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首页 *新书上架*【政治哲学】自由与法律

*新书上架*【政治哲学】自由与法律.pdf

*新书上架*【政治哲学】自由与法律

九月虺
2009-07-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【政治哲学】自由与法律pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=THEONLINELIBRARYOFLIBERTY©LibertyFund,Inchttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeindexphpBRUNOLEONI,FREEDOMANDTHELAW(LFED)()URLofthisEBook:http:olllibertyfundorgEBooksLeonipdfURLoforiginalHTMLfile:http:olllibertyfundorgHomeHTMLphprecordID=ABOUTTHEAUTHORLeoniwasProfessorofLegalTheoryandtheTheoryoftheStateattheUniversityofPavia,apracticinglawyer,foundereditorofthejournalIlPolitico,newspapercolumnist,andsecretaryandpresidentoftheMontPelerinSocietyABOUTTHEBOOKThegreatestobstacletoruleoflawinourtime,contendstheauthorofthisthoughtprovokingwork,istheproblemofoverlegislationInmoderndemocraticsocieties,legislativebodiesareincreasinglyusurpingfunctionsthatwereandshouldbeexercisedbyindividualsorgroupsratherthangovernmentTheresultisanunwieldysurfeitoflawsandregulationsthatbytheirsheervolumestifleindividualfreedomTHEEDITIONUSEDFreedomandtheLaw,expandedrdedition,forewordbyArthurKemp(Indianapolis:LibertyFund)COPYRIGHTINFORMATIONThecopyrighttothisedition,inbothprintandelectronicforms,isheldbyLibertyFund,IncFAIRUSESTATEMENTThismaterialisputonlinetofurthertheeducationalgoalsofLibertyFund,IncUnlessotherwisestatedintheCopyrightInformationsectionabove,thismaterialmaybeused:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=sectionabove,thismaterialmaybeusedfreelyforeducationalandacademicpurposesItmaynotbeusedinanywayforprofitTABLEOFCONTENTSFREEDOMANDTHELAWINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERWHICHFREEDOMCHAPTERFREEDOMANDCONSTRAINTCHAPTERFREEDOMANDTHERULEOFLAWCHAPTERFREEDOMANDTHECERTAINTYOFTHELAWCHAPTERFREEDOMANDLEGISLATIONCHAPTERFREEDOMANDREPRESENTATIONCHAPTERFREEDOMANDTHECOMMONWILLCHAPTERSOMEDIFFICULTIESANALYZEDCONCLUSIONTHELAWANDPOLITICSINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERTHELAWASINDIVIDUALCLAIMCHAPTERLAWANDECONOMYINTHEMAKINGCHAPTERTHEECONOMICAPPROACHTOTHEPOLITICALCHAPTERVOTINGVERSUSTHEMARKETENDNOTESBRUNOLEONI,FREEDOMANDTHELAW(LFED)()FREEDOMANDTHELAWIntroduction:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=ItseemstobethedestinyofindividualfreedomatthepresenttimetobedefendedmainlybyeconomistsratherthanbylawyersorpoliticalscientistsAsfaraslawyersareconcerned,perhapsthereasonisthattheyareinsomewayforcedtospeakonthebasisoftheirprofessionalknowledgeandthereforeintermsofcontemporarysystemsoflawAsLordBaconwouldhavesaid,TheyspeakasiftheywereboundThecontemporarylegalsystemstowhichtheyareboundseemtoleaveanevershrinkingareatoindividualfreedomPoliticalscientists,ontheotherhand,oftenappeartobeinclinedtothinkofpoliticsasasortoftechnique,comparable,say,toengineering,whichinvolvestheideathatpeopleshouldbedealtwithbypoliticalscientistsapproximatelyinthesamewayasmachinesorfactoriesaredealtwithbyengineersTheengineeringideaofpoliticalsciencehas,infact,little,ifanything,incommonwiththecauseofindividualfreedomOfcourse,thisisnottheonlywaytoconceiveofpoliticalscienceasatechniquePoliticalsciencecanalsobeconsidered(althoughthishappenslessandlessfrequentlytoday)asameansofenablingpeopletobehaveasmuchaspossibleastheylike,insteadofbehavinginthewaysdeemedsuitablebycertaintechnocratsKnowledgeofthelaw,initsturn,maybeviewedinaperspectiveotherthanthatofthelawyerwhomustspeakasifhewereboundwheneverhehastodefendacaseincourtIfheissufficientlywellversedinthelaw,alawyerknowsverywellhowthelegalsystemofhiscountryworks(andalsosometimeshowitdoesnotwork)Moreover,ifhehassomehistoricalknowledge,hemayeasilycomparedifferentwaysinwhichsuccessivelegalsystemshaveworkedwithinthesamecountryFinally,ifhehassomeknowledgeofthewayinwhichotherlegalsystemsworkorhaveworkedinothercountries,hecanmakemanyvaluablecomparisonsthatusuallyliebeyondthehorizonofboththeeconomistandthepoliticalscientistInfact,freedomisnotonlyaneconomicorapoliticalconcept,butalso,andprobablyaboveall,alegalconcept,asitnecessarilyinvolvesawholecomplexoflegalconsequencesWhilethepoliticalapproach,inthesenseIhavetriedtooutlineabove,iscomplementarytotheeconomiconeinanyattempttoredefinefreedom,thelegalapproachiscomplementarytobothHowever,thereisstillsomethinglackingifthisattemptistosucceedDuringthecourseofthecenturiesmanydefinitionsoffreedomhavebeengiven,someofwhichcouldbeconsideredincompatiblewithothersTheresultisthataunivocalsensecouldbegiventothewordonlywithsomereservationandafterpreviousenquiriesofalinguisticnatureEveryonecandefinewhathethinksfreedomtobe,butassoonashewantsustoaccepthisformulationasourown,hehastoproducesometrulyconvincingargumentHowever,thisproblemisnotpeculiartostatementsaboutfreedomitisonethatisconnectedwitheverykindofdefinition,anditis,Ithink,anundoubtedmeritofthecontemporaryanalyticalschoolofphilosophytohavepointedouttheimportanceoftheproblemAphilosophicalapproachmust:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=philosophytohavepointedouttheimportanceoftheproblemAphilosophicalapproachmustthereforebecombinedwiththeeconomic,thepolitical,andthelegalapproachesinordertoanalyzefreedomThisisnotinitselfaneasycombinationtoachieveFurtherdifficultiesareconnectedwiththepeculiarnatureofthesocialsciencesandwiththefactthattheirdataarenotsounivocallyascertainableasthoseofthesocallednaturalsciencesInspiteofthis,inanalyzingfreedom,Ihavetried,asfaraspossible,toconsideritfirstasadatum,namely,apsychologicalattitudeIhavedonethesamewithconstraint,whichis,inasense,theoppositeoffreedom,butwhichisalsoapsychologicalattitudeonthepartofboththosewhotrytodotheconstrainingandthosewhofeelthattheyarebeingconstrainedOnecouldhardlydenythatthestudyofpsychologicalattitudesrevealsdifferencesandvariationsamongthem,sothataunivocaltheoryoffreedom,andconsequentlyalsoofconstraint,withreferencetotheascertainablefactsisdifficulttoformulateThismeansthatpeoplebelongingtoapoliticalsysteminwhichfreedomisdefendedandpreservedforeachandallagainstconstraintcannothelpbeingconstrainedatleasttotheextentthattheirowninterpretationoffreedom,andconsequentlyalsoofconstraint,doesnotcoincidewiththeinterpretationprevailinginthatsystemHowever,itseemsreasonabletothinkthattheseinterpretationsonthepartofpeoplegenerallydonotdiffersomuchastoforedoomtofailureanyattempttoarriveatatheoryofpoliticalfreedomItispermissibletoassumethatatleastwithinthesamesocietythepeoplewhotrytoconstrainothersandthosewhotrytoavoidbeingconstrainedbyothershaveapproximatelythesameideaofwhatconstraintisItcanthereforebeinferredthattheyhaveapproximatelythesameideaofwhattheabsenceofconstraintis,andthisisaveryimportantassumptionforatheoryoffreedomenvisagedastheabsenceofconstraint,suchasissuggestedinthisbookToavoidmisunderstandings,itmustbeaddedthatatheoryoffreedomastheabsenceofconstraint,paradoxicalasitmayappear,doesnotpreachabsenceofconstraintinallcasesTherearecasesinwhichpeoplehavetobeconstrainedifonewantstopreservethefreedomofotherpeopleThisisonlytooobviouswhenpeoplehavetobeprotectedagainstmurderersorrobbers,althoughitisnotsoobviouswhenthisprotectionrelatestoconstraintsand,concomitantly,freedomsthatarenotsoeasytodefineHowever,adispassionatestudyofwhatisgoingonincontemporarysocietynotonlyrevealsthatconstraintisinextricablyintertwinedwithfreedomintheveryattempttoprotectthelatter,butalso,unfortunately,thataccordingtoseveraldoctrines,themoreoneincreasesconstraint,themoreoneincreasesfreedomUnlessIamwrongthisisnotonlyanevidentmisunderstanding,butalsoanominouscircumstanceforthefateofindividualfreedominourtimePeopleoftenmeanbyfreedom(orliberty)boththeabsenceofconstraintandsomethingelseaswellforinstance,asadistinguishedAmericanjudgewouldhavesaid,enough:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=elseaswellforinstance,asadistinguishedAmericanjudgewouldhavesaid,enougheconomicsecuritytoallowitspossessortheenjoymentofasatisfactorylifeThesamepeopleveryoftenfailtorealizethepossiblecontradictionsbetweenthesetwodifferentmeaningsoffreedomandtheunpleasantfactthatyoucannotadoptthelatterwithoutsacrificingtoacertainextenttheformer,andviceversaTheirsyncretisticviewoffreedomissimplybasedonasemanticconfusionOtherpeople,whilecontendingthatconstraintistobeincreasedintheirsocietyinordertoincreasefreedom,merelypassoverinsilencethefactthatthefreedomtheymeanisonlytheirown,whiletheconstrainttheywanttoincreaseistobeappliedexclusivelytootherpeopleThefinalresultisthatthefreedomtheypreachisonlythefreedomtoconstrainotherpeopletodowhattheywouldneverdoiftheywerefreetochooseforthemselvesTodayfreedomandconstraintpivotmoreandmoreonlegislationPeoplegenerallyrealizefullytheextraordinaryimportanceoftechnologyinthechangesthataretakingplaceincontemporarysocietyOntheotherhand,theydonotseemtorealizetothesameextenttheparallelchangesbroughtaboutbylegislation,oftenwithoutanynecessaryconnectionwithtechnologyWhattheyappeartorealizeevenlessisthattheimportanceofthelatterchangesincontemporarysocietydependsinitsturnonasilentrevolutioninpresentdayideasabouttheactualfunctionoflegislationInfact,theincreasingsignificanceoflegislationinalmostallthelegalsystemsoftheworldisprobablythemoststrikingfeatureofourera,besidestechnologicalandscientificprogressWhileintheAngloSaxoncountriescommonlawandordinarycourtsofjudicatureareconstantlylosinggroundtostatutorylawandadministrativeauthorities,intheContinentalcountriescivillawisundergoingaparallelprocessofsubmersionasaresultofthethousandsoflawsthatfillthestatutebookseachyearOnlysixtyyearsaftertheintroductionoftheGermanCivilCodeandalittlemorethanacenturyandahalfaftertheintroductionoftheCodeNapoléontheveryideathatthelawmightnotbeidenticalwithlegislationseemsoddbothtostudentsoflawandtolaymenLegislationappearstodaytobeaquick,rational,andfarreachingremedyagainsteverykindofevilorinconvenience,ascomparedwith,say,judicialdecisions,thesettlementofdisputesbyprivatearbiters,conventions,customs,andsimilarkindsofspontaneousadjustmentsonthepartofindividualsAfactthatalmostalwaysgoesunnoticedisthataremedybywayoflegislationmaybetooquicktobeefficacious,toounpredictablyfarreachingtobewhollybeneficial,andtoodirectlyconnectedwiththecontingentviewsandinterestsofahandfulofpeople(thelegislators),whoevertheymaybe,tobe,infact,aremedyforallconcernedEvenwhenallthisisnoticed,thecriticismisusuallydirectedagainstparticularstatutesratherthanagainstlegislationassuch,andanewremedyisalwayslookedforinbetterstatutesinsteadofinsomethingaltogetherdifferentfromlegislationTheadvocatesoflegislationorrather,ofthenotionoflegislationasapanaceajustifythiswayoffullyidentifyingitwithlawincontemporarysocietybypointingtothechangescontinuallybeingbroughtaboutbytechnologyIndustrialdevelopment,sowearetold,bringswithitagreatmanyproblemsthatoldersocietieswerenotequippedtosolvewiththeirideasoflaw:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=Isubmitthatwestilllackproofthatthemanynewproblemsreferredtobytheseadvocatesofinflatedlegislationarereallybroughtaboutbytechnologyorthatcontemporarysociety,withitsnotionoflegislationasapanacea,isbetterequippedtosolvethemthanoldersocietiesthatneversoblatantlyidentifiedlawwithlegislationTheattentionofalltheadvocatesofinflatedlegislationasanallegedlynecessarycounterpartofscientificandtechnologicalprogressincontemporarysocietyneedstobedrawntothefactthatthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnology,ontheonehand,andthatoflegislation,ontheother,arebasedrespectivelyontwocompletelydifferentandevencontradictoryideasInfact,thedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologyatthebeginningofourmodernerawasmadepossiblepreciselybecauseprocedureshadbeenadoptedthatwereinfullcontrasttothosethatusuallyresultinlegislationScientificandtechnicalresearchneededandstillneedsindividualinitiativeandindividualfreedomtoallowtheconclusionsandresultsreachedbyindividuals,possiblyagainstcontraryauthority,toprevailLegislation,ontheotherhand,istheterminalpointofaprocessinwhichauthorityalwaysprevails,possiblyagainstindividualinitiativeandfreedomWhereasscientificandtechnologicalresultsarealwaysduetorelativelysmallminoritiesorparticularindividuals,often,ifnotalways,inoppositiontoignorantorindifferentmajorities,legislation,especiallytoday,alwaysreflectsthewillofacontingentmajoritywithinacommitteeoflegislatorswhoarenotnecessarilymorelearnedorenlightenedthanthedissentersWhereauthoritiesandmajoritiesprevail,asinlegislation,individualsmustyield,regardlessofwhethertheyarerightorwrongAnothercharacteristicfeatureoflegislationincontemporarysociety(apartfromafewinstancesofdirectdemocracyinsmallpoliticalcommunitiesliketheSwissLandsgemeinde)isthatthelegislatorsareassumedtorepresenttheircitizensinthelegislativeprocessWhateverthismaymeanandthisiswhatweshalltrytodiscoverinthefollowingpagesitisobviousthatrepresentation,likelegislation,issomethingaltogetherextraneoustotheproceduresadoptedforscientificandtechnologicalprogressTheveryideathatascientistoratechnicianshouldberepresentedbyotherpeopleinthecarryingonofscientificortechnicalresearchappearsasridiculousastheideathatscientificresearchshouldbeentrusted,nottoparticularindividualsactingassuchevenwhentheycollaborateinateam,buttosomekindoflegislativecommitteeempoweredtoreachadecisionbymajorityvoteNonetheless,awayofreachingdecisionsthatwouldberejectedoutofhandinscientificandtechnologicalfieldsiscomingtobeadoptedmoreandmoreasfaraslawisconcernedTheresultingsituationincontemporarysocietyisakindofschizophrenia,which,farfrombeingdenounced,hasbeenhardlynoticedsofarPeoplebehaveasiftheirneedforindividualinitiativeandindividualdecisionwerealmostcompletelysatisfiedbythefactoftheirpersonalaccesstothebenefitsofscientificandtechnologicalachievementsStrangelyenough,theircorrespondingneedsforindividualinitiativeandindividualdecisioninthepoliticalandlegalspheresseemtobemetbyceremonialandalmostmagicalproceduressuchaselectionsofrepresentativeswhoaresupposedtoknowbysomemysteriousinspirationwhattheirconstituentsreallywantandtobeabletodecide:AMLeoniPageofhttp:olllibertyfundorgHomeEBookphprecordID=somemysteriousinspirationwhattheirconstituentsreallywantandtobeabletodecideaccordinglyTrue,individualsstillhave,atleastintheWesternworld,thepossibilityofdecidingandactingasindividualsinmanyrespects:intrading(atleasttoagreatextent),inspeaking,inpersonalrelations,andinmanyotherkindsofsocialintercourseHowever,theyseemalsotohaveacceptedinprincipleonceandforallasystemwherebyahandfulofpeoplewhomtheyrarelyknowpersonallyareabletodecidewhateverybodymustdo,andthiswithinveryvaguelydefinedlimitsorpracticallywithoutlimitsatallThatthelegislators,atleastintheWest,stillrefrainfrominterferinginsuchfieldsofindividualactivityasspeakingorchoosingonesmarriagepartnerorwearingaparticularstyleofclothingortravelingusuallyconcealstherawfactthattheyactuallydohavethepowertointerfereineveryoneofthesefieldsButothercountries,whilealreadyofferingacompletelydifferentkindofpicture,revealatthesametimehowmuchfartherthelegislatorscangointhisrespectOntheotherhand,fewerandfewerpeoplenowseemtorealizethatjustaslanguageandfashionaretheproductsoftheconvergenceofspontaneousactionsanddecisionsonthepartofavastnumberofindividuals,sothelawtoocan,intheory,justaswellbeaproductofasimilarconvergenceinotherfieldsTodaythefactthatwedonotneedtoentrusttootherpeoplethetaskofdeciding,forinstance,howwehavetospeakorhowweshouldspendourleisuretimefailstomakeusrealizethatthesameshouldbetrueofagreatmanyotheractionsanddecisionsthatwetakeinthesphereoflawOurpresentnotionofthelawisdefinitelyaffectedbytheoverwhelmingimportancethatweattachtothefunctionoflegislation,thatis,tothewillofotherpeople(whoevertheymaybe)relatingtoourdailybehaviorItrytomakeclearinthefollowingpagesoneofthechiefconsequencesofourideasinthisrespectWeareactuallyfarfromattainingthroughlegislationtheidealcertaintyofthelaw,inthepracticalsensethatthisidealshouldhaveforanybodywhomustplanforthefutureandwhohastoknow,therefore,whatthelegalconsequencesofhisdecisionswillbeWhilelegislationisalmostalwayscertain,thatis,preciseandrecognizable,aslongasitisinforce,peoplecanneverbecertainthatthelegislationinforcetodaywillbeinforcetomorroworeventomorrowmorningThelegalsystemcenteredonlegislation,whileinvolvingthepossibilitythatotherpeople(thelegislators)mayinterferewithouractionseveryday,alsoinvolvesthepossibilitythattheymaychangetheirwayofinterferingeverydayAsaresult,peoplearepreventednotonlyfromfreelydecidingwhattodo,butfromforeseeingthelegaleffectsoftheirdailybehaviorItisundeniablethattodaythisresultisduebothtoinflatedlegislationand

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*新书上架*【政治哲学】自由与法律

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