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首页 *新书上架*【唐纳德·戴维森】行动与事件论文集

*新书上架*【唐纳德·戴维森】行动与事件论文集.pdf

*新书上架*【唐纳德·戴维森】行动与事件论文集

九月虺
2009-07-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【唐纳德·戴维森】行动与事件论文集pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

EssaysonActionsandEventsOthervolumesofcollectedessaysbyDonaldDavidsonInquiriesintoTruthandInterpretationSubjective,Intersubjective,ObjectiveProblemsofRationality(forthcoming)Truth,Language,andHistory(forthcoming)EssaysonActionsandEventsSecondEditionDONALDDAVIDSONCLARENDONPRESS•OXFORDThisbookhasbeenprinteddigitallyandproducedinastandardspecificationinordertoensureitscontinuingavailabilityOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordXDPOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity'sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandBangkokBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiSaoPauloShanghaiSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontowithanassociatedcompanyinBerlinOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYork©inthiscollectionDonaldDavidsonThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)ReprintedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerISBNInmemoryofNancyHirschbergThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsProvenanceoftheEssaysandAcknowledgementsixPrefacetotheSecondEditionxiiiIntroductionxvIntentionandActionEssayActions,Reasons,andCauses()EssayHowisWeaknessoftheWillPossible()EssayAgency()EssayFreedomtoAct()EssayIntending()EventandCauseEssayTheLogicalFormofActionSentences()Criticism,Comment,andDefenceEssayCausalRelations()EssayTheIndividuationofEvents()EssayEventsasParticulars()EssayEternalvsEphemeralEvents()PhilosophyofPsychologyEssayMentalEvents()Appendix:EmerosesbyOtherNames()EssayPsychologyasPhilosophy()CommentsandRepliesEssayTheMaterialMind()EssayHempelonExplainingAction()EssayHume'sCognitiveTheoryofPride()viiiContentsAppendicesAAdverbsofAction()BReplytoQuineonEvents()BibliographicalReferencesIndexProvenanceoftheEssaysandAcknowledgementsEssay,'Actions,Reasons,andCauses',waspresentedinasymposiumon'Action'atthemeetingoftheAmericanPhilosophicalAssociationandpublishedintheJournalofPhilosophy()Itisreprintedbypermissionoftheeditors,Essay,'HowisWeaknessoftheWillPossible',wasfirstpublishedinMoralConcepts,editedbyJoelFeinberg,OxfordReadingsinPhilosophy,DraftsofthepaperhadbeenreadattheAnnualOregonColloquiuminPhilosophy,whereIhadthebenefitofthecarefulcommentsofDonaldGBrown,andattheChapelHillColloquiuminPhilosophy,whereIheardGilbertHarman'sskilfulcriticismsEssay,'Agency',waspresentedatthefourthphilosophycolloquiumheldattheUniversityofWesternOntarioinNovember,andwaspublishedinAgent,Action,andReason,editedbyRobertBinkley,RichardBronaugh,andAusonioMarras,UniversityofTorontoPress,JamesCornmancommentedonthepaperatthecolloquium,andtheprintedversiongainedbyhisadviceItisreprintedbypermissionoftheUniversityofTorontoPressThefourthEssay,'FreedomtoAct',wasfirstpublishedinEssaysonFreedomofAction,editedbyTedHonderich,RoutledgeandKeganPaul,(reprintedasapaperbackin)Essay,'Intending',wasreadatthefirstJerusalemPhilosophicalEncounter,December,whereStuartHampshiremadeaspiritedresponseMypaperandhisresponsewereprintedinPhilosophyofHistoryandAction,editedbyYirmiakuYovel,DReidelandTheMagnesPress,TheHebrewUniversity,AnearlierversionwaspresentedattheChapelHillColloquiuminPhilosophyinOctober,whereitreceivedathoroughgoingoverbyPaulGricexProvenanceoftheEssays'TheLogicalFormofActionSentences',Essay,waspresentedataconferenceonTheLogicofDecisionandActionattheUniversityofPittsburginMarchCommentsweremadebyEJLemmon,HNCastaneda,andRMChisholm,andmypaperandtheircomments,alongwithrepliesbyme,werepublishedinTheLogicofDecisionandAction,editedbyNicholasRescher,UniversityofPittsburgPress,ThesourcesofthefurthermaterialattheendofEssayareidentifiedalongwiththematerialEssay,'CausalRelations',waspresentedinasymposiumwiththattitleattheAmericanPhilosophicalAssociationEasternDivisionmeetinginDecemberZenoVendlercommentedOurtwopaperswerepublishedintheJournalofPhilosophy(),andmyessayisreprintedbypermissionoftheeditorsThenextEssay,number,'TheIndividuationofEvents',waspublishedinEssaysinHonorofCarlGHempel,editedbyNicholasRescher,DReidel,ppCopyright©byDReidelPublishingCompany,DordrechtHollandReprintedbypermissionofDReidelPublishingCompanyDavidKaplancommentedonanearlierdraftreadatacolloquiumattheUniversityofCaliforniaatIrvineinAprilSomeofhiswisdomisincorporatedintheprintedversionEssaysand,'EventsasParticulars'and'EternalvsEphemeralEvents',weretouchedoffbyasymposiumoneventsattheMaymeetingoftheWesternDivisionoftheAmericanPhilosophicalAssoicationRoderickChisholmgavethefirstpaper,'EventsandPropositions',andthispaperandEssaywerefirstpublishedinNous(),byWayneStateUniversity,Detroit,MichiganPresently,Chisholmrepliedtomein'StatesofAffairsAgain',Nous(),andIcamebackwithEssayinthesamevolumeinNousEssay,'MentalEvents',wasgivenasoneofaseriesoflecturesbyvariousphilosophersattheUniversityofMassachusettsinTheselecturerswerepublishedinExperienceandTheory,editedbyLawrenceFosterandJWSwanson,TheUniversityofMassachusettsPressandDuckworth,,andarereprintedbypermissionofthepublishersEssay,'PsychologyasPhilosophy',wasdeliveredatasymposiumonthePhilosophyofPsychologyattheUniversityofKentinThepaperwaspublished,withcommentsandreplies,inPhilosophyofPsychology,editedbySCBrown,TheMacmillanProvenanceoftheEssaysxiPressandBarnes,Noble,Inc,,andisreprintedbypermissionofMacmillan,LondonandBasingstoke,andBarnesNobleBooks,NewYorkEssay,'TheMaterialMind',waswritteninacafeinViennaanddeliveredatSection,MethodologyandPhilosophyofPsychologicalSciences,attheFourthInternationalCongressforLogic,Methodology,andPhilosophyofScience,Bucharest,TheProceedings,editedbyPSuppes,LHenkin,GCMoisil,andAJoja,werepublishedbyNorthHollandPublishingCompanyin,andmypaperisreprintedbypermissionofthepublishersEssay,'HempelonExplainingAction',wasreadatacelebrationinhonourofProfessorCarlGHempelatPrincetonUniversityinNovmeber,andpublishedinErkenntnis(),ppCopyright©byDReidelPublishingCompany,DordrechtHollandReprintedbypermissionofDReidelPublishingCompany'Hume'sCognitiveTheoryofPride',whichisEssay,waspresentedatasymposiumduringtheDecembermeetingsoftheEasternDivisionoftheAmericanPhilosophicalAssociation,andpublishedintheJournalofPhilosophy()ItisreprintedbypermissionoftheeditorsAnnetteBaierandKeithDonnellancommentedonmypaperatthesymposium,andAnnetteBaiersubsequentlyexpandedherremarksintoapaper,'Hume'sAnalysisofPride',theJournalofPhilosophy()Essays,,,,,,andhavebeenpreviouslyreprintedinvariousplacesandlanguages'AdverbsofAction'waspublishedinEssaysonDavidson:ActionsandEvents,editedbyBruceVermazenandMerrillHintikka(OxfordUniversityPress,)ItisreprintedherebypermisisonofOxfordUniversityPress'ReplytoQuineonEvents'wasmyresponsetoQuine's'EventsandReification'BothQuine'spaperandmyresponsewerereadataconferenceonmyworkorganizedbyErnieLeporeandheldatRutgersUniversityinspringTwobooksofessays,almostallofthemgivenattheconference,weresoonpublishedOneofthem,ActionsandEvents:PerspectivesonthePhilosophyofDonaldDavidson,editedbyErnestLeporeandBrianMcLaughlin(Blackwell,),containstheexchangebetweenQuineandmeThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefacetotheSecondEditionTHEfirstfifteenessaysofthefirsteditionarereprintedhere,unchangedexceptformisprintscorrectedandaveryfewcosmetictouchesThisisnotbecausemyviewshaveremaineduntouchedbydecadesofcomment,criticism,freshthinking,helpfulsuggestion,andatorrentofnewwritingsbyothersButtheyhaveattractedtheirshareofattention,soitseemsworthpreservingtheessays,iffornootherreason,asthetargetsofoftenaccuratelyandsometimescarefullyaimedarrowsIconfessIalsofindinthesepagesafreshnessandnaivebravadothatitwouldbehardtorecapturenowthatthesetopicshavebeensomuchmorethoroughlyworkedoverInanycase,itistoolatetorewritetheserelativelyearlyessaysandIhopeitisnotnecessary,sinceIhavegoneonwritingonthesameorrelatedmattersThetwonewlyappendedessaysarerelevantexamplesSoareanumberoftheessaysinthethreenewvolumesofmycollectedessaysTherearealsosevenbooksorjournalissuescomposedofcriticalessaysonmyworkalongwithmyresponses(Someoftheseitemshavebeenaddedtothebibliographyattheendofthisedition)IdonotapologizeformyoriginaleffortsThoughthereis,ofcourse,hardlyanythingIwouldnotnowchange,thereismuchinthemthatstillseemstomerightTheemphasisonthelogicalformofthesentencesweusetotalkofactions,events,andcausalityremainsanessentialtool(amongothers,ofcourse)forsharpeningissuesandrevealingtheconfusionorvacuityoffalsestartsIamindebttoallwhohavewrittenaboutmywritingsIhavelearnedfromeveryoneofthemevenintherelativelyrarecaseswhereIthoughttheywerebasicallymisguidedMystudentsandcolleaguesovertheyearshavebeenvaluableandpersistentgoadsandaidsAmongthosewhohelpeddirectlywiththepresenteditionareErnieLepore,ArielaLazar,andMarciaCavellThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionAlltheessaysinthisbookhavebeenpublishedelsewhere,andeachwasdesignedtobemoreorlessfreestandingButthoughcomposedoverabaker'sdozenofyears,theyareunifiedinthemeandgeneralthesisThethemeistheroleofcausalconceptsinthedescriptionandexplanationofhumanactionThethesisisthattheordinarynotionofcausewhichentersintoscientificorcommonsenseaccountsofnonpsychologicalaffairsisessentialalsototheunderstandingofwhatitistoactwithareason,tohaveacertainintentioninacting,tobeanagent,toactcountertoone'sownbestjudgement,ortoactfreelyCauseisthecementoftheuniversetheconceptofcauseiswhatholdstogetherourpictureoftheuniverse,apicturethatwouldotherwisedisintegrateintoadiptychofthementalandthephysicalWithinthethreebroadsubdivisionsIhaveimposedontheessays,theorderofpublicationprovidesareasonablynaturalorganizationalschemeOnethingledtoanother,thesolutionsofonepaperraisingtheproblemsofthenextAlldidnotgosmoothly,however,aswillbeapparenttoeventhemostsympatheticreader:laterproblemsoftenpromptedfairlydrasticreworkingofearlierdoctrinesUnityofgeneralthesiscomes,inthesepages,withconsiderablediachronicinconsistencyNoattempthasbeenmadetoconcealthediscrepanciesbetweenearlyandlaterviewsSomeinadvertentblundersandstylisticuglinesseshavebeeneliminated,andredundancereducedRedundanceinplentyremains,butthepointsthatareworkedovermostareusuallyonesthatgavemetrouble,andsothereis,Ihope,instructionorinterestinwhatmayseem,andprobablywasintendedas,mererepetitionAnotherreasonforleavingmyfirstthoughtssubstantiallyunchangedisthatovertheyearstheyhaveattractedcommentandcriticism,anditwouldbemeanspiritedtotrytomovethetargetoutofrangeaftertheshothasbeenfiredxviIntroductionHerearesomeoftheconnectionsamongtheessaysEssay'Actions,Reasons,andCauses'wasareactionagainstawidelyaccepteddoctrinethattheexplanationofanintentionalactionintermsofitsmotivesorreasonscouldnotrelatereasonsandactionsascauseandeffectAprincipalargumentwasthatcausalrelationsareessentiallynomologicalandbasedoninductionwhileourknowledgethatanagenthasactedoncertainreasonsisnotusuallydependentoninductionorknowledgeofseriouslawsTheargumenthadfoundinfluentialifbriefexpressioninWittgenstein'sBlueandBrownBooks,whichwerewidelycirculatedfromthemiddlethirtiesonward(thoughpublishedonlyin)InEssayaccepttheviewthatteleologicalexplanationofactiondiffersfromexplanationinthenaturalsciencesinthatlawsarenotessentiallyinvolvedintheformerbutholdthatbothsortsofexplanationcan,andoftenmust,invokecausalconnectionsEssayTheexplanationofanintentionalactionintermsofreasonsdiffersfromexplanationinthenaturalsciencesinanothercrucialway:theprepositionalcontentsoftheexplainingattitudesandbeliefsmustbearacertainlogicalrelationtothedescriptionunderwhichtheactionisexplainedadescriptionthatgivesusanintentionwithwhichtheactionwasperformedButwhatisthislogicalrelationInEssay,'HowisWeaknessoftheWillPossible',Iassumethatnoanswerisacceptablethatfrustratesacoherentaccountofmoralconflict,weaknessofthewill,orotherformsofintentional,butirrational,actionInEssayIcomeoutagainsttheview,espousedinEssay,thatthepropositionalexpressionsofthereasonsforanactionaredeductivelyrelatedtothepropositionthatcorrespondstotheactionasexplainedbythosereasonsCausaltheoriesofactionarechallengedbyintentionalactionsthatarecontrarytotheactor'sbestjudgementForifreasonsarecauses,itisnaturaltosupposethatthestrongestreasonsarethestrongestcausesIdefendthecausalviewinEssaybyarguingthatareasonthatiscausallystrongestneednotbeareasondeemedbytheactortoprovidethestrongest(best)groundsforactingEssayonAgencyaskswhattherelationisbetweenanagentandaneventthatmakestheeventanactionAnumberofsuggestionsarerejected,andseveralproposalsforreducingsomecasestoothersaremade:actionsthatarenotintentionalareclaimedtobeintentionalunderotherdescriptions,andactionsthatseemtoincludeconsequencesofactionsarearguedtobeidenticalwiththecausingIntroductionxviiactionButthecentralrequestforananalysisofagency(andhence,bytheargument,ofaction)goesunansweredEssayCausaltheorieshavealwaysbeenvulnerabletothecriticismthattheycannotgiveanacceptableaccountoffreeaction,orofbeingfreetoperformanactInthisEssayItrytodefusesomeargumentsthathavebeentakentoshowthatfreedomtoactcannotbeacasualpowerButIalsocriticizeanumberofattemptstoanalysethatpower,andconcludethatalthoughfreedomtoactisacausalpower,itcannotbeanalysedordefined,atleastwithoutappealtothenotionofintentionBecauseoftheintimateconnectionbetweenfreedomtoactandintentionalaction,theconclusionofthisEssaycontradictsanoptimisticfootnoteinEssaywhichlookedforwardto,butdidnotprovide,astatementofsufficientconditionsofintentional(free)actionEssayWhenIwroteEssaybelievedthatofthethreemainusesoftheconceptofintentiondistinguishedbyAnscombe(actingwithanintention,actingintentionally,andintendingtoact),thefirstwasthemostbasicActingintentionally,IarguedinEssay,wasjustactingwithsomeintentionThatleftintending,whichIsomehowthoughtwouldbesimpletounderstandintermsoftheothersIwaswrongWhenIfinallycametoworkonit,Ifounditthehardestofthethreecontrarytomyoriginalview,itcametoseemthebasicnotiononwhichtheothersdependandwhatprogressImadewithitpartiallyunderminedanimportantthemeinEssaythat'theintentionwithwhichtheactionwasdone'doesnotrefertoanentityorstateofanykindEssay'TheLogicalFormofActionSentences',introducesagroupoffivepapersonthesemanticsofsentencescontainingverbsofactionorofchangegenerally,andofcloselyrelatedsentenceswithnounphrasesthatseemtorefertoeventsoractionsInEssayItalkedgliblyofactionsunderadescriptionoroftwodescriptionsofthesameaction,butIwasuneasyoverthefactthatmostsentencesconcernedwithactionscontainednodescriptionorotherdevicethatcouldbetakentorefertoaneventoractionSomephilosophershaveregardedthisexcursionintoquestionsoflogicalformasextraneoustothetheoryofaction,butthisisariskyattitudeForitisclear,Ithink,thatmanytheoriesofactionthatatfirstappearattractiverevealunderlyingconfusionswhensubjectedtocarefulsemanticscrutinyWhenIwroteEssay,ithadnotyetoccurredtomethatasentencelike'Eveatetheapple'shouldnotbetakentocontainasingularreferencetoaneventitisdistinctinlogicalformxviiiIntroductionfrom'Eve'seatingoftheappleoccurred',thoughthelatterdoesimplytheformerIhaveappendedtoEssayrepliestovarioussuggestionsandcriticismsrelevanttoitsthesisEssayappliesthelessonofEssaytocausalityEssaydependedinlargepartonthefactthateventscanbedescribedinlogicallyindependentways,sothatreasonsandactions,describedastheymustbetobringouttheintentionwithwhichtheactionwasperformed,maynotbedescribedastheymustbetosuggestseriouscausallawsYetreasonsandactionscanforallthatbecauseandeffectButinEssayIhadnodefiniteideaofwhatImeantbythedescriptionofanevent,andthereforenoideaeitherwhatthelogicalformofsingularcausalsentencesmightbeEssayThedoctrineofEssaydictatedthatcertaindescriptionsofactionsorevents,iftheyreferatall,mustrefertothesamethingThusmostadverbialmodifierscannotchangethereferenceofanexpressiontheymodif

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*新书上架*【唐纳德·戴维森】行动与事件论文集

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