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首页 *新书上架*【劳特里奇哲学导读】柏拉图与苏格拉底的审判

*新书上架*【劳特里奇哲学导读】柏拉图与苏格拉底的审判.pdf

*新书上架*【劳特里奇哲学导读】柏拉图与苏格拉底的审判

九月虺
2009-07-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【劳特里奇哲学导读】柏拉图与苏格拉底的审判pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

dxtdxtRoutledgePhilosophyGuideBooktoPlatoandTheTrialofSocratesRoutledgePhilosophyGuideBooktoPlatoandTheTrialofSocratesThomasCBrickhouseandNicholasDSmithFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYSimultaneouslypublishedintheUKbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEERoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©ThomasCBrickhouseandNicholasDSmithAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBrickhouse,ThomasC,–RoutledgephilosophyguidebooktoPlatoandthetrialofSocratesThomasCBrickhouseandNicholasDSmithpcm–(Routledgephilosophyguidebooks)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexPlatoApologySocrates–Trials,litigation,etcITitle:PlatoandthetrialofSocratesIISmith,NicholasDIIITitleIVSeriesBB–dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN–––(hbk)ISBN–––(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,ISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)CONTENTSTextsandTranslationsviiAcknowledgmentsviiiListofAbbreviationsixIntroductionTheEuthyphroIntroductiontotheEuthyphroDefiningpietyPietydefinedaswhatislovedbythegodsSocratestakestheleadTheApologyofSocratesIntroductiontotheApologyofSocratesSocrates’introductoryremarkstothejurorsThe“firstaccusations”againstSocratesSocrates’wisdomSocrates’defenseagainsttheofficialindictmentDefenseofthephilosophicallifeSocrates’servicetothecityTheendofSocrates’defensespeechThesecondspeechThefinalspeechTheCritoIntroductiontotheCritoTheopeningsceneCrito’scaseforescapeSocrates’ownpositionTheargumentoftheLawsThe“obeyorpersuade”doctrineTheconclusionoftheLaws’argumentThedeathscenefromthePhaedoIntroductiontothePhaedoPreparingfordeathDeathbyhemlockSocrates’famouslastwordsBibliographyIndexofPassagesGeneralIndexCONTENTSviTEXTSANDTRANSLATIONSAllcitationsusedforPlato’sworksinthisbookrefertotheOxfordClassical(Greek)textsCitationsaremadebyStephanuspagenumber,sectionletter,andthenlinenumberAlltranslationsweprovideinthisbookareourownThosewegiveforPlato’sEuthyphro,Apology,Crito,andPhaedoarefromourTheTrialandExecutionofSocrates:SourcesandControversies(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,)Wewouldliketothankourrespectivecollegesforvariouskindsofsupportinhelpingustocompletethisbook:LynchburgCollege(TCB),andLewisandClarkCollege(NDS)WearealsogratefultoSandraPetersonandMarkLMcPherranformakingtheirforthcomingworksavailabletoustostudyandtociteBookslikethiswouldnotbepossible,moreover,withoutcolleaguesinthefieldwhoseownpublishedworksandprofessionalpresentationshaveeducatedandchallengedusWeareforevergratefultoallofthosewhoseworkweciteinthisbookInmanycases,wehavelearnedthemostfromthosewithwhomweendupdisagreeingAsthegreatPlatoscholarGregoryVlastosoncewrote,“Onlythosewhoarestrangerstotheethosofscholarlycontroversywillseeanythingbuthighesteeminmycritique”(Vlastos,n)ACKNOWLEDGMENTSLISTOFABBREVIATIONSAristotleMetaphMetaphysicsDLDiogenesLaertius,LivesandOpinionsofEminentPhilosophersPlatoApApologyCharmCharmidesEuthydEuthydemusEuthphrEuthyphroGrgGorgiasHipMaHippiasMajor(GreaterHippias)LaLachesLysLysisPhdPhaedoPhdrPhaedrusRepRepublicXenophonApApologyHellHellenicaMemMemorabiliaINTRODUCTIONSocrateswasborninAthensinBCEAlthoughhewrotenothingofanysignificanceandhadnostudentsinanythingliketheordinarysenseofthatterm,hebecameoneofthemostinfluentialphilosophersinwesterncivilizationDuringhisownlifetime,hisphilosophicalactivities,whichwerecarriedoninpublicsettingsandprivatehomes,togetherwithhisidiosyncraticdemeanor,gainedhimgreatnotorietyand,indeed,musthavemadehimoneofAthens’bestknownfiguresTomany,however,hemusthavebeenmorethanamerecuriosity,forinBCESocrateswastriedonachargeofimpiety,convicted,andexecutedafteraperiodofimprisonmentPlato,whowasamemberofoneofAthens’mostaristocraticfamiliesandwhodedicatedhislifetophilosophybecauseofSocrates’influence,occupiesacentralplaceinthisdebateTheEuthyphro,ApologyofSocrates,Crito,andthedeathscenefromthePhaedo,thefourwritingstobeexaminedinthisbook,arePlato’sdramatizationsofvariousepisodesinSocrates’finaldaysTheEuthyphropurportstobeaconversationbetweenSocratesandaselfstyledreligiousexpertthattakesplaceinfrontoftheofficeofthekingarchon,whereSocrateshadbeenorderedtoappeartoheartheexactnatureofthechargesagainsthimTheApologyprovidesPlato’sversionofthreespeechesSocratesmakesbeforehisjurorsatthetrial:hisdefense,acounterpenaltyproposalfollowinghisconviction,andsomefinalwordsafterhehasbeensentencedtoexecutionTheCritotakesplaceinthefinaldaysofSocrates’incarcerationasheawaitsexecutionTheselectionfromthePhaedoprovidesanaccountofSocrates’finalconversationwithhisfriendsandassociates,andattheendofthedialogue,hedrinksthepoisonrequiredforhisexecutionanddiesThesefourworksareoftenpublishedtogetherandlegionsofstudentshavestudiedthemasagroupThejointpublicationoftheseworks,however,hasbynomeansbeenrestrictedtomoderntimesThrasyllus,thefirstcenturyCEscholar,whosecollectionofPlato’swritingsformsthebasisofwhatwenowrecognizeasthePlatoniccorpus,treatedthefourwritingswithwhichweareconcernedasaunit,althoughheincludedtheentiretyofthePhaedointhegroupIndeed,ThrasyllusdividedallofPlato’sdialoguesintogroupsoffour,calledtetralogies,ofwhichthesefourworksarethefirstAlthoughitisdoubtfulthatPlatohimselfintendedhisworkstobesogrouped,thecommonbackgroundagainstwhichthefourworkswithwhichwewillbeconcernedaresetmakesitonlynaturaltostudythemtogetherIfweacceptPlato’sdescriptionofSocrates’activitiesandthemotivationbehindthemasatallaccurate,thedecisiontoputhimontrialasaseriousthreattoAthensmustbeseenasabitterlyironicmiscarriageofjusticeInPlato,SocratesisaheroicfigurewhospentvirtuallyhisentirelifeexhortingotherstoputlessstockinworldlymattersandtomaketheimprovementoftheirsoulstheirprimaryconcernWherePlato’sSocratessoughttomakeothersquestiontheirvaluesinordertounderstandbetterhowtheyoughttolive,otherssawonlythepromulgationofmoralnihilismThedecisiontosilenceSocrates,then,wasatragicmisunderstandingofthephilosopher’srealintentCertainly,thisisthenaturalconclusiontoreachifwelookonlytothefirsttetralogyofthePlatoniccorpusforourunderstandingofthemotivesbehindSocrates’trialandexecutionINTRODUCTIONUnfortunately,thingsarenotsosimple,asPlatowasbynomeanstheonlypersoninantiquitytowriteaboutSocrates,andwhatalloftheancientauthorssayabouthimandaboutthereasonstheAtheniansputhimtodeathbynomeansformsacoherentpictureOneprominentexampleisAristophanes,thecomicplaywright,whoseplay,TheClouds,firstproducedsomeyearsbeforeSocrates’trial,revolvesaroundtheanticsofacounterfeitintellectualbythenameof“Socrates”BecauseTheCloudsfiguressoprominentlyinPlato’saccountofthetrial,wecanpostponeamoredetaileddiscussionofituntilourdiscussionofhisApologyofSocratesSufficeittosaynowthatAristophanes’purposecouldonlyhavebeentouseSocratesasacaricatureforawhole,butquitediverse,groupofintellectualsAristophanessoughttolampoonintheplayHowever,theremusthavebeensufficientsimilaritybetweenthecharacterintheplayandtherealSocratesandbetweentherealSocratesandtheintellectualswhowereAristophanes’comictargettomakethecharacternamed“Socrates”workasacaricatureWhenSocratessaysintheApology(c–)thatAristophanes’misrepresentationsofhimengenderedverydangerousprejudicesagainsthim,wehavetowonderexactlywhatwasmisrepresentationandwhatwasnotAnyattempttoseeclearlywhoSocrateswasandwhytheAthenianswouldhavetriedandexecutedhimisfurthercomplicatedbythefactthatintheyearsfollowingSocrates’deathanumberofauthors,manyadmirersofSocrates,begantowriteworksinwhichacharacternamedSocratesisprominentlyfeaturedWhatweknowofthese“Sokratikoilogoi”(Socraticarguments),whichincludedalloftheworksofPlatoexceptthefourdialoguesinwhichSocratesdoesnotappearatall,revealjusthowlittletheseauthorsagreedaboutwhatSocratesstoodforandwhatphilosophyhepropoundedThisverytroublingfacthasledmanyscholars,especiallyrecently,todismissentirelytheveryideathata“Socraticphilosophy”oraccuratehistoricalreconstructionofthephilosopherhimselfcanbefoundinanyofthiscomplexandcontradictoryliterature,includingespeciallyinthedialoguesofPlatoInfact,Plato’sownworksmakethepictureevenlessclear,principallybecausedifferentgroupsofPlato’sworksportraySocratesandINTRODUCTIONhisviewsinverydifferentwaysScholarswhohavesoughttoreconstructaSocraticphilosophyhavegenerallyattemptedtoseparateonegroupofPlato’sdialoguesoutinwhichSocratesandhisphilosophyarerepresentedmoreorlessaccuratelyOnthebasisofvariouscharacterizationsofthedifferencesbetweenSocrates’philosophicalviewsandthoseofPlatoinhisownphilosophicalmaturity,andalsoonthebasisoftechniquesofmeasuringstylisticdifferencesbetweenthedialogues(calledstylometry),manyscholarshaveproposedthatagroupofdialoguesthatPlatowroteearlyinhiscareerrepresentSocratesandhisphilosophyreasonablyaccuratelyButasthegenreoftheSokratikoilogoibecamemorepopularandwhenfidelitytothehistoricalSocratesandhisactualviewswasneitherrequirednorexpectedbyreadersofthegenre,PlatoeventuallybegantoinserthisownphilosophicalviewsintothemouthofSocratesThis,accordingtosomescholars(knownasthedevelopmentalists,becausetheiraccountinvolvestheideathatPlato’swritingsshowevidenceofhimdevelopingfromaprimarilySocraticpointofviewintoafullyindependentphilosopherinhisownright),explainswhytheSocrateswhospeaksinsomeofPlato’sdialoguesseemscommittedtoverydifferentphilosophicalpositionsthanthoseforwhichhearguesinotherdialoguesSo,towhatextentdoPlato’swritingsaboutthetrialanddeathofSocratesaccuratelyportraythephilosopher’sfinaldaysAretheseworkshistoricallyreliable,oraretheyfictionsthatusethenamesofhistoricalpersonsPerhapsnotsurprisingly,thesequestionscontinuetobehotlydebatedThoseinclinedtothinktheseworksarefictionaltendtobemostimpressedbytheexistenceoftheSokratikoilogoiandarguethatPlato’swritingsmustbeunderstoodasmembersofthisgenre–agenrethatrepresentsSocratesinsomanydifferentwaysthathistoricalaccuracycouldneverhavebeenaninterestforanyofthewritersworkinginthegenreDevelopmentalists,onthecontrary,arguethatnoneoftheotherwritershadthesamecloserelationshiptoSocratesasPlatohad,andwhileconcedingthatevenPlatoeventuallymovedawayfromportrayingSocratesaccurately,theexistenceofthisgenreofwritingsdoesnotprovethatPlato’searlierworkswerewrittenaspartofthatgenre,orshowedthesamelackofconcernforaccuracythatINTRODUCTIONothers,writinginthatgenre,didThosewhodiscountthehistoricalaccuracyofanyofPlato’sworksalsosometimesarguethattheirexceptionalliteraryqualitymakesitveryunlikelythattheyportrayactualeventsorpeopleaccuratelyButdevelopmentalistswillretortthatliteraryexcellenceisentirelycompatiblewithhistoricalaccuracyAccordingtomostdevelopmentalists,theEuthyphro,Apology,andCritoallbelongtothegroupofPlato’sworksregardedasearlyor“Socratic”works,inwhichSocratesandhisviewsareastruetotheoriginalaswewillfindinanyancientwritingsThePhaedo,however,isusuallydatedsomewhatlaterthantheseotherthree,anddevelopmentaliststudiesofthephilosophicalcontentofthisdialoguecontendthattheviewsforwhichSocratesarguesinthisworkarenolongerthoseofthehistoricalSocrates,butareinsteadthoseofPlatohimselfThePhaedo,inotherwords,isgenerallynotcountedasareliablesourceonSocratesorhisphilosophy,evenbythosewhoregardsomeofPlato’sotherworks(theearlyones)ashistoricallyreliableThis,perhaps,isonereasonwhymanyselectionsofPlato’sworks–includingespeciallythosedevotedtothetrialanddeathofSocrates,includeonlythelastscenefromthePhaedo,inwhichSocratesdrinksthehemlockpoisonanddiesWhenweconsiderthissceneindetail,laterinthebook,wewilldiscussthedebateoverwhetherthissceneshouldberegardedasaccurateaboutthewaySocratesactuallydiedButfewscholarsregardtherestofthePhaedoaslikelytoprovideanaccurateportrayalofthehistoricalSocratesandhisphilosophyThathavingbeensaid,whataboutthevalueoftherestofthefirsttetralogyashistoricalsourcesaboutthelastdaysofSocratesTowhatextent,ifany,canweregardwhatPlatowroteintheotherthreedialoguesashistoricallyaccurateWedoubtthatevidenceexiststhatwouldsettlethisdisputebetweenthosewhoaffirmandthosewhodenyPlato’sroleasafaithfulrecorderofthosefamouseventsSuchaconclusion,however,shouldinnowaydetractfromourstudyofPlato’swritingsabouttheendofSocrates’lifeFewwhoreadtheEuthyphro,Apology,Crito,andthedeathscenefromthePhaedowilldenythattheyprovideacompellingaccountofaphilosophersodedicatedto“livingtheINTRODUCTIONexaminedlife”thathepreferreddeathtoalifedevoidofphilosophicalinquiryInourdiscussionsofeachoftheseworks,wewilltrytoidentifythespecificscholarlycontroversiesthataffecttheinterpretationofeachdialoguebutwealsohopenevertolosesightofthewonderandtragedyofthenarrativePlatoprovidesinthesedialoguesInthetrialanddeathofSocrates,therecontinuetobemanylessonsforallofustolearn,lessonsthatcanchangeourlivesandvaluesforeverNOTESTheplaywasfirstproducedinandlaterrevised(butwhatwaschangedinthesecondeditionoftheplayisunknown)Therevisedversionoftheplayhassurvived,andisnowwidelyavailableinseveralEnglishtranslationsTheplayitselfcontinuestobeproducedandperformedoccasionally,andmodernstudentswhoreaditaredelightedtofindthatancientcomedycanstillmakeuslaughoutloudAlldevelopmentalistsarecommittedtotheviewthatthereisagroupofdialogueswrittenearlyinPlato’scareerinwhichSocratesandhisviewsarerepresentedinamoreorlessconsistentwaythatisdifferentfromthewayinwhichSocratesandhisviewsaredepictedindialoguesPlatowrotelateronSomedevelopmentalistsarealso“historicists”thatis,theyclaimthattheearlierdialoguesrepresentSocratesandhisviewsinawaythatisfaithfultothehistoricaloriginalOtherdevelopmentalistsareagnosticabout–orreject–thehistoricisttheory,claimingonlythatPlatochosetochangethewayherepresentedSocratesfromtheearliertothelaterworks,butthatthischangemayonlyrepresentachangeinPlato’sownviews,andthatnoneofPlato’sworksmayberegardedasfaithfultothehistoricalSocratesOurownviewisadevelopmentalistone,andthoughwebelievethehistoricistviewprovidesthebestexplanationofwhyPlato’sdialoguesshowsuchmarkedshiftsbetweentheearlierandlaterdialogues,weareopentotheideathatsomeotherexplanationoftheseshiftsmayendupexplainingthemmorepersuasivelythanthehistoricistsdoTothatextent,wealsocountourselvesassomewhatagnosticabouthistoricismForthesakeofsimplicity,intherestofthisdiscussion,by“developmentalist”wewillmean“historicistdevelopmentalist”INTRODUCTIONTHEEUTHYPHROINTRODUCTIONTOTHEEUTHYPHROThelegalsettingMostlegalcasesinancientAthenswereinitiatedandlitigatedbyprivatecitizensThismeantthatthefirstthingawouldbeprosecutorhadtodowastowriteoutanindictmentandthengettheonehewasprosecutingtoappearbeforetheappropriatemagistrate(orarchon)IncasessuchastheoneagainstSocrates,itwouldbethekingarchon,whosejobitwastomakesurethechargeswereclearandlegallyappropriate,andwhosedecisionitwouldbewhethertoforwardthecasetoatrialbyjuryInordertogettheaccusedpersontoappearbeforethekingarchon,asummonshadtobeissuedThesummonswasoral,notwritten,andwouldbedeliveredbytheprosecutorhimselfSo,shortlybeforethescenewefindintheEuthyphro,wecanimagineMeletusgoingtoSocrates,andbeforetherequiredtwowitnesses,MeletuswouldhaveconfrontedSocratesandinformedthelatterthathewassummonedtothekingarchon’sofficeonsuchandsuchadate,andstatedtheoffense,probablyexactlyasitappearedintheofficialindictmentThen,bothSocratesandMeletuswouldappearatthekingarchon’soffice,whereMeletuswouldhandoverawrittencopyoftheindictmentMeletusmayatthattimealsohavebeenrequiredtopayafee(whoseamountisnotnowknown)Thekingarchonwouldthensetadateforapreliminaryhearingonthecharges,calledananakrisisInthemeantime,priortotheanakrisis,thekingarchonpostedacopyofthechargeonanoticeboardinthemarketplace(theagora)Then,theanakrisiswouldbeheld,atwhichtheindictmentwouldbereadaloud,andSocrateswouldberequiredtoenterhispleaSocrateswouldthenhavehadtosubmitaformalstatementtotheeffectthathedeniedthechargeagainsthimBothsidesofthelegalcasewouldthenrespondtoquestionsfromthekingarchon,whichwouldservetoclarifyforallconcernedwhattheissueswereandwhatwouldberequiredasevidenceatthetrialItappearstobethegeneralrulethatprosecutionswouldalmostalwaysbesenttotrial,aslongasthechargesthemselveswereinappropriatelegalorderThosewhosoughttoabusethecourtsbyinitiatingfrivolousorpatentlyinappropriatechargeswerefinediftheydidnotwinatleastone

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*新书上架*【劳特里奇哲学导读】柏拉图与苏格拉底的审判

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