconvinced(andkeptassuringmystudents)providedtheanswertomanyproblemsinCapitalAsidefromafocusontheworkerassubjectanduponthecentralityofpraxis,however,therewasstilllittleintheprojectedbookwhichrelateddirectlytoexistingstrugglesorwhichprovidedmorethananinterestingacademicinterpretationThenextelementofthebookfellintoplaceastheresultofanotheroneofmydigressionsIn‘TheTheoreticalStatusofMonopolyCapital’,IhadreturnedtothequestionofMarx’smethodtoexploretherelationbetweentheessenceofcapitalandthecompetitionofcapitalsinthetendencytowardcentralization(monopoly)Itwasanattempttodemonstrateexactlyhowthecompetitionofcapitalsexecutedtheinnertendenciesofcapital,aconceptthatMarxstressedrepeatedlyintheGrundrisseAtatimeofincreasinginternationalcompetition,however,thequestionwhichpresenteditselfwas:wha

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*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】超越《资本论》:马克思的工人阶级政治经济学

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