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首页 *新书上架*风险社会及其超越

*新书上架*风险社会及其超越.pdf

*新书上架*风险社会及其超越

九月虺
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CriticalIssuesforSocialTheoryBarbaraAdamTheRiskSocietyandBeyondtherisksocietyandbeyondtherisksocietyandbeyondcriticalissuesforsocialtheoryeditedbybarbaraadam,ulrichbeckandjoostvanloonSAGEPublicationsLondonThousandOaksNewDelhi©BarbaraAdam,UlrichBeckandJoostVanLoon,FirstpublishedReprinted,AllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,transmittedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthePublishersSAGEPublicationsLtdOliver'sYard,CityRoadLondonECYSPSAGEPublicationsIncTellerRoadThousandOaks,CaliforniaSAGEPublicationsIndiaPvtLtdBPanchsheelEnclavePOBoxNewDelhiBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationdataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNISBNX(pbk)LibraryofCongresscatalogcardnumberavailableTypesetbySIVAMathSetters,Chennai,IndiaPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyBiddIesLtd,King'sLynnContentsNotesoncontributorsviAcknowledgementsVlltIntroduction:RepositioningRisktheChallengeforSocialTheoryBarbaraAdamandJoostvanLoonPARTIRecastingRiskCultureRiskSocietyorAngstSocietyTwoViewsofRisk,ConsciousnessandCommunityAlanScottRiskCultureScottLashRisk,TrustandScepticismintheAgeoftheNewGeneticsHilaryRosePARTIIChallengingBigScienceNuclearRisks:ThreeProblematicsAlanIrwin,StuartAllanandIanWelshGenotechnology:ThreeChallengestoRiskLegitimationLindsayPrior,PeterGlasnerandRuthMcNallyHealthandResponsibility:FromSocialChangetoTechnologicalChangeandViceVersaElisabethBeckGernsheimPARTIIIMediatingTechnologiesofRiskChildOrganStealingStories:Risk,RumourandReproductiveTechnologiesClaudiaCastanedaLiturgiesofFear:BiotechnologyandCultureHowardCaygillVirtualRisksinanAgeofCyberneticReproductionJoostvanLoonPARTIVP(I)ayingforFuturesWorldsinAction:Information,InstantaneityandGlobalFuturesTradingDeirdreBodenDiscoursesofRiskandUtopiaRuthLevitasRiskSocietyRevisited:Theory,PoliticsandResearchProgrammesUlrichBeckIndexNotesonContributorsBarbaraAdamisProfessorinSocialTheoryattheUniversityofWalesinCardiffandhaspublishedwidelyontimeandsocialtheoryUntil,shewasthefoundingeditorofTimeSocietyStuartAllanlecturesinCulturalandMediaStudiesattheUniversityoftheWestofEngland,BristolHehaspublishedwidelyintheareasofjournalism,nuclearissues,culturaltheoryandmediahistoryHeisaserieseditorwiththeOpenUniversityPressUlrichBeckisProfessorofSociologyattheMaximilianUniversitatinMiinchenHewaspreviouslyaDistinguishedResearchProfessorattheUniversityofWalesinCardiffandisnowVisitingProfessorattheLondonSchoolofEconomicsElisabethBeckGernsheimisProfessorofSociologyattheUniversityofErlangenNiirnberg,GermanyHerresearchandpublicationsrangefromthesociologyofworkandoccupationstofamilystudies,genderstudies,demographicalchangeandreproductivetechnologiesCurrently,sheisworkingonaprojecton'Multiculturalfamiliesandethnicidentity'DeirdreBodenholdstheChairinCommunicationattheCopenhagenBusinessSchoolHerpublicationsencompassawiderangeoftopics,includingethnomethodology,conversationanalysis,sociologyoforganizationsandsocialtheoryClaudiaCastanedaisLecturerinScienceStudiesatLancasterUniversityHermainareaofinterestispostcolonialscienceandtechnologystudiesHowardCaygillisProfessorofCulturalHistoryatGoldsmithsCollege,UniversityofLondonHehaswidelypublishedintheareasofphilosophyandculturalstudies,inparticularontheworksofKantandWalterBenjaminPeterGlasnerisResearchProfessorinSociologyattheCentreforSocialandEconomicResearchattheUniversityoftheWestofEngland,Bristol,wheresinceJulyhehasbeenExecutiveDeanoftheFacultyofEconomicsandSocialScienceHehaspublishedextensivelyonsciencepolicyandthesociologyofscienceAlanIrwinisProfessorofSociologyatBruneIUniversityHisrecentresearchhasfocusedonregulatoryscience,environmentalsociologyandthepublicunderstandingofscienceScottLashisDirectoroftheCentreforCulturalStudiesatGoldsmith'sCollege,UniversityofLondonHismainpublicationsareontheoriesofcultureandmodernityRuthLevitasisReaderinSociologyattheUniversityofBristolShehaswrittenwidelyonutopianismandcontemporarypoliticalideologiesNotesonContributorsviiRuthMcNallyisaResearchFellowintheCentreforResearchintoInnovation,CultureandTechnology(CRICT),BruneiUniversitySheisaDirectorofBioInfonnation(International)Limited,whichhasundertakenconsultanciesonpolicyandregulation,regardingmodemgeneticengineering,fortheEuropeanCommissionandtheEuropeanParliamentShehaspublishedonsuchfarrangingsubjectsasgenetherapy,thesocialmanagementofgeneticengineering,UKenvironmentalpolicy,bioethics,Europeanbiotechnologypolicy,animalgeneticengineering,foxrabiesvaccine,patentinginbiotechnology,DNAfingerprintingandabortionforriskoffoetalhandicapLindsayPriorisResearchDirectoroftheHealthandRiskProgramme,attheUniversityofWales,CollegeofMedicineandCardiffUniversityHisgeneralresearchinterestsareinthefieldofmedicalsociologyHeiscurrentlyworkingonissuesrelatingtothecommunicationofriskinmedicalconsultationsHilaryRoseisVisitingResearchProfessorinSociologyatCityUniversity,EmeritusProfessorofSocialPolicyattheUniversityofBradfordandProfessorofPhysicatGreshamCollegeShehasresearchedandpublishedextensivelyinthefieldofsocialstudiesofscienceCurrentlysheisworkingonabookongenomicsAlanScottisProfessorofSociologyattheUniversityofInnsbruckHismainareasofinterestarepoliticalandculturalsociologyandsocialtheoryHehasrecentlywrittenonintellectuals,onpoliticsandmethodsinWeberandontheoriesofglobalizationJoostvanLoonworksattheTheory,CultureSocietycentreoftheNottinghamTrentUniversityHeiscoeditorofSpaceandCultureHehaspublishedextensivelyonissuesinsocialandculturaltheoryHiscurrentworkisonriskandinfectiousdiseasesIanWelshisLecturerinSociology,UniversityofWales,CardiffHeisauthorofnumerouspublicationsonnuclearpower,globalizationandriskAcknowledgementsTheeditorswishtothankallparticipantsofthe'Risk,Technologies,Futures'ConferenceheldattheUniversityofWalesinCardiffonndandrdofMarch,fortheircontributiontotheveryhighqualityofstimulatingdebateduringandafterthemeetingsWewouldalsoliketothanktheSchoolofSocialandAdministrativeStudiesofCardiffUniversityandtheBritishSociologicalAssociation'sTheoryGroup,inparticularAlanScott,fortheirsupportMoreover,wewouldliketothankChrisandRobertRojek,JackieGriffinandSethEdwardsatSageforfacilitatingthepublicationofthiseditedcollectionAfinalwordofthanksgoestoDrPatriciaTaraborrelli,whohasbeenofgreathelpwiththeadministrativeorganizationofthisprojectduringtheearlystagesofdevelopmentIntroduction:RepositioningRisktheChallengeforSocialTheoryBarbaraAdamandJoostvanLoonSincethefirstpublicationinGermanyofUlrichBeck'sRisikogesellschaft(,translatedasRiskSociety,),abookwhichinmanywaysisnotonlyavisionaryexcursionintoourpresentconditionbutalsoapropheticperspectiveonthefuture,Beck'sworkhascontinuedtochallengethesocialsciencetraditionandtoinitiatesomeofthemostinterestingdebatesincontemporarysocialtheoryThisvolumebringstogethersomeofthesedebatesanditrepositionsperspectivesonriskwithreferencetorecentdevelopmentsinnuclear,genetic,reproductiveandcommunicationtechnologiesItexploressociopoliticalandsocioscientificissuesassociatedwiththesetechnologiesacrossthefullspectrumofcontemporaryexistence,rangingfromthebodilyandpersonaltothefamilial,publicandglobalNotamereapplicationofBeck'snotionofrisksocietytovariousempiricaldomains,thechaptersprovidecriticalreappraisalsofperspectivesonriskinthelightofpastpresentpraxisandwithaneyetofuturedevelopmentsWhatcansocialtheorycontributetoourunderstandingofthenatureofmodernrisksandtodebatesabouthowsuchrisksmaybeminimizedandmorejustlydistributedWhathasittoofferwithrespecttotheindeterminatefutureandthepotentialdangersposedbytechnohazardsthatarelargelybeyondthereachofsenseperceptionOfcourse,thesequestionscanbeaddressedonlyoncethereisanacceptancethatsocialtheoryshouldbeaboutsomethingotherthanitself,andthatitneedstoengagewiththecentralsociopoliticalandeconomicissuesofitstimesThistakesustothecorequestionaboutsocialtheory,thatis,thequestionaboutitsroleinsocietyIssocialtheorytocultivatespecificwaysofthinking,tofosterunderstandingofthetheoreticalandconceptualuniverseorisittoprovidenotonlyabetterunderstandingoftheworldweinhabit,but,moreambitiously,torelatethistothedomainsofpolitics,ethicsandsituatedmoralitiesIsitaboutpraxis,thebringingtogetheroftheoryandpracticeAlthoughthereareobviousreasonsforpreferringthemorelimited,instrumentalroleofsocialtheory,themajorityofauthorsinthiscollection,stronglyoptforthemoreinclusiveoneInarisksociety,wewanttoargue,eventhemostrestrainedandmoderateobjectivistaccountofriskimplicationsinvolvesahiddenpolitics,ethicsandmoralityThisdoesnotmeanthatweadvocateamoralizingroleforsocialtheoryitsimplymeansthatwitheveryformof'comingtoterms'and'makingsense',wefaceadecisionaboutwhethertoacknowledgeorignoretheethicopoliticalimplicationsToacknowledgethatweindeedfaceIntroductiontheseoptionsisthefoundationof'reflexivemodernisation,thatis,theinescapable"selfconfrontation"thataccompaniesthecontemporaryindustrialwayoflife'(BecketaI,:)Inthisbook,therefore,weadvocateasocialtheorythattakesheedoftheconsequencesoflivinginarisksocietyThisreflexivityhasimplicationsforsocialtheory'streatmentoftheconstellationofrisks,technologiesandtherelationshiptothefuturewhichconstitutesourspecificfocusWewouldliketohighlightfiveoftheseimplications:Thenecessaryinvolvementofasenseof'construction'intheconfigurationofriskperceptiontheinevitabilityofthecontestednatureoftheseconstructionsas'relationsofriskdefinition'theneedtotransgressthedisciplinaryboundariesofknowledgeandinsteadfocusonthe'unbounded'natureofknowledgepracticeswhichmightincludethoseofscience,themedia,politicsandcommercetheappealtotransform'thelanguageofrisk'fromtheethosofcalculation(andbinarylogic)totheethosofmediationandtheimperativeofpositioningtechnologicallyinduced'risks'inrelationtothefuture,forwhichwecannotbuttakesomesemblanceofresponsibilityConstructionThefirstaspectwewouldliketodrawattentiontoisthe'constructednature'ofriskThisalreadypointstoaparadoxasthevernacularusageof'nature'impliesanessencethatcomesbeforeallconstructionsThisapparentparadox,however,mustbefullyappreciatedItisnotthequestionofwhetherrisksarerealor'mere'constructionsthatwearepursuinghereasoursisnotabookonepistemologyInstead,wearguefortheneedtounderstandriskconstructionasapracticeofmanufacturingparticularuncertaintiesthatmayhaveharmfulconsequencesto'life'inthebroadestsenseofthetermTheessenceofriskisnotthatitishappening,butthatitmightbehappeningRisksaremanufactured,notonlythroughtheapplicationoftechnologies,butalsointhemakingofsenseandbythetechnologicalsensibilityofapotentialharm,dangerorthreatOnecannot,therefore,observeariskasathingoutthererisksarenecessarilyconstructedHowever,theyarenotconstructedonthebasisofvoluntaryimaginationthatis,wearenotfreeto'construct'risksaswepleaseInsteadrisksarebeingrevealedintheirconstructionTheconstructionofriskmustobeythelogic(discourseorreason)ofitsrevelationInordertomakesenseithastoincorporatethetechnologicalsensibility(knowhow)ofthatwhichgranteditsexistenceTheconsequencesofthisrevealingareirreversiblebutnotfixedThetheoryandanalysisofriskthereforetakesusoutofboththeempiricallyaccessibleworldofsocialfactsaswellasthesphereofpuresocialconstructionThisissobecause,ontheonehand,thematerialityoftechnologicallyconstitutedhazardsalwaysincludesthevirtualdomainoflatency,invisibilityandcontingencyOntheotherhand,sociallyconstructedrisksarealsolivedaspotentialharmThisimmaterialityconstitutesadifficultyattwodifferentlevels:itforcesIntroductiontheoriststotranscendnotonlythechoicebetweenrealismandconstructivismbutalsotherelianceontheempiricallyaccessibleworldofsocialfactsForsocialtheorythismeansaradicaldestabilizationoftwooftenunquestionedproblematicsandcriticaltoolsthatlieattheveryheartofthesocialsciences'epistemologyandmethodologyForsocialscientists,perceptionsofriskareintimatelytiedtounderstandingsofwhatconstitutesdangers,threatsandhazardsandforwhomToday,however,asignificantnumberoftechnologicallyinducedhazards,suchasthoseassociatedwithchemicalpollution,atomicradiationandgeneticallymodifiedorganisms,arecharacterizedbyaninaccessibilitytothesensesTheyoperateoutsidethecapacityof(unaided)humanperceptionThisimlmaterialitygivesrisksanairofunrealityuntilthemomentatwhichtheymaterializeassymptomsInotherwords,withoutvisualpresence,thehazardsassociatedwiththesetechnologiesaredifficulttorepresentasrisks,letalonesustaintheir'existence'beyondtheirmomentaryemergenceRadiationfromnuclearpowerisacaseinpointItwasthemassmedia'srepresentationoftheantinuclearcampaignofthewomenatGreenhamCommon,forexample,orthereportsofcontinuedtracesofhighdegreesofexposuretoradiationinanimalsandsoilafterthenuclearexplosionatChernobyl,thatmadetheinvisiblethreattangibleandkepttheissuesaliveTransformedintoanembodieddanger,thethreatofradiationhasengenderedwidespreadexpressionofpublicconcernandintenseacademicdebateabouttheriskstopeopleandtheenvironmentwhich,intum,putitfirmlyonthepoliticalagendaToday,thepotentialforharmfromnuclearpowerisinnowaydiminishedOnthecontrary,everincreasingnuclearwaste,ageingnuclearpowerplants,theproliferationofnuclearcapabilityand,mostworryingly,theseepageandmysteriousdisappearancewithouttraceofnuclearweaponsandmaterialsfromtheformerUSSRhavevastlyincreasedthethreatofradiationandnucleardisasterAndyet,itisexceedinglyquietonthenuclearfrontGenetechnologyhastakenoverwhereconcernaboutnuclearpowerhasbeenshelvedSimilar,andyetsodifferent,theperceivedanddefinedrisksassociatedwithgenetechnologyaregeneratingpatternsofpublicconcernthatseemtoreplicatetheproliferationofpressuregroups,expertadvisers,scientificandpoliticaldebateaswellasextensivemediacoveragethatwaspreviouslyassociatedwithnuclearpowerandthethreatofradiationThus,ifsocialtheoryistoplayameaningfulpublicandpoliticalrole,itneedstoprovideanalysesnotonlyofpeople'sperceptions,definitionsandlegitimationsofsuchrisksbutalsoofthemutualconstitutionofimplicitassumptions,technologicalimpositionanduptake,andthemediationofotherwiseinaccessibleknowledgeThisbooktakesonthischallengeItisconcernedwiththesocialityoftheseandotherhazardsandtheirtranslationintorisksItconsiderstheirimpactonthesocionaturalenvironmentandponderssomeoftheensuingapproachestothefutureContesteddefinitionsTheimlmaterialityandinvisibilityofthethreatsthatsuffusethe'risksociety'meanthatallknowledgeaboutitismediatedandassuchdependentoninterpretationThispresentsthesecondchallengeforanalysesofthesesociallyconstitutedIntroductionindustrialphenomena:allinterpretationisinherentlyamatterofperspectiveandhencepoliticalInthe'risksociety',theimmaterialinvisiblenatureoftechnologicallyinducedhazardsputsnaturalscientists,socialtheorists,newsworkers,businessmanagersandmembersofthepublicinsimilarstructuralpositionswithrespecttothetruth,objectivityandcertaintyofknowledgeThatis,theontologyofriskassuchdoesnotgrantprivilegetoanyspecificformofknowledgeInpractice,ofcourse,somepeoplehavesubstantiallybetteraccesstoinformationandresearchfacilitiesthanothersInaddition,therearedifferencesindiscursivecompetencies,inacquiringaccreditationsoflegitimacy,inresourcestodivertanddisplaceriskstoothergroupsand,lastbutnotleast,inshieldingoneselffrompotentialharmInrisksociety,therefore,thepoliticsandsubpoliticsofriskdefinitionbecomeextremelyimportantTheyhighlightthecontestednatureofwhoisdefiningwhatasriskandhowRiskshavebecomeaconsiderableforceofpoliticalmobilization,oftenreplacingreferencesto,forexample,inequalitiesassociatedwithclass,raceandgenderItistheparticularrelianceonbothinterpretationandexpertsystemsthathavemaderiskstheobjectofoneofthemosteffectivediscursivestrategiesforchangingthepoliticalhorizonofmodemindustrializedsocietytowardswhatBeck()calls'subpoliticization'Here,itseems,itisnolonger'interests'thatdominatethepoliticalhorizonbutclaimsaboutthelegitimacyofparticularformsofexpertiseandknowledgeTheinescapabilityofinterpretationmakesrisksinfinitelymalleableand,asBeck(:)insists,'opentosocialdefinitionandconstruction'Thisintumputsthoseinapositiontodefine(andorlegitimate)risksthemassmedia,scientists,politiciansandthelegalprofessioninkeysocialpositionsAnalogoustoMarx's'relationsofproduction'Beckpointstotheimportanceofriskintermsof'relationsofdefinition'Thepervasivenessofmediation,thehighlevelofindeterminacyandtheinevitabilityofpoliticalinvolvementmeanthatthereisnoonetruth,thattherearenofactsoutsidetherelativizinginfluenceofinterpretationsbasedoncontext,position,perspective,interest,andthepowertodefineandcolourinterpretationTherefore,therecanbenosuchthingasinnocentknowledgeAsHaraway()pointedout,knowledgeisinevitablytiedtoparticularlocationsweinhabitweallengageinsituatedknowledgeThesocioculturalstudyofriskthusexposesdisembodiedinformationasafarceandrevea

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