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首页 【拉康研究】真凝视:拉康之后的电影理论

【拉康研究】真凝视:拉康之后的电影理论.pdf

【拉康研究】真凝视:拉康之后的电影理论

九月虺
2009-07-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【拉康研究】真凝视:拉康之后的电影理论pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheRealGazeSUNYseriesinPsychoanalysisandCultureHenrySussman,editorTheRealGazeFilmTheoryafterLacanToddMcGowanStateUniversityofNewYorkPressPublishedbyStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,Albany©StateUniversityofNewYorkAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutwrittenpermissionNopartofthisbookmaybestoredinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeansincludingelectronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublisherForinformation,addressStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,WashingtonAvenue,Suite,Albany,NYProductionbyMarilynPSemeradMarketingbyMichaelCampochiaroLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMcGowan,ToddTherealgaze:filmtheoryafterLacanToddMcGowanpcm(SUNYseriesinpsychoanalysisandculture)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(hardcover:alkpaper)FilmcriticismMotionpicturesPhilosophyITitleIISeriesPNMdcForHilaryNeroni,whoembodiesnothingformeyanuladaThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsPrefaceixAcknowledgmentsxiIntroduction:FromtheImaginaryLooktotheRealGazePARTTHECINEMAOFFANTASY:EXPOSINGTHEEXCESSChapterFantasyandShowingTooMuchChapterTheoreticalFantasizingChapterThePoliticsofCinematicFantasyChapterEarlyExplorationsofFantasyChapterTheColdnessofKubrickChapterSpikeLee’sFantasmaticExplosionsChapterMichaelMannandtheEthicsofExcessChapterTheBankruptcyofFantasyinFelliniPARTTHECINEMAOFDESIRE:ABSENCEAMIDTHEPLENITUDEOFTHEIMAGEChapterDesireandNotShowingEnoughChapterTheoreticalDesiringChapterThePoliticsofCinematicDesireviiChapterTheImpossibleObjectoftheNouvelleVagueChapterTheBanalityofOrsonWellesChapterClaireDenisandtheOther’sFailuretoEnjoyChapterPoliticalDesireinItalianNeorealismPARTTHECINEMAOFINTEGRATION:THEMARRIAGEOFDESIREANDFANTASYChapterTheIntermixingofDesireandFantasyChapterTheTheoreticalOppositionChapterThePoliticsoftheCinemaofIntegrationChapterTheOrdinaryCinemaofRonHowardChapterStevenSpielberg’sSearchfortheFatherChapterDWGriffith’sSuspenseChapterFilmsThatSeparatePARTTHECINEMAOFINTERSECTION:COLLISIONSOFDESIREANDFANTASYChapterTheSeparationofDesireandFantasyChapterTheorizingtheRealChapterThePoliticsoftheCinemaofIntersectionChapterTheOverlappingWorldsofAndreiTarkovskyChapterAlainResnaisbetweenthePresentandthePastChapterWimWendersandtheEthicsofFantasizingChapterTheSexualRelationshipwithDavidLynchNotesIndexviiiContentsPrefaceFILMTHEORYTODAYisalmostnonexistentTheuniversalizingclaimsaboutthecinematicexperiencemadebyfiguressuchasSergeiEisenstein,AndréBazin,ChristianMetz,andLauraMulveyhavedisappearedContemporaryfilmscholarsareincreasinglycontenttomakelocal,particularclaimsaboutfilmThisfocusonparticularitythatis,theanalysisofisolatedphenomenacompletelydominatesthefieldoffilmstudiesAmidthiscontemporarylandscape,profferingauniversalandtotalizingtheoryofthefilmicexperienceseemsoutdatedandnaïveTheturnawayfromfilmtheorycoincideswithaturnawayfromfilmitselfThoseworkinginfilmstudiestendtounderstandfilmbycontextualizingboththefilmictextandtheexperienceofspectatorshipJanetStaigergivesexpressiontothisprevailingviewwhensheclaims,“Ibelievethatcontextualfactors,morethantextualones,accountfortheexperiencesthatspectatorshavewatchingfilmsandtelevisionandfortheusestowhichthoseexperiencesareputinnavigatingoureverydaylivesThesecontextualfactorsaresocialformationsandconstructedidentitiesoftheselfinrelationtohistoricalconditions”Byfocusingsointentlyonthecontextoffilmproductionandreception,welosethepossibilityofbeingabletoseethewayinwhichanaestheticobjectlikeafilmmightnotfitwithinthecontextwhereitappearsThougheveryfilmemergesfromwithinacontext,noteveryfilmcompletelyobeystherestrictionsthatthecontextplacesonitFilmscan,inshort,challengetheircontextthroughtheirindividualmodeofaestheticizingitOr,toputitinEricSantner’swords,miraclesdohappenAndeventhosefilmsthatenduprecapitulatingtheircontextcannotbeimmediatelyreducedtoitAlayerofmediationexistseveninthesecases:acompletelyconformistfilmmustfirstalienateitselffromitscontextinordertofindtheformtoupholditixInwhatfollows,IelaborateapsychoanalytictheoryoffilmthattakesfilmitselfasthepointofdepartureIavoiddiscussingeitherthehistoricalcontextofthefilms’productionortheirreception,andwhenItalkaboutspectatorship,Iamtalkingaboutthespectatorthatthefilmictextitselfdemands,notanempiricalspectatorOfcourse,nofilmignoresitshistoricalcontextorthosewhowillwatchit,butthecontextandthespectatordonotexistinanexternalrelationshiptothefilmictextEachfilmcarriesitscontextwithitthroughitsaestheticdevelopment,andeachfilmstructuresitsspectatorthroughitsspecificmodeofaddressThewagerofthisbookisthatthoughonecannotignorethecontextofafilm’sproductionandreception,onemustfindtheminheringwithinthefilmitself,notoutsideofitIfwelocatetheproductionandreceptionofafilmwithinthefilm,thenfilmtheoryonceagainbecomesapossibilityItwastheimpulsetowardcontextualizationthateliminatedthespacewhereinonemighttheorizeaboutfilmTheproperresponseisnotareactionaryassertionofthetextagainstthecontext,butagraspoftheinterweavingofthetwo,theimmanenceofthecontextwithinthetextEveryfilmictextbearsinternallythemanifestationsofitshistoricalsituation,justasitanticipatestheconditionsofitsreceptionWefindhistoryandthespectatorthroughfilmicinterpretation,notthrougharchivalresearchandaudiencesurveysxPrefaceAcknowledgmentsTHEESSAYTHATwasthebasisforthisbook,entitled“LookingfortheGaze:LacanianFilmTheoryandItsVicissitudes,”appearedinCinemaJournal,no(Spring):–Copyright©bytheUniversityofTexasPress,allrightsreservedAnearlyversionofasectioninchapter,entitled“ResistingtheLureofUltimateEnjoyment:ClaireDenis’J’aipassommeil,”appearedinKinoeye,no(June,)ThankstothesejournalsforpermissiontopublishthismaterialCoverconceptbyHilaryNeroniDesignbyHilaryNeroniandMikeHosierIwouldliketothankmyseniorandgraduateseminarsattheUniversityofVermontfortheirwillingnesstoexplorepsychoanalytictheoryandfortheirmanyideasthatspurredmythinkingThisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttheconscientiousworkofMarilynSemeradandJamesPeltzatSUNYPressJameshasdoneasmuchasanyoneforthepropagationofpsychoanalytictheoryinAmerica,whereitoftenreceivesatepidresponseEveryoneinvestedinpsychoanalytictheoryoweshimatremendousdebtAnnaKornbluh,JenniferFriedlander,JeffRice,JonathanMulrooney,DaveJenemann,andSarahNilsenprovidedinsightsthathaveshapedmythinkingaboutfilmtheoryHenryKripsprovidedthebestreadingofamanuscriptthatonecouldaskforIhopethatIhaveansweredsomeofhisincisivecommentswithoutsimplygivingintothemateverypoint,asIwastemptedtodoThankstoJillDelaneyShalforalertingmetoseveraloversightsandforremindingmethatsometimesabsencetrulyisabsenceSheilaKunklehasbeenavaluablepartnerintheattempttoworkthroughpsychoanalyticconceptsinrelationtothecinemaxiIwouldalsoliketothankPhilFosterforalwaysdemandingthatIparethingsdowntotheminimallevelnecessaryThankstoJeanWyattforsuggestionsthatanticipatedthedirectionIwantedtogowhenIcouldn’tseeitThankstoQuentinMartinforanexactingreadingthatbroughttheprojectbacktothegroundatthelastminuteandforcontinuingtobeatheoristintheguiseofahistorianFinally,thankstoWalterDavis,PaulEisenstein,andHilaryNeroniforprovidinginsightintowhatI’vemissedandformakingupmyfourfoldxiiAcknowledgmentsIntroduction:FromtheImaginaryLooktotheRealGazeTheEmergenceofLacanianFilmTheoryWhenfilmtheoristsinthesfirstlookedtoJacquesLacan’sthoughttofurthertheirunderstandingofcinema,theirfocuswasnarrowSinceLacanhimselfnevertheorizedaboutfilm,filmtheoristslookedtoanareaofhisthoughtthatseemedmosteasilytransferabletothecinematicexperienceTheyreliedalmostexclusivelyonanessayentitled“TheMirrorStageasFormativeoftheIfunction,asRevealedinPsychoanalyticExperience”Commonlyreferredtoasthe“mirrorstageessay,”thisbrieftextfromLacan’searlycareerLacandeliveredthepaperasatalkin,twoyearspriortothebeginningoftheseminarswherehedevelopedthethoughtthatwenowidentifywithhimofferedawayforfilmtheoriststothinkthroughtheideologicalproblemsinherentintheactoffilmspectatorshipInthisessayLacanarguesthatinfantsacquiretheirfirstsenseofselfidentity(theformationofanego)throughtheexperiencelookinginamirrorandrelatingtotheirbodiesForLacan,thisexperiencemetaphoricallycapturesastageinthechild’sdevelopmentwhenthechildanticipatesamasteryofthebodythatshehelacksinrealityThechild’sfragmentedbodybecomes,thankstothewaythatthemirrorimageisread,awholeTheidealofthebodyasaunityoverwhichthechildhasmasteryemergesastheillusionproducedthroughthemirroringexperienceThoughthemirrorsimplyreturnsanimageofwhatthechildactuallydoes,themirroringexperiencedeceivesinsofarasitpresentsthebodythroughacoherentimageThewholenessofthebodyisseeninawaythatitisnotexperiencedBytransposingthisunderstandingontocinematicspectatorship,filmtheoristswereabletolinktheillusoryqualitiesoffilmtotheprocessthroughwhichsubjectsenterintoideologyandbecomesubjectedtotheconstraintsofthesocialorderThisprocess,whichLouisAlthussercallstheideologicalinterpellationofthesubject,involvesconcreteindividualsmisrecognizingthemselvesassubjectsbytakingupasociallygivenidentityandseeingthemselvesinthisidentityForearlyLacanianfilmtheorists,AlthusserwasacrucialbridgebetweenLacan’stheoryofthemirrorstageandthecinematicexperiencebecauseAlthusseremphasizedthesocialdimensionofthekindofmisrecognitionsthatfollowedfromthatofthemirrorstageInotherwords,AlthusserpoliticizedLacan’stheoryandofferedfilmtheoristsanavenuefordevelopingacriticalunderstandingofthecinematicexperiencethatwasinformedbypsychoanalyticthinkingTheinitialtheoreticalimpetusinthisdirectionwaslargelytheworkofFrenchtheoristssuchasChristianMetz,JeanLouisBaudry,andJeanLouisComolli,aswellasBritishtheoristsassociatedwiththejournalScreensuchasLauraMulvey,PeterWollen,ColinMacCabe,andStephenHeathThesewerethefirsttheoriststobringpsychoanalyticconceptstobearonthestudyofcinemainasystematicformThoughtheirspecificapproachesvaried,theysharedabeliefintheconnectionbetweenthepsychiceffectsofthecinemaandtheworkingsofideology,andthisiswhyLacan’sanalysisofthemirrorstage,politicizedbyAlthusser,provedsovaluableInthemirrorstageessay,Lacanstressestheillusorynatureofthemasterythatthechildexperienceswhilelookinginthemirror,amasteryoverherhisownbodythatthechilddoesnotyethaveinrealityAccordingtotheearlyLacanianfilmtheorists,thespectatorinhabitsthepositionofthechildlookinginthemirrorLikethischild,thespectatorderivesasenseofmasterybasedonthepositionthatthespectatoroccupiesrelativetotheeventsonthescreenAsChristianMetzputsitinhislandmarkworkTheImaginarySignifier,“Thespectatorisabsentfromthescreenasperceived,butalso(thetwothingsinevitablygotogether)presentthereandeven‘allpresent’asperceiverAteverymomentIaminthefilmbymylook’scaress”BeingabsentasperceivedandpresentasperceiverallowsthespectatortoescapethesenseofrealabsencethatcharacterizeslifeoutsidethecinemaForMetz,thecinematicexperienceallowsspectatorstoovercometemporarilythesenseoflackthatweenduresimplybyexistingassubjectsintheworldThisexperienceprovidesawhollyimaginarypleasure,repeatingthatofthemirrorstageJeanLouisBaudrymakesthisconnectionexplicit,pointingoutthat“thearrangementofthedifferentelementsprojector,darkenedhall,screeninadditiontoreproducinginastrikingwaythemiseenscèneofPlato’scavereconstructsthesituationnecessarytothereleaseofthe‘mirrorstage’discoveredbyLacan”Byperpetuatingthisreconstruction,thecinemaleadsspectatorsintoselfdeceptionAtitsmostbasiclevel,thistheoreticalpositionunderstandsthecinemaasamachinefortheperpetuationofideologyAccordingtoearlyLacanianfilmtheoristssuchasMetzandBaudry,cinema,likethemirrorstage,isimaginaryinLacan’sspecificsenseofthetermAsLacanconceivesit,theimaginaryprovidesanillusionofcompleteIntroductionnessinbothourselvesandinwhatweperceiveInordertoaccomplishthis,itdupesusintonotseeingwhatismissinginourselvesandourworldForinstance,lookingoutmywindow,IseearusticfarmhouseonasnowymorningandimagineatranquildomesticsceneinsideWhenIlookinthiswayandviewthefarmhousejustontheimaginarylevel,whatImissisnotonlytheviolentquarreltakingplacearoundthebreakfasttable,butalsotheviolentexclusionthattheverystructureofaprivatehomeeffectuatesWedesignhomes,evenrusticfarmhouses,toshelterourselvesasmuchfromothersasfromtheweather,butthissocioeconomicdimensionofthefarmhouseremainsoutofsightwhenoneseesitontheimaginarylevelLacan’suseoftheterm“imaginary”thusplaysonbothmeaningsweassociatewithit:itisatoncevisualandillusoryTheimaginarymostoftenworkstoconcealthefunctioningofLacan’sothercategoriesthatconstituteourexperience,thesymbolicandtherealWhereastheimaginaryistheorderofwhatwesee,thesymbolicorderisthestructuresupportingandregulatingthevisibleworldAstherealmoflanguage,itstructuresourexperience,providingnotonlythewordsweusetodescribeourselvesandourworld,butalsotheveryidentitieswetakeupasourownThesymbolicidentitiesofAmerican,universityprofessor,parent,andsoonprovideawayformetohaveasenseofwhoIamwithoutsimplycreatingitformyselfTheycomereadymade,andasIbecomeasubject,IseemyselfrealizedintheseidentitiesThoughnosymbolicidentityfitsmeperfectlyIneverfeel,forexample,likeIcompletelyembodywhatitmeanstobeaprofessormyimaginarysenseofaself,anego,coversoverthisgapTheimaginaryhidesboththepowerofthesymbolicorderinshapingmyidentityanditsinabilitytodosocompletelyThatistosay,theimaginaryalsohidesthereal,Lacan’sthirdcategoryofexperienceTheLacanianrealistheindicationoftheincompletenessofthesymbolicorderItisthepointatwhichsignificationbreaksdown,agapinthesocialstructureBystressingtheimportanceofthereal,Lacandoesn’tproclaimanabilitytoescapelanguageandidentifywhatisreallyactualinstead,heaffirmsthelimitationsoflanguagelanguage’sinabilitytosayitallorspeakthewholetruthToaffirmtherealistoaffirmthattheworkofideologynevercomesoffwithoutahitchEveryideologyincludesapointwithinitsstructurethatitcan’taccountfororrepresentThisisthepoint,thereal,atwhichideologyopensuptotheoutsideTherealthusallowsideologytoincludenewphenomena,andatthesametime,itmarksideology’svulnerabilityWhenwecallideologyintoquestion,wedosofromthisrealpointwithinitButunfortunatelytherealneverappearsinthepsychoanalyticfilmtheorydevelopedinthesForsomeonelikeBaudry,thecinematicimageactsasanimaginarydeception,alureblindingustoanunderlyingsymbolicstructureandtothematerialcinematicapparatusWhilewatchingafilm,weremainunawareoftheactofproductionthatcreatedtheimagesforus,andinthiswaythecinematicIntroductionexperiencedupesusWhenwebuyintotheillusion,wehaveasenseofcontroloverwhatweseeonthescreenThistheoreticalapproachconceivesofthegaze(whatwouldbecomethepivotalconceptinLacanianfilmtheory)asafunctionoftheimaginary,thekeytotheimaginarydeceptionthattakesplaceinthecinemaEarlyLacanianfilmtheoryidentifiesthegazewiththemisguidedlookofthespectator,eventhoughsuchaconceptionhasnosignificantrootsinLacan’sthought(beyondthemirrorstageessay)Beginningwiththisidea,thetaskofthefilmtheoristbecomesoneofcombatingtheillusorymasteryofthegazewiththeelucidationoftheunderlyingsymbolicnetworkthatthisgazeelidesMetzclearlyarticulatesthisasthegoalofpsychoanalyticfilmtheory(thoughhedoesn’temploytheterm“gaze”):“Reducedtoitsmostfundamentalprocedures,anypsychoanalyticreflectiononthecinemamightbedefinedinLacaniantermsasanattempttodisengagethecinemaobjectfromtheimaginaryandtowinitforthesymbolic,inthehopeofextendingthelatterbyanewprovince”Thisideaseemstofollowfromtheoriginalpremisesofpsychoanalysisspecifically,itsattempttosymbolizetraumaticimagesthroughthe“talkingcure”Aspsychoanalyticfilmtheorydeveloped,itbegantoexaminetheparticulardynamicsoftheimaginarygazeinanefforttomakeclearitssymbolicunderpinningsIn“VisualPleasureandNarrativeCinema,”undoubtedlythemostwidelyanthologizedessayinfilmtheory,LauraMulveyassociatesthisgazewithmalespectatorshipandwiththeideologicaloperationsofpatriarchalsocietyAccordingtoMulvey,classicalHollywoodcinemaallowsthemalespectatortoidentifywiththegazeofthecameraandthemaleprotagonist,andfemalecharactersfunctionsolelyasobjectstobelookedatThus,thespectatorisinevitablygenderedmaleandlinkedtotheexperienceofimaginarymasteryButthefurtherthatLacanianfilmtheorymovedinthedirectionofspecifyingspectatorsintheirparticularity,themorethatitpavedthepathleadingtoitsowndemiseInthesands,wavesofcriticismconfrontedLacanianfilmtheory,especiallyMulvey’sessayThiscriticismmostoftentookasitspointofdeparturethetheory’sfailuretoaccount

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  • sqdxrsh_335v0 是英文原著,挺好的,谢谢。

    2010-04-10 21:36:47

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