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首页 【笛卡尔研究-剑桥哲学名著导读】笛卡尔的《沉思》

【笛卡尔研究-剑桥哲学名著导读】笛卡尔的《沉思》.pdf

【笛卡尔研究-剑桥哲学名著导读】笛卡尔的《沉思》

九月虺
2009-07-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【笛卡尔研究-剑桥哲学名著导读】笛卡尔的《沉思》pdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankDESCARTES’SMEDITATIONSInthisnewintroductiontoaclassicphilosophicaltext,CatherineWilsonexaminestheargumentsofDescartes’sfamousMeditations,thebookwhichlaunchedmodernphilosophyDrawingonthereinterpretationsofDescartes’sthoughtofthepasttwentyfiveyears,sheshowshowDescartesconstructsatheoryofthemind,thebody,nature,andGodfromapremiseofradicaluncertaintyShediscussesindetailthehistoricalcontextofDescartes’swritings,andtheirrelationshiptoearlymodernscience,andatthesametimesheintroducesconceptsandproblemsthatdefinethephilosophicalenterpriseasitisunderstoodtodayFollowingcloselythetextoftheMeditationsandmeanttobereadalongsidethem,thissurveyisaccessibletoreaderswithnopreviousbackgroundinphilosophyItiswellsuitedtouniversitylevelcoursesonDescartes,butcanalsobereadwithprofitbystudentsinotherdisciplinescatherinewilsonisProfessorofPhilosophyattheUniversityofBritishColumbia,VancouverSheistheauthorofLeibniz’sMetaphysics:AHistoricalandComparativeStudy()andTheInvisibleWorld:EarlyModernPhilosophyandtheInventionoftheMicroscope,–()cambridgeintroductionstokeyphilosophicaltextsThisnewseriesoffersintroductorytextbooksonwhatareconsideredtobethemostimportanttextsofWesternphilosophyEachbookguidesthereaderthroughthemainthemesandargumentsoftheworkinquestion,whilealsopayingattentiontoitshistoricalcontextanditsphilosophicallegacyNophilosophicalbackgroundknowledgeisassumed,andthebookswillbewellsuitedtointroductoryuniversitylevelcoursesTitlespublishedintheseries:descartes’smeditationsbyCatherineWilsonDESCARTES’SMEDITATIONSAnIntroductionCATHERINEWILSONUniversityofBritishColumbiaCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomFirstpublishedinprintformat©CatherineWilsonInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThisbookisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhisbook,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackpaperbackpaperbackeBook(NetLibrary)eBook(NetLibrary)hardbackFormychildren,EvaandDavidContentsListoffigurespagexiIntroduction:AbouttheMeditationsThesituationoftheMeditatorisdescribedandhisdesiretodemolisheverythingandbeginagainisexplored,whiletheReaderisintroducedtosomebasicphilosophicalconceptsTheMeditator–Thebuildingmetaphor–“Knowledgeconditions”–Scientificandunscientificmentalities(ATvii:–)Theaimsofanidealscientist–Sortingprocedures–Beliefsets–Skepticismandcredulity–Conformityandauthority(ATvii:)MeditationOneThepossibilityofamalevolentDemonisraisedandtheMeditatorresolvestodoubteverythinghecanpossiblydoubtTheWithholdingPolicy–Canthesensesbetrusted–Thedreamargument–ThemalevolentDemonargument(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationOneMeditationTwoTheMeditatordiscoversanindubitablepropositionandcontinueswithaninvestigationintoherideasofherselfandherideasofcorporealthingsHyperbolicDoubt–AnadditiontotheMeditator’sbeliefset–“Cogito,sum”(ATvii:–)viiviiiContentsWhatam“I”–Formeropinionsdoubted–“I”mustbeamind–SeeingandSeeing(ATvii:–)Whatare“corporealthings”–Knowledgeofideasofcorporealthings–The“pieceofwax”–Extension–Intellectpriority–Mindpriority(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationTwoMeditationThree(i)TheMeditatordiscovershowtodistinguishtruefromfalsepropositionsbyreferencetotheclarityanddistinctnessofhisideasandconsiderswhetherGodismerelyasubjectiveideaClearanddistinctperception–Truth(ATvii:–)IstheDeity(malevolentorbenevolent)merelyanidea–Ideasandtheirsources–Substance,modes,accidents–Degreesofrealityanddegreesofperfection–Materiallyfalseideas(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationThree(i)MeditationThree(ii)TheMeditatorfindsthathecanreachaperfectGodinhisthoughtsandthatthisGodcannotperpetratefraudanddeceptionandcannotbeaDemonIsGodmorethantheMeditator’sinventedidea–CouldtheMeditatorbeGod–Continuouscreation(ATvii:–)Godisveracious–ThemalevolentDemonisaninventedidea–Thenaturallight–Theconversionofbelievetotrue–Attainingknowledge(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationThree(ii)MeditationFour(i)TheMeditatorbroodsonherepistemologicalandmoralerrorsanddeficienciesanddiscoversthetruepowerofherwillanditsspontaneousattractiontotruthandgoodnessTrueandfalsejudgment–Divineandhumanwill–Theuseoffreewill(ATvii:–)MeditationFour(ii)TheMeditatordiagnosesthecauseofherepistemologicalandmoralerrors,addsanContentsixerrorpreventionruletoherknowledgeset,andconfirmsthatGodistrulybenevolentError–Thedenialoffinalcauses–Divinegoodness(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationFourMeditationFiveTheMeditatorreflectsonhisexperiencesofmathematicalandabstractconceptsandarrivesataproofofGod’sexistenceTheessentialnatureofcorporealsubstance–CategoryandCategoryproperties–Mathematicalobjectsandmathematicaltruths–Triangles,unicorns,andGod–RealismandPsychologism(ATvii:–)TheOntologicalArgument–CouldGod(still)beafictionalentity–Necessaryexistence(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationFiveMeditationSix(i)TheMeditatordeterminesthatheisapparentlyattachedtoaparticularhumanbodyHismindandthisputativebodyareneverthelessdistinctandseparable,sothatimmortalityispossibleevenifbodiesingeneralareperishableVisualimagination–TheMeditator’sputativebody(ATvii:–)Mortalism–Distinctexistence–Separabilityofmindandbody–PerceptionandimaginationarenotessentialtotheMeditator(ATvii:)ObjectionstoMeditationSix(i)MeditationSix(ii)TheMeditatorestablishesthatextramentalcorporealthingsdefinitelyexist,confirmsthatshehasapersonalbodytowhichsheisunited,andlearnsthatneitherhersensationsnorherperceptionsresembletheircausesintheexternalworldTheactivecauseofideas–Corporealthingsexist(ATvii:–)xContentsTheresemblancetheoryofsensationrefuted–God–Natureasanorderlysystem–Theunityofmindandbody–Sensationsareconfused(ATvii:–)Theresemblancetheoryofperceptionquestioned(ATvii:–)Thefunctionalbodymachine–Thesemantictheoryofsensationandperception(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationSix(ii)MeditationSix(iii)TheMeditatorlearnshowherbodyisorganized,anddiscoverswhyherillnesses,likehererrors,suggestthatGodisbenevolent,anddeterminesthatshecanproceedconfidentlyinallthesciencesSensoryerror–Thesickbodyanditssensations–Thenervoussystem(ATvii:–)Theendofdoubt(ATvii:–)ObjectionstoMeditationSix(iii)DescartesincontextTheenigmaoftheMeditationsSomereactionstoCartesianismReceptionandrepercussionsofCartesiandoctrineinseventeenthandeighteenthcenturyphilosophyDescartesandtheformationofmodernityAppendix:theObjectorsGlossaryFurtherreadingIndexFiguresTheoveralltaskofbecominganidealscientistpageTheMethodofTotalCredulityTheMethodofTotalSkepticismTheSubjectivePolicyTheAuthorityPrincipleTheConformityPolicyTheWithholdingPolicyTheMeditator’sbeliefsetatthebeginningofMeditationOneHowthingsstandifthereisamalevolentDemonTheMeditator’sbeliefsetattheendofMeditationOneTheMeditator’sbeliefsetatthebeginningofMeditationTwoApossiblerevisiontotheMeditator’sbeliefset(rejected)AnotherpossiblerevisiontotheMeditator’sbeliefset(rejected)TheMeditator’sbeliefsetattheendofp,MeditationTwoTheMeditator’sbeliefsetattheendofp,MeditationTwoTheMeditator’sbeliefsetattheendofMeditationTwoTheMeditator’sbeliefsetatthebeginningofMeditationThreeTheMeditator’soveralltaskTheconversionofbelievetotrueTheMeditator’sknowledgesetattheendofMeditationThreeThe“CartesianCircle”xixiiListoffiguresTheMeditator’sknowledgesetattheendofMeditationFourTheMeditator’sknowledgesetatthebeginningofMeditationFiveCategoryandCategorypropertiesTheMeditator’sknowledgesetattheendofMeditationFiveThesetofpropositionsthatarestilldoubtfulatthebeginningofMeditationSixThesetofpropositionsthatarestilldoubtfulinthemiddleofMeditationSixTheMeditator’sknowledgesetinMeditationSix,pTheMeditator’sknowledgesetattheconclusionofMeditationSixIntroduction:AbouttheMeditationsDescartes’sMeditationsonFirstPhilosophy,firstpublishedin,aredevotedtothefollowingphilosophicalquestions:WhatcanwecometoknowaboutthehumanmindanditspowersIstherearealitybehindappearances,and,ifso,howcanwehaveaccesstoitDoourexperiencesarisefromourbodiesandourbrains,orcouldwethink,feel,andperceivewithoutthemHowcanwerecognizetruthanddistinguishitfromfalseandconfusedopinionIsthereisaGod,and,ifso,isthisGodbenevolent,malevolent,orsimplyindifferenttousIfthisGodisbenevolent,howshouldweunderstandillness,error,andmorallywrongactionsThisbookisintendedasafirstintroductiontotheMeditationsand,atthesametime,asanintroductiontosomebasicproblemsandterminologyofanalyticphilosophy,includingthetheoryofknowledge,metaphysics,philosophyofscience,philosophyofperception,andphilosophyoflanguageNopreviousexperienceinphilosophyispresupposedChapterisanintroductiontotheproblemofknowledgeinCartesiantermsandChapters–leadthereaderthroughtheargumentsoftheMeditations,explainingandcommentingontheimportantpointsalongthewayChapteroffersanexplanationoftherelationshipoftheMeditationstoDescartes’sotherwritings,anddiscussestheconflictingperceptionsofDescartesinhisowntimeItoutlinestherelationshipbetweenCartesianproblemsanddoctrinesandtheevolutionofmodernphilosophyWhiletheMeditationsareunusualamongstphilosophicalworks,insofarasitispossibletoreconstructandfollowDescartes’smainargumentswithoutknowinganythingabouttheseventeenthcenturybackground,abriefsurveyofDescartes’slife,character,andaspirationswillhelptosetthestageforadetailedtreatmentofhistextDescartes’sMeditationsdescartes’slifeRene´DescarteswasbornMarch,,inTouraine,southeastofParis,andeducatedattheJesuitcollegeofLaFleˆche,towhichhewassentasaboarderattheageoftenHisfutureroleasthefounderofmodernphilosophywasnotforeshadowedinhisearlyaccomplishmentsandinterestsSomewhatsicklyandfondofhissleep–notunusualqualitiesinanadolescent–theyoungDescartesshowednosignsoficonoclasmorevenofphilosophicalacumenHestudiedlogic,grammar,poetry,andhistory,andalthoughhewasanavidreaderandmuchfavoredbytheschoolmasters,theliterarysideofhiseducationinterestedhimlessthanthemathematicalAfterleavingschool,heacquiredalawdegreebutheneverpracticedHewrotetoafriendthathewouldhavebeenhappyasanartisanReturninghome,DescarteslearnedsuchskillsoftheminornobilityashowtorideahorseandhandleweaponsHewas,however,notsatisfiedwithlifeonacountryestateandhisfamilysenthimtoParis,wherehecontinuedtostudymathematicsIn,hesignedonwithPrinceMauriceofNassauwhowasfightingtheSpanish,toexperience,hesaid,thetheatreoftheworld,tolearnitsmannersandcustomsHelefttheNetherlandsinonalongtourthroughEasternEuropeWinteringinsouthernGermany,hesoughtoutlearnedpersonsfordiscussionbeforemovingtoPrague,whereheencounteredTychoBrahe’snewcosmologicalsystem,acompromisebetweentheearthcenteredsystemoftheuniversestillingreatfavorandCopernicus’sheliocentriccosmology,whichrepresentedoursunasonlyoneofamultitudeofstarsandourplanetasanevensmallerspeckonthecosmicsceneHestudiedgeometry,optics,mechanics,musictheory,andanimalphysiologyHebegantowonderhowthemindfittedordidnotfitintotheworldofphysicalobjectsandprocessesAseriesofdreamsinconvincedDescartesthathehadbeenspeciallyfavoredbyGodandwasdestinedtobeaphilosopher,which,intheterminologyofthetime,meantonedevotedgenerallytothepursuitofknowledgeofallthingsThedreamsstimulatednineyearsofworkattemptingtoperfectamethodofdiscovery,butinDescarteswasstillsearchingforaprofessionHehadpublishednothinginphilosophy,orinanyotherfield,thoughhisambitionswereIntroductiongrandHeannouncedtohisfriendsthatmathematics,asitwastaughtandappliedinahaphazardandunsystematicway,wasvirtuallyuseless,andstatedhisplantoinventamethodofformalreasoninggoverningproportionandquantityofwhichordinarygeometryandarithmeticwouldcomposeonlyapartThismathesisuniversalisor“universalanalyticalmethod”wouldembracephysicalquestionsand,byextension,moralquestions,insofarasthesedependedonhumannatureandthenatureoftheworldReturningtoParis,Descartesenjoyedan“agreeableandinnocent”life,workingonhisuniversalmethod,andstudyingthetheoryoflensesHisRulesfortheDirectionoftheMind,formulatedandpartiallywrittendownintheearlys,presentedsomemethodologicalideas,alongwithsomeideasaboutvisualperception,buthewasnotsufficientlysatisfiedwiththemtopublishthemduringhislifetimeApopularimageofDescartesrepresentshimasaquietandmeditativepersonwhoenjoyedsittingstillinhisroomandthinkingInfact,hewasanunusuallyrestlessmanwhomovedaroundandchangedhisresidencefrequentlyWithinafewyears,hehaddecidedtoleaveParis,toescapetheheatofthecity,heclaimed,andthepressofcrowdsInfact,hewasbeginningtofindtheParisianintellectualclimatetooconservativeTheliberalatmosphereofAmsterdamenticedhimbacktotheNetherlands,and,in,Descartessettledthere,topursuehisthoughtsonphilosophyinthebroadsense,consideringespeciallyitsclaimtoindependencefromtheologyHewasnotinterested,hedecided,intheologicalsubtletiesandthemysteriesofeternalsalvationbutinhappinessinthislifeItseemedtohimthattheunionofmedicineandmathematicsthroughtheformulationofarationallyintelligibleaccountofthehumanbodywasthekeytohappiness,sincebothphysicalandemotionalsufferinghadtheirbasisinthebodyHebegantostudythestructureofanimals,buyingcadaversinbutchers’shopstotakehomeanddissectHealsosketchedoutatwoparttreatiseonnaturalphilosophyThefirstpartwouldbeconcernedwiththeconstitutionofmatterandlight,thelawsofnature,andtheoriginsandstructureofthecosmos,andthesecondpartwouldbeconcernedwithanimalandhumanbodies,consideredasmachinesThetreatisewasneverpublished,thoughthefirstpartwasamplifiedandreworkedandeventuallypublishedasthePrinciplesofDescartes’sMeditationsPhilosophyThen,in,attheageoffortyone,DescartesbroughtoutanonymouslythreescientificEssays,theOptics,theGeometry,andtheMeteorology,thelastdealingprimarilywithcelestialphenomenaHeappendedtothemapersonalessay,theDiscourseonMethod,thatdetailedhisfrustrationswithhisowneducation,theuselessnessoftraditionalphilosophy,hisbeliefsaboutthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenhumansandanimals,andhishopetobeabletointroduceintootherareasofsciencetheanalyticaltechniqueshehademployedsuccessfullyintheEssaysHeadvancedtheviewthataproperunderstandingofthefunctioningofthehumanbodywouldcontributetotheimprovementofmedicineandmoralsandthatawellfoundedtheoryofthephysicalworldwouldrenderus“mastersandpossessorsofNature”TheEssayswerefollowedfouryearslaterbytheMeditationsonFirstPhilosophyTothesurpriseofsomeofhisfollowers,DescarteshadturnedhisattentionawayfromanatomyandphysiologyandfromhistheoriesregardingterrestrialandcelestialphenomenaInstead,theMeditationstookupthetraditionaltopicsofmetaphysics–Godandthesoul–andthetraditionaltopicsofepistemology–truth,error,andtheroleofthesensesintheacquisitionofknowledgeReaderscuriousastowhyDescartessetoffinthisnewdirectionandwhatitsconsequenceswerewillfindfurtherinformationandexplanation,someofitnecessarilyspeculative,inChapterDescartesmovedtoapleasantchateaunearLeydenin,shortlybeforereleasinghiscompletesystemofthenaturalworldasthePrinciplesofPhilosophyinRecalledtoParis,heobjectedtobeingputondisplay“likeanelephantorapanther”andinsteadacceptedtheinvitationofQueenChristinaofSwedentomovetoStockholmtoserveasherinstructor,thoughshemadelittleuseofhistalentsHisinterestsshiftedoncemore,thistimefromthephysicalsciencesandmetaphysicstowhatwewouldtodaycallpsychologyandethicsHewantedtounderstandthefunctionofthe“passions”thatwesufferthroughourencounterswithpersons,objects,andeventsintheworld,especiallylove,hatred,wonder,desire,joy,andsadness,andtodeterminehowtoovercomesuchpsychologicalevilsasanger,depression,andthefearofdeathHislastwork,thePassionsoftheSoul,publishedafterhisdeathin,developedoutofanexchangeofIntroductionletterswiththelonelyandintellectualPrincessElizabethofBohemiaThePassionsdescribethephysicalsymptomsattachedtotheemotionsandoffermoraladviceabouttheirmanagementDescartes’spersonallifecanbereconstructedfromthefivevolumesoflettersheleftbehindTheseconveytheimpressionofaproud,sensitive,somewhatemotionallyvolatileman,anxiousastohisreputationandnotalwa

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【笛卡尔研究-剑桥哲学名著导读】笛卡尔的《沉思》

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