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首页 *新书上架*【政治哲学】以身份之名

*新书上架*【政治哲学】以身份之名.pdf

*新书上架*【政治哲学】以身份之名

九月虺
2009-07-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【政治哲学】以身份之名pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Inthe:J{ameofIDENTITYViofenceandtheNeecf'toBe�AMINMAALOUFTransfatecCfromtfieFrenchyBararaBrayPENGUINBOOKSPENGUINBOOKSPublishedbythePenguinGroupPenguinGroup(USA)Inc,HudsonStreet,NewYork,NewYork,USAPenguinBooksLtd,Strand,LondonWCRORl,EnglandPenguinBooksAustralialtd,CamberwellRoad,Camberwell,Victoria,AustraliaPenguinBooksCanadaltd,AlcornAvenue,Toronto,Onrario,CanadaMVBPenguinBooksIndia(P)Ltd,CommunityCentre,PanchsheelPark,NewDelhi,IndiaPenguinBooks(NZ)ltd,CnrRo,sedaleandAirborneRoads,Albany,Auckland,NewZealandPenguinBooks(SouthAfrica)(Pty)Ltd,SturdeeAvenue,Rosebank,Johannesburg,SouthAfricaPenguinBooksLtd,RegisteredOffices:Srrand,LondonWCRORl,EnglandFirstpublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyArcadePublishing,IncReprintedbyarrangementwithArcadePublishing,IncPublishedinPenguinBooksCopyright©EditionsGrassetFasquelle,Englishtranslation©BarbaraBray,AllrightsreservedTHELIBRARYOFCONGRESSHASCATALOGEDTHEHARDCOVEREDITIONASFOLLOWS:Maalouf,AminIdentitesmeurtrieresEnglishInthenameofidentity:violenceandtheneedtobelongAminMaalouftranslatedfromtheFrenchbyBarbaraBraytstNorthAmericanedpcmISBN(hc)ISBN(pbk)GroupidentityITideHMMdc(}PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaDesignedbyAPIExceptintheUnitedStatesofAmerica,thisbookissoldsubjecttotheconditionthatitshallnot,bywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredout,orotherwisecirculatedwithoutthepublisher'spriorconsentinanyformofbindingorcoverotherthanthatinwhichitispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserforAndreeforRuchdiJorTarekforZiadInthe!ftameofIDENTITYIntroductionHowMANYTiMES,sinceIleftLebanonintoliveinFrance,havepeopleaskedme,withthebestintentionsinthe�ord,whetherIfelt"moreFrench"or"moreLebanese"AndIalwaysgivethesameanswer:"Both!"Isaythatnotintheinterestsoffairnessorbalance,butbecauseanyotheranswerwouldbealieWhatmakesmemyselfratherthananyoneelseistheveryfactthatIampoisedbetweentwocountries,twoorthreelanguagesandseveralculturaltradi­tionsItispreciselythisthatdefinesmyidentityWouldIexistmoreauthenticallyifIcutoffapartofmyselfTothosewhoaskthequestion,IpatientlyexplainthatIwasborninLebanonandlivedthereuntilIwasthatAra­bicismymothertonguethatitwasinArabictranslationthatIfirstreadDumasandDickensandGulliver�Travelsandthatitwasinmynativevillage,thevillageofmyancestors,thatIexperiencedthepleasuresofchildhoodandheardsomeofthestoriesthatwerelatertoinspiremynovelsHowcouldIINTHENAMEOFIDENTITYforgetallthatHowcouldIcastitasideOntheotherhand,IhavelivedforyearsonthesoilofFranceIdrinkherwaterandwineeverydaymyhandstouchherancientstonesIwritemybooksinherlanguageneveragainwillshebeaforeigncountrytomeSoamIhalfFrenchandhalfLebaneseOfcoursenotIdentitycan'tbecompartmentalisedYoucan'tdivideitupintohalvesorthirdsorany�therseparatesegmentsIhaven'tgotseveralidentities:I'vegotjustone,madeupofmanycomponentsinamixturethatisuniquetome,justasotherpeople'sidentityisuniquetothemasindividualsSometimes,afterI'vebeengivingadetailedaccountofexactlywhyIlayclaimtoallmyaffiliations,someonecomesandpatsmeontheshoulderandsays"Ofcourse,ofcoursebutwhatdoyoureallyfeel,deepdowninside"ForalongtimeIfoundthisoftrepeatedquestionamus­ing,butitnolongermakesmesmileItseemstoreflectaviewofhumanitywhich,thoughitiswidespread,isalsoinmyopiniondangerousItpresupposesthat"deepdowninside"everyonethereisjustoneaffiliationthatreallymat­ters,akindof"fundamentaltruth"abouteachindividual,an"essence"determinedonceandforallatbirth,nevertochangethereafterAsiftherestalltherestaperson'swholejourneythroughtimeasafreeagentthebeliefsheacquiresinthecourse<fthatjourneyhisownindividualtastes,sensibilitiesandaffinitiesinshorthislifeitselfcountedfornothingAndwhen,ashappenssooftennowa­days,ourcontemporariesareexhortedto"asserttheiriden­tity,"theyaremeanttoseekwithinthemselvesthatsameallegedfundamentalallegiance,whichisoftenreligious,INTRODUCTIONnational,racialorethnic,andhavinglocatedittheyares�p­posedtoflauntitproudlyinthefaceofothersAnyonewhoclaimsamorecomplexidentityismargin­alisedButayoungmanborninFranceofAlgerianparentsclearlycarrieswithinhimtwodifferentallegiancesor"belong­ings,"andheoughttobeallowedtousebothForthesakeofargumentIrefertotwo"belongings:'butinfactsuchayouth'spersonalityismadeupofmanymoreingredientsWithinhim,French,EuropeanandotherwesterninfluencesminglewithArab,Berber,African,Muslimandothersources,whe�herwithregardtolanguage,beliefs,familyrelationshipsortotastesincookingandtheartsThisrepresentsanenrichingandfertileexperienceiftheyoungmaninquestionfeelsfreetoliveitfullyifheisencouragedtoacceptitinalitsdiversityButitcanbetraumaticifwheneverheclaimstobeFrenchotherpeoplelookonhimasatraitororrenegade,andifeverytimeheemphasiseshistieswithAlgeriaanditshistory,cultureandreligionhemeetswithincomprehension,mistrustorevenout­righthostilityThesituationisevenmoredifficultontheothersideoftheRhineI'mthinkingofthecaseofaTurkwhomighthavebeenbornnearFrankfurtyearsagoandwhohasalwayslivedinGermanyHespeaksandwritesGermanbetterthanthelanguageofhisancestorsYetforthesocietyofhisadoptedcountryheiSn'taGerman,whileforthatofhisori­ginsheisnolongercompletelyaTurkCommonsensedic­tatesthatheshouldbeabletoclaimbothallegiancesButatpresentneitherthelawnorpeople'sattitudesallowshimtoaccepthiscompositeidentitytranquillyINTHENAMEOFIDENTITYIhavequotedthefirstexamplesthatcametomind,butIcouldhaveusedmanyothersForinstance,thatofsomeoneborninBelgradeofaSerbianmotherandaCroatianfatherThatofaHutuwomanmarriedtoaTutsi,orviceversaOrthatofanAmericanwithablackfatherandaJewishmotherItmaybesaidthatthesearespecialcasesIdon'tagreeThehandfulofpeopleI'vecitedarenottheonlyoneswithacomplexidentityEveryindividualisameetil)ggroundformanydifferentallegiances,andsometimestheseloyaltiescon­flictwithoneanotherandconfrontthepersonwhoharboursthemwithdifficultchoicesInsomecasesthesituationisobviousataglanceothersneedtobelookedatmorecloselyIsthereanycitizenofpresentdayEuropewhodoesn'tsenseakindoftugofwar,aninevitablyeverincreasingcon­flictbetweenontheonehandhisaffiliationtoanancientcountrylikeFrance,Spain,DenmarkorEngland,and,ontheother,hisallegiancetothecontinentalentitythatisintheprocessofformingAndtherearemanydedicated"Euro­peans,"fromtheBasquecountrytoScotland,whoatthesametimefeelastrongandfundamentalattachmenttoapar­ticularregionanditspeople,itshistoryanditslanguageCananyoneintheUnitedStateseventodayassesshisplaceinsocietywithoutreferencetohisearlierconnections,whethertheybeAfrican,�ispanic,Irish,Jewish,Italian,PolishorotherThatsaid,I'mpreparedtoadmitthatthefirstexamplesIcitedaretoacertainextentspecialAllthepeopleconcerJedinthemarearenasforallegiancescurrentlyinviolentconflictwithoneanother:theyliveinasortoffrontierzonecriss­crossedbyethnic,religiousandotherfaultlinesButbyvirtueINTRODUCTIONofthissituationpeculiarratherthanprivilegedtheyhaveaspecialroletoplayinforginglinks,eliminatingmisunder­standings,makingsomepartiesmorereasonableandotherslessbelligerent,smoothingoutdifficulties,seekingcompromiseTheirroleistoactasbridges,gobetweens,mediatorsbetweenthevariouscommunitiesandculturesAndthatispreciselywhytheirdilemmaissosignificant:iftheythemselvescannotsustaintheirmultipleallegiances,iftheyarecontinuallybeingpressedtotakesidesororderedtostaywithintheirowntribe,thenalofushavereasontobeuneasyaboutthewaytheworldISgomgItalkoftheirbeing"pressed"and"ordered"butbywhomNotjustbyfanaticsandxenophobesofallkinds,butalsobyyouandme,byeachandallofusAndwedosopre­ciselybecauseofhabitsofthoughtandexpressiondeeplyrootedinusallbecauseofanarrow,exclusive,bigoted,sim­plisticattitudethatreducesidentityinallitsmanyaspectstoonesingleaffiliation,andonethatisproclaimedinanger,Ifeellikeshoutingaloudthatthisishowmurderersaremadeit'sarecipeformassacres!Thatmaysoundsome­whatextreme,butinthepagesthatfollowIshalltrytoexplainwhatImeanMyIdentity,MyAllegiancesALIFESPENTWRITINGhastaughtmetobewaryofwordsThosethatseemclearestareoftenthemosttreacherous"Identity"isoneofthosefalsefriendsWeallthinkweknowwhatthewordmeansandgoontrustingit,evenwhenit'sslylystartingtosaytheoppositeFarbeitfrommetowanttokeeponredefiningtheideaofidentityIthasbeenthefundamentalquestionofphiloso­phyfromSocrates's"Knowthyself!"throughcountlessothermastersdowntoFreudToapproachitanewtodaywouldcallformorequalificationsthanIpossessandforverymuchgreatertemerityThetaskIsetmyselfismoremodestIwanttotrytounderstandwhysomanypeoplecommitGrimesnowadaysinthenameofreligious,ethnic,nationalorsomeotherkindofidentityHasitalwaysbeenlikethissincetimeimmemorial,oristhepresenterainfluencedbyhithertounknownfactorsSometimeswhatIsaymayseemrathersimplisticIfsoit'sbecauseIwanttosetmyargumentoutasINTHENAMEOFIDENTITYcalmly,patientlyandfairlyaspossible,withoutresortingtojargonorunwarrantedshortcutsWhat'sknownasanidentitycardcarriestheholder'sfamilyname,givenname,dateandplaceofbirth,photograph,alistofcertainphysicalfeatures,theholder'ssignatureandsometimesalsohisfingerprintsawholearrayofdetailsdesignedtoprovewithoutashadowofdoubtorconfusionthatthebearerofthedocumentissoandso,andthatamongstallthemillionsofotherhumanbeingsthereisn'tonenotevenhisdoubleorhistwinbrotherforwhomhecouldbemistakenMyidentityiswhatpreventsmefrombeingidenticaltoanybodyelseDefinedinthiswaythewordidentityreflectsafairlypreciseideaonewhichintheoryshouldnotgiverisetoconfusionDowereallyneedlengthyargumentstoprovethattherearenotandcannotbetwoidenticalindividualsEvenifinthenearfuturesomeonemanages,aswefeartheymay,to"clone"humanbeings,thecloneswouldatbestbeidenticalonlyatthetimeoftheir"birth"assoonastheystartedtolivetheywouldstartbeingdifferentEachindividual'sidentityismadeupofanumberofelements,andtheseareclearlynotrestrictedtotheparticularssetdowninofficialrecordsOfcourse,forthegreatmajoritythesefactorsincludeallegiancetoareligioustraditiontoanationalitysometimestwotoaprofession,aninstitution,oraparticularsocialmilieuButthelistismuchlongerthanthatitisvirtuallyunlimitedApersonmayfeelamoreorlessstrongattachment'toaprovince,avillage,aneighbourhood,aMYIDENTITY,MYALLEGIANCESclan,aprofessionalteamoroneconnectedwithsport,agroupoffriends,aunion,acompany,aparish,acommunityofpeoplewiththesamepassions,thesamesexualprefer­ences,thesamephysicalhandicaps,orwhohavetodealwiththesamekindofpollutionorothernuisanceOfcourse,notalltheseallegiancesareequallystrong,atleastatanygivenmomentButnoneisentirelyinsignificant,eitherAllarecomponentsofpersonalitywemightalmostcallthem"genesofthesoul"solongaswerememberthatmostofthemarenotinnateWhileeachoftheseelementsmaybefoundseparatelyinmanyindividuals,thesamecombinationofthemisneverencounteredindifferentpeople,andit'sthisthatgivesevery'individualrichnessandvalueandmakeseachhumanbeinguniqueandirreplaceableItcanhappenthatsomeincident,afortunateorunfor­tunateaccident,evenachanceencounter,influencesoursenseofidentitymorestronglythananyancientaffiliationTakethecaseofaSerbianmanandaMuslimwomanwhometyearsagoinacafeinSarajevo,fellinloveandgotmarriedTheycanneverperceivetheiridentityinthesamewayasdoesacouplethatisentirelySerbianorentirelyMus­limtheirviewofreligionandmothercountrywillneveragainbewhatitwasbeforeBothpartnerswillalwayscarrywithinthemthetiestheirparentshand!!ddownatbirth,butthesetieswillhenceforthbeperceiveddifferentlyandaccordedadifferentimportanceLetusstayinSarajevoandcarryoutanimaginarysurveythereLetusobserveamanofaboutwhomweseeinthestreetINTHENAMEOFIDENTITYInorthereaboutshemighthavesai'dproudlyandwithouthesitation,"I'maYugoslavian!"Questionedmoreclosely,hecouldhavesaidhewasacitizenoftheFederalRepublicofBosniaHerzegovina,and,incidentally,thath�camefromatraditionallyMuslimfamily,Ifyouhadmetthesamemantwelveyearslater,whenthewarwasatitsheight,hemighthaveansweredautomaticallyandemphatically,"I'maMuslim!"HemightevenhavegrownthestatutorybeardHewouldquicklyhaveaddedthathewasaBosnian,andhewouldnothavebeenpleasedtoberemindedofhowproudlyheoncecalledhimselfaYugoslavianIfhewasstoppedandquestionedHOW,hewouldsayfirstofallthathewasaBosnian,thenthathewasaMuslimHe'dtellyouhewasjustonhiswaytothemosque,buthe'dalsowantyoutoknowthathiscountryispartofEuropeandthathehopesitwillonedaybeamemberoftheUnionHowwillthissamepersonwanttodefinehimselfifwemeethiminthesameplaceyearshenceWhichofhisaffiliationswillheputfirstTheEuropeanTheIslamicTheBosnianSomethingelseagainTheBalkanconnection,perhapsIshan'trisktryingtopredictAlthesefactorsarepartofhisidentityHewasborntoafamilythatwastraditionallyMus­limthelanguagehespeakslinkshimtotheSouthernSlavs,whowereoncejoinedtogetherinasinglestate,butaresonolongerhelivesonlandwhichbelongedsometimestotheOttomanandsometimestotheAustrianEmpire,andwhichplayedapartinthemajordramasofEuropeanhistoryIneveryeraoneorotherofhisaffiliationsswelledup,sotospeak,inMYIDENTITY,MYALLEGIANCESsuchawayastoeclipsealtheothersandtoappeartorepresenthiswholeidentityInthecourseofhislifehe'llhaveheardallkindsoffablesHe'llhavebeentoldhewasaproletarianpureandsimpleOraYugoslavianthroughandthroughOr"morerecendy,aMuslimForafewdifficultmonthshe'llevenhavebeenmadetothinkhehadmoreincommonwiththeinhabi­tantsofKabulthanwiththoseofTrieste!Ineveryagetherehavebeenpeoplewhoconsideredthatanindividualhadoneoverridingaffiliationsomuchmoreimportantineverycircumstancetoallothersthatitmightlegitimatelybecalledhis"identity"Forsomeitwasthenation,forothersreligionorclassButonehasonlytolookatthevariousconflictsbeingfoughtoutallovertheworldtodaytorealisethatnooneallegiancehasabsolutesupremacyWherepeoplefeeltheirfaithisthreatened,itistheirreligiousaffiliationthatseemstoreflecttheirwholeidentityButiftheirmothertongueortheirethnicgroupisindanger,thentheyfightferociouslyagainsttheirownco­religionistsBoththeTurksandtheKurdsareMuslims,thoughtheyspeakdifferentlanguagesbutdoesthatmakethewarbetweenthemanylessbloodyHutus�ndTutsisalikeareCatholics,andtheyspeakthesamelanguage,buthasthatstoppedthemslaughteringoneanotherCzechsandSlovaksareallCatholicstoo,butdoesthathelpthemlivetogetherIcitealltheseexamplestounderlinethefactthatwhilethereisalwaysacertainhierarchyamongtheelementsthatgotomakeupindividualidentities,thathierarchyisnotimmutableitchangeswithtime,andinsodoingbringsaboutfunqamentalchangesinbehaviourINTHENAMEOFIDENTITYMoreover,thetiesthatcountinpeople'slivesarenotalwaystheallegedlymajorallegiancesarisingoutoflanguage,complexion,nationality,classorreligionTake"thecaseofanItalianhomosexualinthedaysoffascismIimaginethatforthemanhimselfthatparticularaspectofhispersonalityhaduptillthenbeenimportant,butnotmoresothanhisprofes­sionalactivity,hispoliticalchoicesorhisreligiousbeliefsButsuddenlystaterepressionswoopsdownonhimandhefeelsthreatenedwithhumiliation,deportationordeathIt'stherecollectionofcertainbooksI'vereadandfilmsI'veseenthatleadsmetochoosethisexampleThisman,whoafewyearsearlierwasapatriot,perhapsevenanationalist,wasnolongerabletoexultatthesightoftheItalianarmymarchingbyhemayevenhavecometowishforitsdefeatBecauseofthepersecutiontowhichhewassubjected,hissexualpreferencescametooutweighhisotheraffiliations,amongthemeventhenationalismwhichatthattimewasatitsheightOnlyafterthewar,inamoretolerantItaly,wouldourmanhavefeltentirelyItalianoncemoreTheidentityapersonlaysclaimtois,oftenbased,inreverse,onthatofhisenemyAnIrishCatholicdifferentiateshimselffromEnglishmeninthefirstplaceintermsofreli­gion,butvisavisthemonarchyhewilldeclarehimselfarepublicanandwhilehemaynotknowmuchGaelic,atleasthewillspeakhisownformofEnglishACatholicleaderwhospokewithanOxfordaccentmightseemalmostatraitorOnecouldfinddozensofotherexamplestoshowhowcomplexisthemechanismofidentity:acomplexitysome­timesbenign,butsometimestragicIshallquotevariousinstancesinthepagesthatfollow,somebrieflyandothers"inMYIDENTITY,MYALLEGIANCESmoredetailMostofthemrelatetotheregionImyselfcomefromtheMiddleEast,theMediterranean,theArabworld,andfirstandforemostLebanonForthatisacountrywhereyouareconstandyhavingtoq

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*新书上架*【政治哲学】以身份之名

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