加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 *新书上架*【亨利·大卫·梭罗】野苹果及其它论文

*新书上架*【亨利·大卫·梭罗】野苹果及其它论文.pdf

*新书上架*【亨利·大卫·梭罗】野苹果及其它论文

九月虺
2009-07-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【亨利·大卫·梭罗】野苹果及其它论文pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

WildApplesandOtherNaturalHistoryEssaysthispageintentionallyleftblankWildApplesandOtherNaturalHistoryEssaysbyHENRYDTHOREAUEDITEDBYWILLIAMROSSITheUniversityofGeorgiaPressathensandlondon©bytheUniversityofGeorgiaPressAthens,GeorgiaAllrightsreservedDesignedbyBettyPalmerMcDanielSetinGoudybyBookcomp,IncPrintedandboundbyThomsonShore,IncThepaperinthisbookmeetstheguidelinesforpermanenceanddurabilityoftheCommitteeonProductionGuidelinesforBookLongevityoftheCouncilonLibraryResourcesPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericacpLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataThoreau,HenryDavid,–“Wildapples”andothernaturalhistoryessaysbyHenryDThoreaueditedbyWilliamRossipcmIncludesbibliographicalreferences(p)andindexisbn(hardcover:alkpaper)isbn(pbk:alkpaper)NaturalhistoryNaturalhistoryMassachusettsIRossi,WilliamJohnIITitleqhtdcBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataavailableContentsAcknowledgmentsviIntroductionviiANoteonTextsxxvNaturalHistoryofMassachusettsAWalktoWachusettAWinterWalkWalkingTheSuccessionofForestTreesAutumnalTintsWildApplesHuckleberriesNotesSuggestionsforFurtherReadingIndexAcknowledgmentsThiscollectionwasbegunwiththegenerousassistanceofBobSattlemeyer,whohadtheforesighttwentyyearsagotoreprinttheseessaysIamalsogratefultoCristinaCalhoon,whoseknowledgeofVirgil,andJohnLysaker,whoseknowledgeofthehistoryofphilosophy,contributedtothenotestoJoeMoldenhauer,HeatherKirkThomas,andBethWitherellforsharingvaluableinformationabouttextualmatterstoMikeBranch,SuzanneClark,DanPeck,ScottSlovic,andMollyWestlingforadviceandencouragementtoJimCrosswhiteforunfailingmoralsupporttoJohnGageandtheUniversityofOregonEnglishDepartmentformaterialsupporttoLynnMilesMorilloforindexingandnotleasttoRachelandJuliaRossi,myabletypists,radiantproofreaders,andguidinglightsIntroductionwilliamrossiBornonhismaternalgrandmother’sfarmtwomilesoutsidetheagriculturalvillageofConcord,Massachusetts,onJuly,,HenryThoreaugrewupinafamilythatparticipatedactivelyinthepopularnineteenthcenturypassionfornaturalhistoryLocallegendheldthatoneofthechildrenwasnearlybornduringaparentalbotanizingexcursioninthewoodsandhillssurroundingthetownUntilheleftforHarvardCollegeinSeptember,Thoreauspentanuninterruptedboyhoodinthisenvironment,acquiringtheknowledgeofboatcraftandwoodcraftthatlatersoimpressedhisneighborandmentorRalphWaldoEmersonLikeotherConcordchildrenwhoattendedpresentationsattheConcordLyceumafteritwasestablishedin,youngHenry’sinterestwasfurtherfedbythenumerouslecturesonnaturalhistoryofferedthereRecentscholarshipsuggeststhatthecharacterofThoreau’searlyenvironmentalknowledge,thoughlessutilitarianthanthatofhiscontemporaries,was,liketheirs,morebroadthandeep(McGregor–)Nonetheless,hisattentiveearlyimmersioninthelocalecosystemsoftheConcordandSudburyRiverwatershedsformedtheexperientialsoilforarichsenseofplacetotakerootAftergraduatingfromHarvardin,Thoreaureturnedtohisnativevillagenevertoleaveitexceptforaneightmonths’residenceviiviiiintroductiononStatenIslandin,periodicexcursionstotheMainewoodsandCapeCod,andatripwesttoMinnesotainMayoneyearbeforehediedoftuberculosisButtheConcordtowhichhereturnedaftercollegewasalreadyenmeshedinthesocial,economic,andecologicalchangesthathadbeguntotransformtheregion,changesacceleratedwiththeestablishmentinoftheFitchburgrailroadinConcord,lessthanayearbeforeThoreaumovedtoWaldenPondAshenotedin,therailroadradicallyalteredtheoldscaleoftravelanddistance,reducingthetwentymilejourneytoBostonfromuptothreehoursbystagetounderanhourTherailroadandthepervasiveforcesofindustrializationitrepresentedalsobroughtthemetropoliscloserinotherways,integratingConcordbusinessandagricultureintoregionalandnationalmarkets,insinuatingcosmopolitanvaluesandmanners,andraisingbarriersofclassdistinctions,asthetownmoreandmoreassumedacommercializing,middleclass,andincreasinglysuburbancharacterThesechangeshadcomplexeffectsonthelandscapeThoreauinhabitedanddescribedduringthetwodecadesspannedbytheessayscollectedinthisvolumeOnonehand,theutilitarianattitudesthatsupportedanindustrializingeconomycontributedtoseveredeforestationanddecliningwildlifeBecausethetypicalNewEnglandhouseholdconsumedtentothirtycordsofwoodeverywinter,bylandaroundConcordwaslittlemorethantenpercentforested,withmeadowsandswamps,liketheonesThoreaucelebratesin“Walking,”rapidlydisappearingasarableacreageincreasedWhilethisnaturalhabitatwasbeingirreparablyalteredanddestroyed,unregulatedhunting,fishing,andtrappingwasdecimatingthepopulationsofmoose,wolf,deer,beaver,andmigratingfishsuchassalmon,shad,herring,andalewifethatThoreaucouldrememberfromboyhoodOntheotherhand,thesameforcesthatdrewConcordfarmersintonationalmarketsultimatelydisplacedthemAsruralresidentsmigratedwestormovedtourbancenters,andfarmswereabandonedoracreagerelinquishedtospecializeintheproductionofmilk,hay,andproduce,introductionixovertimetheexhaustedpasturesandabandonedfarmlandgraduallyreforested,aprocessthebeginningsofwhichThoreaurecognizedand,againstthegrainofconventionalwisdom,soughttopromoteinhislatenaturalhistoryessaysNowoversixtypercentforested,theConcordlandscapeiscomparativelywilderthantheoneThoreauknew,withportionsofitpreservedinaccordancewithhisvision(CarrollDonahueGross,NewPerspectives)IfThoreau’scontemporarieslackedwhatwemightcallacoherent“ecologicalvision,”theywerenonethelesskeenlyawareofthenaturalknowledgebeingproducedinvariousareasofnaturalhistorythatwouldbecomeseparatedisciplinesinthesecondhalfofthecenturyToagreaterextentthanpresently,areasnowtheprovinceofgeology,botany,zoology,paleontology,comparativeanatomy,ornithology,andastronomywereofconsiderablepublicaswellasprofessionalinterestIffromourperspectiveThoreau’scontemporariesmissedtheforestforthetrees,theyoftenhadacorrespondinglygreatercuriosityaboutthem,andthus,asreaders,agreatertolerancefordescriptivedetailthanmanyoftheirmoreenvironmentally“enlightened”descendantsConsequently,writersofnaturalhistoryenjoyednumerousoutletsandawidereadershipfortheirwork,areadershipconsistingnotonlyofgenteelurbanitesandthoseThoreaustigmatizedinAWeekontheConcordandMerrimackRiversas“mealymouthedloversofnature”butalsoofgeneralistintellectualsandprofessionalnaturalistseagertokeepabreastofadvancingscientificknowledge(AWeekBuell–)Theculturalbreadthofthisinterestinthenaturalworldwassustainedbyawidespread,variegated,andremarkablyelasticdiscourseofnaturaltheologyThisdeeplyrootedassumptionthatfromthemicrotothemacroscopiclevelthewholeofnatureevincedacoherentdesignultimatelyreferabletoadesignerGod,wasmodifiedbuthardlyeradicatedbyCharlesDarwin’sOntheOriginofSpeciesNaturaltheologyinformednotonlythecourseinnaturalhistorythatThoreautookasasenioratHarvardCollege,butalsothepublicxintroductionpromotionandthepracticeofsciencethroughouthislifetimeandbeyondit(Sattelmeyer,Reading–,–Ospovat–Yeo–)Twelveyearsafterhegraduated,whenHarvardinstitutedamorerigorousscientificcurriculum,professionalbotanists,zoologists,comparativeanatomists,andothers(whosetextbooksThoreaureadintheearlys)continuedtoworkwithinthesameparadigm,albeitamuchrefinedandmoretechnicallyelaboratedversionofitOfcourse,Thoreau’smultileveledsenseofbeinginnature,hisownsenseofplace,cannotbereducedtoanyparadigmordiscourse,anymorethanourowncanbeButthispervasiveunderstanding,andparticularlyEmerson’stranscendentalistreworkingofit,playedanimportantroleinhowThoreaucametowritenatureandhisrelationtoitWhen,notlongafterresigninghisUnitarianpulpit,Emersonannouncedhisdesireto“beanaturalist”inalecturetotheBostonSocietyofNaturalHistoryin,itwasavisionofnaturalsciencemediatedbynaturaltheologythatattractedhim,thesamevisionthatfoundexpressionthreeyearslaterinhisfirstbook,NatureOneofEmerson’sgreatestambitionsforthetranscendentalismheexpoundedtherewastoencompassandextend,ratherthantocontravene,theunderstandingofnaturegainedthroughscienceandtherebyattain“atruetheoryofnatureandofman”(CollectedWorks:)Likemanyotherscientific,theological,andgeneralistexponentsofnaturaltheologywritinginthes,Emersonpointedtothelargerwholeor“design”that“natureisalreadyinitsformsandtendenciesdescribing”(CollectedWorks:)Besidestherichpoeticmodeofhisutterance,whatsetEmerson’sinquiryapartfromotherswhocelebratedthisdesignwas,first,thethoroughgoingidealistepistemologythatledhimtoemphasizeone’simmediateintuitiveperceptionofthiswholeratherthanarationalistreconstructionofitbasedonempiricalenumerationsofnature’smanifoldpartsandprocessesTounderscoretheultimatelyspiritualrealityunderlyingnatureandhumanity,Emersonpreferredtodistinguishbetweentheidealand“theactual”ratherthan,astraditionally,betweentheidealandtherealTrulytoseethereal,introductionxiinnatureasinhumanity,Emersonheld,istoperceivetheidealintheactualIfrelieduponsolely,Baconianempiricismwasthereforemore“apttocloudthesight”thantorevealthewholeasaspiritualized“poetic”visioncould(CollectedWorks:)Second,byrepresentingtheobserverasaparticipantinthewholelivingprocessandlargerorderhewitnessed,EmersonblurredthetraditionalJudeoChristianreligiousandCartesianphilosophicaldistinctionsbetweenhumanity,nature,andGod,distinctionsthatothercelebrantsofnaturaltheologytookgreatcaretoobserveForEmerson,therefore,“thebestreadnaturalist”wasonewhosought“amanlycontemplationofthewhole”byattendingbothtothe“outer”knowledgeofthesensesandtothe“untaughtsalliesofthespirit”fromwithin(CollectedWorks:)BeforehegraduatedfromHarvard,HenryThoreaubeganenthusiasticallytoabsorbthese“newviews,”astheywerecalled,ofEmersonandhisTranscendentalistcircleFourteenyearsolderthanThoreau,EmersonhadmovedtoConcordinandunderhispersonalandintellectualinfluence,Thoreaulearnedtoseeandeventuallytorepresentnatureasthe“shadowofthesoul,orotherme,”asEmersonphraseditinthe“AmericanScholarAddress”hedeliveredtoThoreau’sgraduatingclassin(CollectedWorks:)Atthesametime,Thoreau’scommitmenttoempiricismpreventedhimfromtakingEmerson’srhetoricalsallyagainstittooliterally,whilehisongoingimmersioninConcord’senvironsnottomentionthedesiretodefinehisownangleofvisioneffectivelyimmunizedhimagainsttheearlyEmersonrhetoricaltendencytodissolvethematerialrealityofnaturealtogetherOneofthegreatattractionsofNewEnglandTranscendentalism,especiallytoyoungseekerslikeThoreau,wastheliberationfromconventionalmodesofthought,behavior,andexpressionitlicensed,aliberationthatMargaretFullerexplicitlyextendedto“woman”aswellas“man”(Fuller–)Potentiallyandtheoreticallyatleast,therewereasmanywaystospeakandtoliveone’struerelationtothesoulxiiintroductionasthereareradiitoacircleInhisfirstnaturalhistoryessay,“NaturalHistoryofMassachusetts,”wecanalreadyseeThoreaunegotiatinghisownwaywithinthesmallreadershipcircleofTheDial,ashortlivedTranscendentalistperiodicaleditedbyFullerandEmersonAfewweeksafterEmersonassumedtheeditorshipfromFullerin,heinvitedhistwentyfiveyearoldprotégétoreviewaseriesofscientificsurveysrecentlypublishedbythestateofMassachusetts,therebyaffordinghimtheopportunity,asEmersonwroteFuller,ofturninginto“narrativeallhiswoodcraft,boatcraftfishcraft”(Letters:)Theessay,Thoreau’ssecondprosepublication,fullyreflectsthedesire,ifnotyettheskill,torepresentthealternatelymysticalandempiricistimmersioninlocalnaturehewouldperfectinWaldenandthelaternaturalhistoryessaysWhileclearlyanapprenticepiece,mostlyassembledfrompolishedobservationsandvignettesstoredinhisjournal,“NaturalHistoryofMassachusetts”islessfragmentaryandimpressionisticthanmayfirstappearStructuredsequentiallytofollowthenaturalhistorytreatedinthestateReports(insects,birds,“quadrupeds,”fish,“herbaceousplants,”andinvertebrates),Thoreau’sanecdotesemphasizehisownexperienceoftheseorganisms,witheachgroupofobservationsorganizedseasonallywithinthelimitsofthatexperienceIftheresultisuneven,Thoreau’sintentisclearenough:toperformhisowndefinitionofEmerson’s“bestreadnaturalist”andtoprovideaholisticalternativetothearidBaconianismoftheReports,which,hecomplains,rarelyfeature“acoloredsentencetoallure”the“generalreader,”andthus“implymorelaborthanenthusiasm”AsStevenFinkhaspointedout,thetranscendentalistepistemologyunderlyingThoreau’s“enthusiasm”that“wedonotlearnbyinferenceanddeductionandtheapplicationofmathematicstonaturalphilosophy,butbydirectintercourseandsympathy”wasfamiliarenoughtoTheDial’scoterieaudienceButThoreau’sinsistencethatwe“notunderratethevalueofafactitwillonedayflowerinatruth”cutstwoways,againstbothmaterialisticandidealistreadingsofnaturalfactsWherethemateintroductionxiiirialistreducestruthtophysicalfactsunmediatedbytheperceiver’sexperience,andtheidealistinclinestowardcontemptforphysicalrealityexceptasitcanbeseentoflowerintosymbolictruth,Thoreau’sstatementplacesfullvalueinthefactasrecurrentlyexperienced,anopenendedfaiththatwouldsustainandenrichhisstudiestenyearslaterasaprofessionalnaturalist(Fink,Prophet)Bythetimehepublishedhisnexttwonaturalhistoryessays,“AWalktoWachusett”and“AWinterWalk,”Thoreauhadfoundinthepopulargenreoftravelwritingwhatwouldbecomehisfavoriteform:theexcursionBasedonafourdaywalkhetookinJulywithFuller’syoungerbrother,Richard,toMtWachusett,apopularpicturesquetravelspotwestofConcord,“AWalktoWachusett”wasThoreau’sfirstpiecepublishedoutsideTheDial,anditrepresentsamilestoneinhisrapidprofessionaldevelopmentAgenialaccountoftheactualjourneywest,acrosstheConcordandNashuaRivervalleysuptothesummit,returningviathevillageofHarvard,theessayisnarratedfromtheperspectiveofthereturnedtraveler,asWaldenwouldbeDrawingonpicturesquelandscapeconventions,Thoreauskillfullycataloguestheflora,fauna,andhumanactivitytheyobserve,includingmowers,hopgatherers,andinhabitantsofrecentlysettled“western”villagessuchasSterling,allofwhomoccupytheirplaceswithinan“ampleandroomynature”Atthesametime,heassociatesthetravelers’westeringimpulsewiththenewnation’sopenendeddestinyand,moredeeply,withthetranscendentaldiscoveryoftheidealintheactualthattheexcursionsymbolicallyenacts,oneinwhich“thepath”thateven“themostwayworntraveler’sfeetdescribeisperfectlysymbolicalofhumanlife,nowclimbingthehills,nowdescendingintothevales”“AWinterWalk”furtherdevelopsthisthemebutnowinfusedwiththekindofrichexperientialsenseoftranscendentaldiscoveryglimpsedin“NaturalHistoryofMassachusetts”andcompressedintoasingleday’sdawntoduskwalkTakingthereaderashisfamiliarcompanionthroughasensuousandevocativeinspectionofthesnowxivintroductioncoveredlandscape,Thoreauunfoldsthetranscendentalimplicationsoftheconceitthat“inwinterweleadamoreinwardlife”bycounterpointingtheimaginativewarmthofthenarrator’sreflectionstothebracingcoldwithoutAsthenarrativeprogressesthe“slumberingsubterraneanfire”discoveredinthedepthofwinteroutsideisidentifiedwiththenarrator’sownimaginativespiritand,implicitly,withthatofthehumanspiritsharedwithhisreaderLikehistwopreviousnaturalhistorypieces,butmoreexplicitlyandmoreartfullythaneither,“AWinterWalk”thusrepresentsthenaturalworldasthecomfortablehomeofhumanspiritsentitledtoit,exudingtheconfidencethat“nodomainofnatureisquiteclosedtomanatalltimes”becausenatureis,afterall,his“domain”Theanthropocentrismandcomfortablearroganceofthisassumptionmayobscurethewayitparadoxicallysupports(inThoreau’scaseatleast)anattitudeofwonderatthecomplexity,vitality,andsheerscopeof“home,”auniversethat,ashewouldwriteinWalden,“iswiderthanourviewsofit”()That“AWinterWalk”wasdraftednotonlyinsummerbutonStatenIsland,whileheboardedwithEmerson’sbrother,William,andtriedtoestablishaliterarycareerbysellinghiswritinginNewYorkCity,suggestshowintenselyThoreaualreadyimaginativelyinhabitedhishomeregion,asdoesthelingeringdescriptionofanunidentifiedWaldenPondinthepieceButwhilethedesire,prefiguredin“AWinterWalk,”tosettlemoredeeplyinhishomeplacemayhavebeenpartofThoreau’sreasonformovingtoWaldenPondeighteenmonthsafterhereturnedtoConcordfromNewYorkinDecember,uppermostinhismindwhenhetookupresidencethereonJuly,,werehiswritingprojectsandoppositiontoslaveryAsRobertRichardsonhaswritten,duringhistwoyearsandtwomonthsatWalden,Thoreau’shutserved“asmuchhisheadquartersashishermitage”()AmongotheraccomplishmentsduringhistwoyearsandtwomonthsatthePond,hecompletedAWeekontheConcordandMerrimackRiversandadraftofWaldenwrotethelecturebasedonhisJulyarrestforintroductionxvseveralyears’nonpaymentofpolltaxhostedtheantislaverysociety’sannualmeetinginAugustandlecturedfourtimesinConcordandLincolnfromhisWaldenmanuscriptandfromalongessayonthewritingsofThomasCarlyle,whichhepublishedinspringButfromthestandpointofthedevelopmentofThoreau’senvironmentalimaginationandnaturalhistorywriting,perhapsthemostmomentouseventduringhisresidenceatthePondwasthetwoweekexcursionhetookawayfromitintotheheartoftheMainewoods,ajourneythatfurtherwidenedhisviewoftheuniverseandmarkedallhislaterenvironmentalwritingWithindaysofreturning,Thoreau

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

*新书上架*【亨利·大卫·梭罗】野苹果及其它论文

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利