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首页 *新书上架*【【维特根斯坦研究】思想的足迹:维特根斯坦《哲学研究》的主题

*新书上架*【【维特根斯坦研究】思想的足迹:维特根斯坦《哲学研究》的主题.pdf

*新书上架*【【维特根斯坦研究】思想的足迹:维特根斯坦《哲学研…

九月虺
2009-07-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【【维特根斯坦研究】思想的足迹:维特根斯坦《哲学研究》的主题pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THOUGHT’SFOOTINGThispageintentionallyleftblankThought’sFootingAThemeinWittgenstein’sPhilosophicalInvestigationsCHARLESTRAVISCLARENDONPRESS·OXFORDGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©CharlesTravisThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataTravis,Charles,–Thought’sfooting:athemeinWittgenstein’sPhilosophicalinvestigationsCharlesTravispcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:––––(alkpaper)ISBN:–––(alkpaper)Wittgenstein,Ludwig,–PhilosophischeUntersuchungenITitleBWPdcTypesetbyLaserwordsPrivateLimited,Chennai,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyBiddlesLtd,King’sLynn,NorfolkISBN–––––––Wehavelandedonsmoothicewherethereisnofrictionsoinacertainsensetheconditionsareideal,butjustbecauseofthatwealsocan’twalkWewanttowalk,soweneedfrictionBacktoroughground!Wittgenstein,PhilosophicalInvestigations,§ThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceandAcknowledgementsIntheautumnofIwas,tomysurprise,invitedtogivesomelecturesintheColle`gedeFranceanhonourIacceptedwithdelightandalacrityCoincidentally,IhadrecentlycometothinkthatIhadenoughnewideasaboutreadingsofvariousspecificstretchesofPhilosophicalInvestigationstowarrantwritingexplicitlyonWittgensteinagainSoIproposedlecturingontheInvestigationsInthebeginning,Ithoughtofthesenewideasasunconnected,eachspecifictooneparticularstretchoftextAsIworkedonpreparingthelectures,though,theycametogetherintoaunifiedviewoftheInvestigations,andofitsmainsubjectmatterstwo(orthree)intimatelyrelatedthemes,thesecond(andthird)mademorepressingbythefirstThatishowthingswerepresentedinthelectureswhichweregiveninMayandJuneofIbenefitedenormouslyfromtheexperienceIhopesomeothersdidtooItgoeswithoutsayingthatIdidnotreadoutwhatispublishedhereNorwasthepresenttextevenclosetoexistingthenAsalways,ItalkedmakingratherfreeuseofwrittennotesWhatappearshereisthefruitoflongeffortstoturnthemaindriftofthosenotesintosomethingatleastcoherent,perhapsevendigestibleVariousnewideascametositalongsidetheoriginalsasthisprocessadvancedAnumberofpeopleplayedsubstantialrolesinmakingtheselecturespossible,bothphilosophicallyandotherwiseIwouldespeciallyliketothankJacquesBouveresse,SandraLaugier,JocelynBenoist,JeanJacquesRosat,BrunoAmbroise,JimConant,PeterSullivan,andMikeMartinTheusualdisclaimersaboutresponsibilityapplyfullyThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsIntroductionMasteryAcquaintanceHardnessDeterminationTranscendenceHarmonyBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionInallofthisinvestigationoftheInvestigations,Ihavefollowedonecentralmethodologicalprinciple:ifyouwanttounderstandwhatWittgensteinisuptoatsomegivenpointintheInvestigations,alwayslooktoFregetohowwhatWittgensteinsaysmaybeareactiontosomethingFregesaid(whetherbywayofmodification,orbywayofrejection)IoffernojustificationforthisprincipleotherthanitsfruitsPerhapsitisalsoawayofmakingWittgensteinofinteresttophilosophersnaturallyinclinedtofindhisphilosophy,otherwisepresented,offputtingTosome,lateWittgensteinmaysoundasifhehadlosthisfeel,orconcern,forphilosophyHisconcernwith‘thenaturalhistoryofhumanbeings’cansound,tosomeears,asifitisdirectedsomewhereelseentirelyperhapsevenatwhatisknowninDutchaslevensbeschouwelijkevisiesrudderlessreflectionsonthehumanpredicament,or,stillmorebluntly,maunderingsItcanalsoseemasifWittgensteinjustgratuitouslyscornsthehardwonrigourFregeofferedtophilosophyInfact,though,Wittgenstein’sconcernwith‘naturalhistory’,andallitsaccompaniments,aredirectedatwhatismostcentralinFrege,andincurrentphilosophyItmeetshim,andit,ontheirowntermsFrege’snotinconsiderableachievementwastomakeacertainimmenselyappealingviewofthoughtandlanguageclearandexplicitenoughtoadmitofrigorouscriticismWittgensteintookupthetaskthatonlyFregethusmadepossibleHeworkedtosortoutwhatisworthpreservinginFregefrom(occasionally)whatisoverreactiontoperceivedthreats,mostnotably,andoften,ofidealismIncriticizingsuchoverreaction,Wittgensteinwasalsocriticizingtraditional(notablyBritish)empiricism,anditscurrentdescendantsthoughnotatallfromthestandpointoftraditionalrationalismFregewas,ofcourse,nosympathizerwithempiricismHeattackedit,trenchantly,inhisownwaysItposedexactlytheidealistthreatofwhichhewasafraidIfenoughremainsinFregeandempiriciststoserveascommontargetforacritiquelikeWittgenstein’s,thatinitselfisaninterestingdiscoveryIfthisistherightviewofwhatisonthetableintheInvestigations,thereisreasonevenforthosenotinsympathywithWittgensteintoattendtowhatisgoingonthereIwouldbeverypleasedifthepresenttextprovokessomephilosopherstohaveafreshlookSpeakingonmyownbehalf,whetherforWittgensteinornot,IwillgofurtherJustasNewtonbequeatheduswhatisstilltherightwayofframingmanyproblemsinmechanicsformanypurposes,thoughnotforallso,too,Fregeleftuswhatremainsthemostfruitfulandinsightfulwayofframingmanyproblemsaboutlanguageandthoughtandtheirstandingtowardsthingsbeingastheyare,again,formanypurposes,thoughnotforallThisissomethingthatcontinuesIntroductiontoimpressitselfmorestronglyonmeasIfindmyselfturningtoFregemoreandmoreoftenforawayofframingthevariousdisputesinwhichIfindmyselfembroiledJustasasatisfactorysuccessortoNewtonshould(anddoes)allowustoseehowitisthathiswayofframingthingsremainsfruitfulwhereitdoes,soasatisfactorysuccessortoFregeshouldallowustoseehowitisthathiswayofframingthingsisfruitfulwhereitisItshouldsituateproperlyjustwhatremainsrightinFregeevenafterwehave(ifwehave)movedbeyondhimIthinkthatWittgenstein,intheInvestigations,doesallowustoseejustthisinaveryclearandprecisewayIhopethisemergesinthepresentessayIntheselectures,IwillpresentacloselyknitlineofthoughtasitdevelopsintheInvestigationsOtherordersofpresentationwouldalsomakesenseOnemightprofitablyinvestigatepresentingideasastheyappearedinthecourseofWittgenstein’sdevelopmentThatwouldbearatherdifferentprojectForexample,ifIamrightinmyperceptionofPhilosophicalGrammar,thentheroadfromtheTractatustotheInvestigationsactuallymovedthrough,andvia,thematerialtobepresentedhereinLectureItmaywellhavebegunwithanewunderstandingofwhata‘propositionalvariable’(moregenerally,ofwhatanyvariable)mightbe,andhenceofwhatlogicisButIwillnotpursuethatlineofhistoricalinquirymuchfurtherhereFormypresentpurpose,theorderofthetextitselfisfullysatisfactoryWhat,then,isthispromisedcloselyknitlineofthoughtWecanbeginwiththisbook’stitleHowdoesthought(thatthingsarethusandso)getfootingHowcanitmakeitssuccessbeholdentothewaythingsareinawaydeterminateenoughthattheworld(initsnormalcourse)may,obligingly,beasthought,orpreciselynotForastart,whatmightsuchadependencyonthingslooklikeWhatformmightittakeFregeoffersananswerintermsofobjectsandconceptsInthesimplestcase,thethoughtisofanobject,andaconceptforwhichitisanargumentTheconceptmapsthatargumenttoatruthvalue,thevaluedepending(inthesublunarycase,atleast)onhowthatobjectisInanobligingworld,theobjectissuchastosatisfytheconcept,orsuchasnottoItis,accordingtothewayitis,thetypeofargumentthatmapsintothevaluetrue,orthekindthatmapsintothevaluefalseSotobeaboutanobjectandaconceptintherightstructuredway(theobject,thatis,aswhatistosatisfytheconcept,theconceptaswhatistobethussatisfied)istobebeholden,inonespecificformoftherightway,tothewaythingsareMoreover,howoneistherebybeholdendeterminesjustwhenonewouldbevindicatedbythewaythingsarejustwhatitwouldbeforonethustohavejudgedtruly,sojustwhatonehadthusjudgedWittgenstein’sfirstmainidea,madeoutattheverystartoftheInvestigations,isthatthisisjustnotsoLetanattitude,orwords,name,insuchaway,whateverobjectsandconceptsyouwantStill,thereareindefinitelymanydifferentwaysforcorrectnesstodependonhowthingsare,allcompatiblewithnamingpreciselythosethingsWhatwordsname(bywayofconceptsandobjects),andtheIntroductionstructuredwaytheydothat,doesnotdetermine,uniquely,whentheywouldbetrueWhatismissingisthesortofconsequencesofthinking,orsaying,somethingwhatmaybedonewithwhatissaid,ifcorrectthatwouldbespelledout,inoneway,insayinghowalanguagegameistobeplayed(inprovidingrulesforit)When,insaying(precisely)thatsuchandsuch,onewouldspeaktrulyisnotindependentofwhy,orexactlyhow,(inthecircumstancesofthatspeaking)itmatterswhethersuchandsuch,and,specifically,howitmatterstowhatwemightdoThatistheinitialpointofintroducingthenotionofalanguagegameThereisageneralideahereofconnectingtruthandconsequenceswhich,ofcourse,isnotpeculiartoWittgensteinIthasamuchwidercurrencyItisworthnotingpointsofcontacthereWittgenstein’spictureisalsoverymuchdrivenbytheidea,takenasseriouslyaspossible,thatitisnotdeterminatehowsomethingmattersindependentoftheparticularcircumstancesinwhichitdoesso,and,correlatively,bythe,sotospeak,unboundedconcretenessofthedoings,differencestowhichmaybearonwhen,insayingthingstobesuchandsuchway,onewouldhavespokentrulyThisisonesortofanswertothequestionwhattherightsortofdependencyoftruthonhowthingsarewouldlooklikeofhowthoughtcangettherightsortofgriponthingsbeingastheyareItisitsinvolvementinlargerprojects,ongivenoccasions,oringivenexpressionsofit,thatgivesitthatgripThisanswerraisesotherlikesoundingquestionswhichleadtoasecondcrucialthemeSupposeIsay,‘Thepigisintheparlour’,speakingofacertainpig,and(toputitFrege’sway)theconceptofbeingintheparlourWhatmaybedonewithwhatIsaid,ifcorrectWhatistobeexpectedofitWhatcoulddictateoneoranotheranswertothisForFregeaconceptisintrinsicallyboundtoaparticularwayofdependingforcorrectnessonhowthingsareaparticularwayinwhichthismaymatterForhimthiswayisfixedbyaparticularGesetzderZuordnung,alawforassociatingobjectswithtruthvaluesTonamethatconceptis,ipsofacto,toinvokepreciselyandjustthatparticularformofdependencyTheconditionforcorrectnessforthewholeofwhichsuchnamingwaspartwillbeafunctionoftheparticulardependenciesthusinvoked,thusthesameforanystructurallyidenticalinvocationofpreciselythoseWhateverelsethereistosayaboutthisconception,atleastwhereveritisfixedinthiswayhowajudgementthatthingsarethusandsodependsforcorrectnessonhowthingsare,whatisrequiredforthecorrectnessofsojudgingisindependentofour,oranyone’s,particularparochialcapacitiesorformsofthoughttraitsofthoughtpeculiartosomeparticularvarietyofthinker(say,ahumanbeing)MatterschangewhendependencyonhowthingsaretakestheformWittgensteinseesforitWhatdoesdecidehowonemayusewhatwordssaidifcorrectwhatonemay,oroughtto,expecttobeabletodointhatcaseTobeginwith,howonemayusewordswhichspoke(inagivenstructuredway)ofgivenconceptsandobjectsmustgenuinelydependonthecircumstancesinwhichtheyIntroductionwerespokenFurther,weshouldsupposethatthereisnoalgorithmbywhichtocalculatetheanswertothisquestionfrom(aswouldthenbe)givenotherfactsaboutaspeaking,holdingindependentlyofthatanswerWecanthinkofthisasaspecialcaseofthegeneralrulethatwhatourconceptsspeakofalwaysadmitsof,andsometimesrequires,understandingsanotherwayofputtingWittgenstein’srejectionofFrege’sconceptionofwhatconceptsdoOntheotherhand,ifI,athinkerofacertainkind,addressmyselftothinkersofmykind,thenwethinkersofthatkind,ifsuitablyaufaitwiththecircumstancesofmyspeakingwillbeinbroadagreementonthespecificsofwhatonemayexpectOnWittgenstein’sview,suchbroadagreementcounts,asarule,asrecognizingwhatthosefactsareSosuchfactsarewhatwouldbeaccessibleto,andperhapsonlyto,aparticularparochialsensibility,andareshapedaccordinglyIusetheterm‘parochial’here(andthroughout)torefertoatraitofmind,orformofthinking,possessedbyagivensortofthinker,butnotnecessarilybyallthinkerstowhatisnotrequiredjustforbeingathinkeratallTheparochialseemsthustoplayasubstantiveroleinourthinkingjusttheoutcomeFrege,forfearofidealism,hopedtoblockWhenthingswouldbeasIsayinsayingthemtobesuchandsuchwayisnowtodependonhowitoughttomatterifIwererightastotheirbeingthatwayonwhatonemightthen(withright)expectwherethis,inturn,isfixed,inpart,atleast,byourparochialsenseforsuchthingsso,itseems,onwhatwould,orcould,recognizablymatterforusForFrege,amongmanyothers,theparochial,ifnotstoppedwellbeforethispoint,threatensthecollapseofjudgementStancessoformedwouldnotbejudgementThesecondideainthelineofthoughttobedevelopedherereversesthedirectionfromwhichsuchthreatcomesItcanbeputthisway:arepresentationofthingsasthusandsocannottaketherightformforjudgement(fortruthbearing)cannotmakeitselfbeholdenintherightwaytohowthingsarewithouttheworkoftheparochial(touseaphraseofWittgenstein’s,withoutabackgroundofagreementinjudgements)Forittobeajudgement,itsformmustbelongtothinkersofagivenkindThereis,bythesecondidea,nosuchthingasjudgementnotformedbytheparochialThatmuchiscompatiblewiththerebeingnosuchthingasjudgementpunktButthatiscertainlynottheconclusionWittgensteinwantsItisthethirdideathatblocksitFrege’sconceptionofaconcept,anditsroleinjudgement,leavesnoroomfortheparochialtoformjudgementForWittgenstein,thatconceptionisoverreactiontoathreatofidealismwhichtheparochial,thusworking,onlyseemedtoposeItseemedtobecauseitseemedthattherewerecertainsortsofquestionsonecouldaskastowhatwasreallyjudgement,whatwasreallybeholdentotheworldinjusttherightwayTheupshotofthethirdideaisthattherearenosuchquestionsSupposeIsaythatthepigisintheparlourReachingforyourpigprod,yougotoshooitoutDidIstatesomethingDidIsaysomethingeithertrueorfalseIfIntroductionso,thenthereisawayforthingstobe,wherethisisawaythingsoftenenoughare,orarenotThecorrectnessofwhatIstatedturnspreciselyonwhetherthingsarethatwaySuchaway,ifthereisone,wouldbe:thepigbeingintheparlourButistherereallysuchawayYougototheparlourToyoureye,thingsarevisibly,perhapspatently,asIsaid,or,again,notYouareeithergratefulorannoyedaccordinglyWhatthereistoseeiswhatyouwouldtaketobethingsbeing,or,again,notbeing,asIsaid,accordingtowhatitisWecan,thusfar,relyonyourresponsetoitunlessthingshavegonejarringlyawry(thepigisintheparlour,alright,ifitsbutcheredcarcasshangingfromthemantle,orifitsfronthalfjammedintheopenwindow,willdoforthat,orif(shadesofthesaint)itispokable,butequallysointheparlourandinthesty)NoristhisallaboutyouAnyofus,properlywitnesstomywords,would,reliably,findthesameasyoudoYouarepreparedtorecognize(acknowledge)adistinctionbetweenthingsbeingthewayIsaidtheywere,andthingsbeingotherwiseadistinctiongivenwhichtherewouldbeawayofthingsformywordstobebeholdentoInsuchmatters,thinkersofourkindagreeButinrecognizingwhatwearepreparedtohere,arewedetectingsomethingastohowthingsinfactareOrarewemerelyconferringastatusonthingswhichtheyhavenotearnedassuchYourrecognizingwhatyouarepreparedtohereinvokesaparochialsenseforwhentosaythingsarethewayIspokeofOritisatleastundersuchsuspicionItissuchasensibilitythatouragreementratifiesas,ofcourseitwould,sinceitmanifestsitThequestionsitseemedwewanttoaskastowhenoneisreallybeholdentotheworldintherightwayareoneswhichwouldremainopenevenafteranysuchparochialsensibilityhadspokenIfIdidstatesomething,thenthatthereisapigintheparlour,or,again,not,ispartofwhatissothusonethingonwhichthecorrectnessofajudgementmightturnButwiththeparochialatworkasitisinourperceptionsastowhensuchthingsobtain,itcanseemthatitisreallyanopenquestionwhether,inspeakinginsuchordinaryways,IdidstatesomethingAndthenthisworkoftheparochialcanseemtothreatenidealism,ofjustthesortFregestroveagainstWewantedittobethecasethatifitisso(true)thatthereisapigintheparlour,thenthiswouldbetrueevenifeveryonethoughtotherwiseButitcannowcometoseemunclearthat,oratleastwhether

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*新书上架*【【维特根斯坦研究】思想的足迹:维特根斯坦《哲学研究》的主题

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