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首页 *新书上架*【列维-施特劳斯】神话与意义

*新书上架*【列维-施特劳斯】神话与意义.pdf

*新书上架*【列维-施特劳斯】神话与意义

九月虺
2009-07-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【列维-施特劳斯】神话与意义pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MythandMeaning‘Somethinkersareinfluential,afewcreateschools,averyfewcharacterizeaperiod…itispossiblethatjustaswespeakoftheageofAquinasorofGoethe,laterageswillspeakofourtimeastheageofLéviStrauss…heisamakerofthemodernmind’ProfessorJamesRedfield,UniversityofChicago‘LéviStrauss’sworkischaracterizedbyrarebrillianceandintellectualaudacityItisaninvitationtothinkandrethink’TheGuardianClaudeLéviStraussMythandMeaningLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedintheUnitedKingdombyRoutledgeandKeganPaulFirstpublishedinRoutledgeClassicsbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEERoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge'scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”©UniversityofTorontoPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)CONTENTSTHEMASSEYLECTURESviiAnIntroductionxTheMeetingofMythandScience‘Primitive’Thinkingandthe‘Civilized’MindHarelipsandTwins:TheSplittingofaMythWhenMythBecomesHistoryMythandMusicTHEMASSEYLECTURESEversincetheadventofscienceintheseventeenthcentury,wehaverejectedmythologyasaproductofsuperstitiousandprimitivemindsOnlynowarewecomingtoafullerappreciationofthenatureandroleofmythinhumanhistoryInthesefivelectures,thedistinguishedsocialanthropologist,ClaudeLéviStrauss,offerstheinsightsofalifetimespentinterpretingmythsandtryingtodiscovertheirsignificanceforhumanunderstandingEntitled‘MythandMeaning,’thetalkswerebroadcastontheCBCRadioseries,Ideas,inDecemberTheywereassembledfromaseriesoflengthyconversationsbetweenProfessorLéviStraussandCaroleOrrJerome,producerintheParisbureauoftheCBCTheprogramswereorganizedbyGeraldineSherman,executiveproducerofIdeas,andproducedbyBernieLuchtThelectureshavebeenexpandedforpublicationtoincludesomematerialwhich,forreasonsoftime,couldnotbeusedintheoriginalbroadcastsThespokenwordshavebeenminimallyeditedtomakethemconformtothemorerigidconventionsofprintCaroleOrrJerome’smainquestionstoProfessorLéviStrauss,whichhelpedshapethecourseofthelectures,wereasfollows:CHAPTERONEManyofyourreadersthinkthatyouaretryingtobringusbacktomythicalthought,thatwehavelostsomethingverypreciousandthatwemusttrytogainitbackDoesthismeanthatscienceandmodernthoughtmustgooutthewindowandthatwemustgobacktomythicalthoughtWhatisstructuralismHowdidyouarriveattheideathatstructuralthoughtwasapossibilityIsitnecessarytohaveorderandrulestohavemeaningCanyouhavemeaninginchaosWhatdoyoumeanthatorderispreferabletodisorderCHAPTERSTWOANDTHREETherearethosewhosaythatthethinkingofsocalledprimitivepeopleisinferiortoscientificthinkingTheysaythatitisinferior,notbecauseofamatterofstyle,butbecause,scientificallyspeaking,itiswrongHowwouldyoucompare‘primitive’thoughtwith‘scientific’thoughtAldousHuxley,inhisdiscussioninTbeDoorsofPerception,saidthatmostofususeonlyacertainamountofourmentalpowersandtherestofthemarecompletelyshutawayDoyoufeelthatinthekindoflivesweleadtoday,weareusinglessofourmentalcapacitiesthanthepeopleyouwriteofwhothoughtinamythicalfashionNatureshowsusavariegatedworld,andwe’vetendedtopickuponthedifferencesbetweenusratherthanthesimilaritiesinthedevelopmentofourculturesDoyouthinkwearedevelopingtoapointwherewecanstartclosingmanyofthedivisionsthatexistbetweenusCHAPTERFOURThereistheoldproblemoftheinvestigatorwhochangesthesubjectofhisinvestigationbysimplybeingthereInlookingatourcollectionsofmythologicalstories,dotheyhavemeaningandorderoftheirown,orhasorderbeenimposedbytheanthropologistswhohavecollectedthestoriesWhatisthedifferencebetweentheconceptualorganizationofmythologicalthinkingandthatofhistoryDoesthemythologicaltellingofastorydealwithhistoricalfacts,thentransformthemandusetheminanotherwayCHAPTERFIVECouldyoutalkingeneralabouttherelationshipbetweenmythandmusicYouhavesaidthatbothmythandmusicstemfromlanguagebutevolveindifferentdirectionsWhatdoyoumeanbythisANINTRODUCTIONAlthoughIamgoingtotalkaboutwhatIhavewritten,mybooksandpapersandsoon,unfortunatelyIforgetwhatIhavewrittenpracticallyassoonasitisfinishedThereisprobablygoingtobesometroubleaboutthatButneverthelessIthinkthereisalsosomethingsignificantaboutit,inthatIdon’thavethefeelingthatIwritemybooksIhavethefeelingthatmybooksgetwrittenthroughmeandthatoncetheyhavegotacrossmeIfeelemptyandnothingisleftYoumayrememberthatIhavewrittenthatmythsgetthoughtinmanunbeknownsttohimThishasbeenmuchdiscussedandevencriticizedbymyEnglishspeakingcolleagues,becausetheirfeelingisthat,fromanempiricalpointofview,itisanutterlymeaninglesssentenceButformeitdescribesalivedexperience,becauseitsaysexactlyhowIperceivemyownrelationshiptomyworkThatis,myworkgetsthoughtinmeunbeknowntomeIneverhad,andstilldonothave,theperceptionoffeelingmypersonalidentityIappeartomyselfastheplacewheresomethingisgoingon,butthereisno‘I’,no‘me’EachofusisakindofcrossroadswherethingshappenThecrossroadsispurelypassivesomethinghappensthereAdifferentthing,equallyvalid,happenselsewhereThereisnochoice,itisjustamatterofchanceIdon’tpretendatallthat,becauseIthinkthatway,IamentitledtoconcludethatmankindthinksthatwaytooButIbelievethat,foreachscholarandeachwriter,theparticularwayheorshethinksandwritesopensanewoutlookonmankindAndthefactthatIpersonallyhavethisidiosyncracyperhapsentitlesmetopointtosomethingwhichisvalid,whilethewayinwhichmycolleaguesthinkopensdifferentoutlooks,allofwhichareequallyvalidTHEMEETINGOFMYTHANDSCIENCELetmestartwithapersonalconfessionThereisamagazinewhichIreadfaithfullyeachmonthfromthefirstlinetothelast,eventhoughIdon’tunderstandallofititistheScientificAmericanIamextremelyeagertobeasinformedaspossibleofeverythingthattakesplaceinmodernscienceanditsnewdevelopmentsMypositioninrelationtoscienceisthusnotanegativeoneSecondly,Ithinktherearesomethingswehavelost,andweshouldtryperhapstoregainthem,becauseIamnotsurethatinthekindofworldinwhichwearelivingandwiththekindofscientificthinkingweareboundtofollow,wecanregainthesethingsexactlyasiftheyhadneverbeenlostbutwecantrytobecomeawareoftheirexistenceandtheirimportanceInthethirdplace,myfeelingisthatmodernscienceisnotatallmovingawayfromtheselostthings,butthatmoreandmoreitisattemptingtoreintegratetheminthefieldofscientificexplanationTherealgap,therealseparationbetweenscienceandwhatwemightaswellcallmythicalthoughtforthesakeoffindingaconvenientname,althoughitisnotexactlythattherealseparationoccurredintheseventeenthandtheeighteenthcenturyAtthattime,withBacon,Descartes,Newton,andtheothers,itwasnecessaryforsciencetobuilditselfupagainsttheoldgenerationsofmythicalandmysticalthought,anditwasthoughtthatsciencecouldonlyexistbyturningitsbackupontheworldofthesenses,theworldwesee,smell,taste,andperceivethesensorywasadelusiveworld,whereastherealworldwasaworldofmathematicalpropertieswhichcouldonlybegraspedbytheintellectandwhichwasentirelyatoddswiththefalsetestimonyofthesensesThiswasprobablyanecessarymove,forexperienceshowsusthatthankstothisseparationthisschismifyoulikescientificthoughtwasabletoconstituteitselfNow,myimpression(and,ofcourse,IdonottalkasascientistIamnotaphysicist,Iamnotabiologist,Iamnotachemist)isthatcontemporaryscienceistendingtoovercomethisgap,andthatmoreandmorethesensedataarebeingreintegratedintoscientificexplanationassomethingwhichhasameaning,whichhasatruth,andwhichcanbeexplainedTake,forinstance,theworldofsmellsWewereaccustomedtothinkthatthiswasentirelysubjective,outsidetheworldofscienceNowthechemistsareabletotellusthateachsmelloreachtastehasacertainchemicalcompositionandtogiveusthereasonswhysubjectivelysomesmellsorsometastesfeeltousashavingsomethingincommonandsomeothersseemwidelydifferentLet’stakeanotherexampleTherewasinphilosophyfromthetimeoftheGreekstotheeighteenthandeventhenineteenthcenturyandtherestillistosomeextentatremendousdiscussionabouttheoriginofmathematicalideastheideaoftheline,theideaofthecircle,theideaofthetriangleTherewere,inthemain,twoclassicaltheories:oneofthemindasatabularasa,withnothinginitinthebeginningeverythingcomestoitfromexperienceItisfromseeingalotofroundobjects,noneofwhichwereperfectlyround,thatweareableneverthelesstoabstracttheideaofthecircleThesecondclassicaltheorygoesbacktoPlato,whoclaimedthatsuchideasofthecircle,ofthetriangle,oftheline,areperfect,innateinthemind,anditisbecausetheyaregiventothemindthatweareabletoprojectthem,sotospeak,onreality,althoughrealityneveroffersusaperfectcircleoraperfecttriangleNow,contemporaryresearchersontheneurophysiologyofvisionteachusthatthenervouscellsintheretinaandtheotherapparatusbehindtheretinaarespecialized:somecellsaresensitiveonlytostraightdirection,intheverticalsense,othersinthehorizontal,othersintheoblique,someofthemtotherelationshipbetweenthebackgroundandthecentralfigures,andthelikeSoandIsimplifyverymuchbecauseitistoocomplicatedformetoexplainthisinEnglishthiswholeproblemofexperienceversusmindseemstohaveasolutioninthestructureofthenervoussystem,notinthestructureofthemindorinexperience,butsomewherebetweenmindandexperienceinthewayournervoussystemisbuiltandinthewayitmediatesbetweenmindandexperienceProbablythereissomethingdeepinmyownmind,whichmakesitlikelythatIalwayswaswhatisnowbeingcalledastructuralistMymothertoldmethat,whenIwasabouttwoyearsoldandstillunabletoread,ofcourse,IclaimedthatactuallyIwasabletoreadAndwhenIwasaskedwhy,IsaidthatwhenIlookedatthesignboardsonshopsforinstance,boulanger(baker)orboucher(butcher)Iwasabletoreadsomethingbecausewhatwasobviouslysimilar,fromagraphicpointofview,inthewritingcouldnotmeananythingotherthan‘bou,’thesamefirstsyllableofboucherandboulangerProbablythereisnothingmorethanthatinthestructuralistapproachitisthequestfortheinvariant,orfortheinvariantelementsamongsuperficialdifferencesThroughoutmylife,thissearchwasprobablyapredominantinterestofmineWhenIwasachild,forawhilemymaininterestwasgeologyTheproblemingeologyisalsototrytounderstandwhatisinvariantinthetremendousdiversityoflandscapes,thatis,tobeabletoreducealandscapetoafinitenumberofgeologicallayersandofgeologicaloperationsLaterasanadolescent,IspentagreatpartofmyleisuretimedrawingcostumesandsetsforoperaTheproblemthereisexactlythesametotrytoexpressinonelanguage,thatis,thelanguageofgraphicartsandpainting,somethingwhichalsoexistsinmusicandinthelibrettothatis,totrytoreachtheinvariantpropertyofaverycomplexsetofcodes(themusicalcode,theliterarycode,theartisticcode)TheproblemistofindwhatiscommontoallofthemIt’saproblem,onemightsay,oftranslation,oftranslatingwhatisexpressedinonelanguageoronecode,ifyouprefer,butlanguageissufficientintoexpressioninadifferentlanguageStructuralism,orwhatevergoesunderthatname,hasbeenconsideredassomethingcompletelynewandatthetimerevolutionarythis,Ithink,isdoublyfalseInthefirstplace,eveninthefieldofthehumanities,itisnotnewatallwecanfollowverywellthistrendofthoughtfromtheRenaissancetothenineteenthcenturyandtothepresenttimeButitisalsowrongforanotherreason:whatwecallstructuralisminthefieldoflinguistics,oranthropology,orthelike,isnothingotherthanaverypaleandfaintimitationofwhatthe‘hardsciences,’asIthinkyoucalltheminEnglish,havebeendoingallthetimeMythandmeaningSciencehasonlytwowaysofproceeding:itiseitherreductionistorstructuralistItisreductionistwhenitispossibletofindoutthatverycomplexphenomenaononelevelcanbereducedtosimplerphenomenaonotherlevelsForinstance,thereisalotinlifewhichcanbereducedtophysicochemicalprocesses,whichexplainapartbutnotallAndwhenweareconfrontedwithphenomenatoocomplextobereducedtophenomenaofalowerorder,thenwecanonlyapproachthembylookingtotheirrelationships,thatis,bytryingtounderstandwhatkindoforiginalsystemtheymakeupThisisexactlywhatwehavebeentryingtodoinlinguistics,inanthropology,andindifferentfieldsItistrueandlet’spersonalizenatureforthesakeoftheargumentthatNaturehasonlyalimitednumberofproceduresatherdisposalandthatthekindsofprocedurewhichNatureusesatonelevelofrealityareboundtoreappearatdifferentlevelsThegeneticcodeisaverygoodexampleitiswellknownthat,whenthebiologistsandthegeneticistshadtheproblemofdescribingwhattheyhaddiscovered,theycoulddonothingbetterthanborrowthelanguageoflinguisticsandtospeakofwords,ofphrase,ofaccent,ofpunctuationmarks,andthelikeIdonotmeanatallthatitisthesamethingofcourse,itisnotButitisthesamekindofproblemarisingattwodifferentlevelsofrealityItwouldbeveryfarfrommymindtotrytoreduceculture,aswesayinouranthropologicaljargon,tonaturebutneverthelesswhatwewitnessatthelevelofculturearephenomenaofthesamekindfromaformalpointofview(Idonotmeanatallsubstantially)Wecanatleasttracethesameproblemtothemindthatwecanobserveonthelevelofnature,though,ofcourse,theculturalismuchmorecomplicatedandcallsuponamuchlargernumberofvariablesI’mnottryingtoformulateaphilosophy,orevenatheorySinceIwasachild,Ihavebeenbotheredby,let’scallittheirrational,andhavebeentryingtofindanorderbehindwhatisgiventousasadisorderItsohappenedthatIbecameananthropologist,asamatteroffactnotbecauseIwasinterestedinanthropology,butbecauseIwastryingtogetoutofphilosophyItalsosohappenedthatintheFrenchacademicframework,whereanthropologywasatthetimenottaughtasadisciplineinitsownrightintheuniversities,itwaspossibleforsomebodytrainedinphilosophyandteachingphilosophytoescapetoanthropologyIescapedthere,andwasconfrontedimmediatelybyoneproblemtherewerelotsofrulesofmarriageallovertheworldwhichlookedabsolutelymeaningless,anditwasallthemoreirritatingbecause,iftheyweremeaningless,thenthereshouldbedifferentrulesforeachpeople,thoughneverthelessthenumberofrulescouldbemoreorlessfiniteSo,ifthesameabsurditywasfoundtoreappearoverandoveragain,andanotherkindofabsurdityalsotoreappear,thenthiswassomethingwhichwasnotabsolutelyabsurdotherwiseitwouldnotreappearSuchwasmyfirstorientation,totrytofindanorderbehindthisapparentdisorderAndwhenafterworkingonthekinshipsystemsandmarriagerules,Iturnedmyattention,alsobychanceandnotatallonpurpose,towardmythology,theproblemwasexactlythesameMythicalstoriesare,orseem,arbitrary,meaningless,absurd,yetneverthelesstheyseemtoreappearallovertheworldA‘fanciful’creationofthemindinoneplacewouldbeuniqueyouwouldnotfindthesamecreationinacompletelydifferentplaceMyproblemwastryingtofindoutiftherewassomekindoforderbehindthisapparentdisorderthat’sallAndIdonotclaimthatthereareconclusionstobedrawnThemeetingofmythandscienceItis,Ithink,absolutelyimpossibletoconceiveofmeaningwithoutorderThereissomethingverycuriousinsemantics,thattheword‘meaning’isprobably,inthewholelanguage,thewordthemeaningofwhichisthemostdifficulttofindWhatdoes‘tomean’meanItseemstomethattheonlyanswerwecangiveisthat‘tomean’meanstheabilityofanykindofdatatobetranslatedinadifferentlanguageIdonotmeanadifferentlanguagelikeFrenchorGerman,butdifferentwordsonadifferentlevelAfterall,thistranslationiswhatadictionaryisexpectedtogiveyouthemeaningofthewordindifferentwords,whichonaslightlydifferentlevelareisomorphictothewordorexpressionyouaretryingtounderstandNow,whatwouldatranslationbewithoutrulesItwouldbeabsolutelyimpossibletounderstandBecauseyoucannotreplaceanywordbyanyotherwordoranysentencebyanyothersentence,youhavetohaverulesoftranslationTospeakofrulesandtospeakofmeaningistospeakofthesamethingandifwelookatalltheintellectualundertakingsofmankind,asfarastheyhavebeenrecordedallovertheworld,thecommondenominatorisalwaystointroducesomekindoforderIfthisrepresentsabasicneedfororderinthehumanmindandsince,afterall,thehumanmindisonlypartoftheuniverse,theneedprobablyexistsbecausethereissomeorderintheuniverseandtheuniverseisnotachaos***WhatIhavebeentryingtosayhereisthattherehasbeenadivorceanecessarydivorcebetweenscientificthoughtandwhatIhavecalledthelogicoftheconcrete,thatis,therespectforandtheuseofthedataofthesenses,asopposedtoimagesandsymbolsandthelikeWearewitnessingthemomentwhenthisdivorcewillperhapsbeovercomeorreversed,becausemodernscienceseemstobeabletomakeprogressnotonlyinitsowntraditionallinepushingforwardandforwardbutstillwithinthesamenarrowchannelbutalsoatthesametimetowidenthechannelandtoreincorporateagreat

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*新书上架*【列维-施特劳斯】神话与意义

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