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首页 Getting to Yes (英) - 《谈判力》无需让步的说服艺术

Getting to Yes (英) - 《谈判力》无需让步的说服艺术.pdf

Getting to Yes (英) - 《谈判力》无需让步的…

lololo456
2009-07-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Getting to Yes (英) - 《谈判力》无需让步的说服艺术pdf》,可适用于市场营销领域

GettingtoYESNegotiatinganagreementwithoutgivinginRogerFisherandWilliamUryWithBrucePatton,EditorSecondeditionbyFisher,UryandPattonRANDOMHOUSEBUSINESSBOOKSGETTINGTOYESTheauthorsofthisbookhavebeenworkingtogethersinceRogerFisherteachesnegotiationatHarvardLawSchool,whereheisWillistonProfessorofLawandDirectoroftheHarvardNegotiationProjectRaisedinIllinois,heservedinWorldWarIIwiththeUSArmyAirForce,inPariswiththeMarshallPlan,andinWashington,DC,withtheDepartmentofJusticeHehasalsopracticedlawinWashingtonandservedasaconsultanttotheDepartmentofDefenseHewastheoriginatorandexecutiveeditoroftheawardwinningseriesTheAdvocatesHeconsultswidelywithgovernments,corporations,andindividualsthroughConflictManagement,Inc,andtheConflictManagementGroupWilliamUry,consultant,writer,andlectureronnegotiationandmediation,isDirectoroftheNegotiationNetworkatHarvardUniversityandAssociateDirectoroftheHarvardNegotiationProjectHehasservedasaconsultantandthirdpartyindisputesrangingfromthePalestinianIsraeliconflicttoUSSovietarmscontroltointracorporateconflictstolabormanagementconflictataKentuckycoalmineCurrently,heisworkingonethnicconflictintheSovietUnionandonteachercontractnegotiationsinalargeurbansettingEducatedinSwitzerland,hehasdegreesfromYaleinLinguisticsandHarvardinanthropologyBrucePatton,DeputyDirectoroftheHarvardNegotiationProject,istheThaddeusRBealLectureronLawatHarvardLawSchool,whereheteachesnegotiationAlawyer,heteachesnegotiationtodiplomatsandcorporateexecutivesaroundtheworldandworksasanegotiationconsultantandmediatorininternational,corporate,labormanagement,andfamilysettingsAssociatedwiththeConflictManagementorganizations,whichhecofoundedin,hehasbothgraduateandundergraduatedegreesfromHarvardBooksbyRogerFisherInternationalConflictandBehavioralScience:TheCraigvillePapers(editorandcoauthor,)InternationalConflictforBeginners()DearIsraelis,DearArabs:AWorkingApproachtoPeace()InternationalCrisesandtheRoleofLaw:PointsofChoice()InternationalMediation:AWorkingGuideIdeasforthePractitioner(withWilliamUry,)ImprovingCompliancewithInternationalLaw()GettingTogether:BuildingRelationshipsAsWeNegotiate()BooksbyWilliamUryBeyondtheHotline:HowCrisisControlCanPreventNuclearWar()WindowsofOpportunity:FromColdWartoPeacefulCompetitioninUSSovietRelations(editedwithGrahamTAllisonandBruceJAllyn,)GettingDisputesResolved:DesigningSystemstoCuttheCostsofConflict(withJeanneMBrettandStephenBGoldberg,)GettingPastNo:NegotiatingwithDifficultPeople()ContentsAcknowledgmentsPrefacetotheSecondEditionIntroductionITHEPROBLEMDON'TBARGAINOVERPOSITIONSIITHEMETHODSEPARATETHEPEOPLEFROMTHEPROBLEMFOCUSONINTERESTS,NOTPOSITIONSINVENTOPTIONSFORMUTUALGAININSISTONUSINGOBJECTIVECRITERIAIIIYES,BUTWHATIFTHEYAREMOREPOWERFULWHATIFTHEYWON'TPLAYWHATIFTHEYUSEDIRTYTRICKSIVINCONCLUSIONVTENQUESTIONSPEOPLEASKABOUTGETTINGTOYESAcknowledgmentsThisbookbeganasaquestion:WhatisthebestwayforpeopletodealwiththeirdifferencesForexample,whatisthebestadviceonecouldgiveahusbandandwifegettingdivorcedwhowanttoknowhowtoreachafairandmutuallysatisfactoryagreementwithoutendingupinabitterfightPerhapsmoredifficult,whatadvicewouldyougiveoneofthemwhowantedtodothesamethingEveryday,families,neighbors,couples,employees,bosses,businesses,consumers,salesmen,lawyers,andnationsfacethissamedilemmaofhowtogettoyeswithoutgoingtowarDrawingonourrespectivebackgroundsininternationallawandanthropologyandanextensivecollaborationovertheyearswithpractitioners,colleagues,andstudents,wehaveevolvedapracticalmethodfornegotiatingagreementamicablywithoutgivinginWehavetriedoutideasonlawyers,businessmen,governmentofficials,judges,prisonwardens,diplomats,insurancerepresentatives,militaryofficers,coalminers,andoilexecutivesWegratefullyacknowledgethosewhorespondedwithcriticismandwithsuggestionsdistilledfromtheirexperienceWebenefitedimmenselyIntruth,somanypeoplehavecontributedsoextensivelytoourlearningovertheyearsthatitisnolongerpossibletosaypreciselytowhomweareindebtedforwhichideasinwhatformThosewhocontributedthemostunderstandthatfootnoteswereomittednotbecausewethinkeveryideaoriginal,butrathertokeepthetextreadablewhenweowesomuchtosomanyWecouldnotfailtomention,however,ourdebttoHowardRaiffaHiskindbutforthrightcriticismhasrepeatedlyimprovedtheapproach,andhisnotionsonseekingjointgainsbyexploitingdifferencesandusingimaginativeproceduresforsettlingdifficultissueshaveinspiredsectionsonthesesubjectsLouisSohn,deviserandnegotiatorextraordinaire,wasalwaysencouraging,alwayscreative,alwayslookingforwardAmongourmanydebtstohim,weoweourintroductiontotheideaofusingasinglenegotiatingtext,whichwecalltheOneTextProcedureAndwewouldliketothankMichaelDoyleandDavidStrausfortheircreativeideasonrunningbrainstormingsessionsGoodanecdotesandexamplesarehardtofindWearegreatlyindebtedtoJimSebeniusforhisaccountsoftheLawoftheSeaConference(aswellasforhisthoughtfulcriticismofthemethod),toTomGriffithforanaccountofhisnegotiationwithaninsuranceadjuster,andtoMaryParkerFollettforthestoryoftwomenquarrelinginalibraryWewantespeciallytothankallthosewhoreadthisbookinvariousdraftsandgaveusthebenefitoftheircriticism,includingourstudentsintheJanuaryNegotiationWorkshopsofandatHarvardLawSchool,andFrankSander,JohnCooper,andWilliamLincolnwhotaughtthoseworkshopswithusInparticular,wewanttothankthosemembersofHarvard'sNegotiationSeminarwhomwehavenotalreadymentionedtheylistenedtouspatientlytheselasttwoyearsandofferedmanyhelpfulsuggestions:JohnDunlop,JamesHealy,DavidKuechle,ThomasSchelling,andLawrenceSusskindToallofourfriendsandassociatesweowemorethanwecansay,butthefinalresponsibilityforthecontentofthisbooklieswiththeauthorsiftheresultisnotyetperfect,itisnotforlackofourcolleagueseffortsWithoutfamilyandfriends,writingwouldbeintolerableForconstructivecriticismandmoralsupportwethankCarolineFisher,DavidLax,FrancesTurnbull,andJaniceUryWithoutFrancisFisherthisbookwouldneverhavebeenwrittenHehadthefelicityofintroducingthetwoofussomefouryearsagoFinersecretarialhelpwecouldnothavehadThankstoDeborahReimelforherunfailingcompetence,moralsupport,andfirmbutgraciousreminders,andtoDeniseTrybula,whoneverwaveredinherdiligenceandcheerfulnessAndspecialthankstothepeopleatWordProcessing,ledbyCynthiaSmith,whometthetestofanendlessseriesofdraftsandnearimpossibledeadlinesThenthereareoureditorsByreorganizingandcuttingthisbookinhalf,MartyLinskymadeitfarmorereadableTospareourreaders,hehadthegoodsensenottospareourfeelingsThanksalsotoPeterKinder,JuneKinoshita,andBobRossJunestruggledtomakethelanguagelesssexistWherewehavenotsucceeded,weapologizetothosewhomaybeoffendedWealsowanttothankAndreaWilliams,ouradviser:JulianBach,ouragentandDickMcAdooandhisassociatesatHoughtonMifflin,whomadetheproductionofthisbookbothpossibleandpleasurableFinally,wewanttothankBrucePatton,ourfriendandcolleague,editorandmediatorNoonehascontributedmoretothisbookFromtheverybeginninghehelpedbrainstormandorganizethesyllogismofthebookHehasreorganizedalmosteverychapterandeditedeverywordIfbooksweremovies,thiswouldbeknownasaPattonProductionRogerFisherWilliamUryPrefacetotheSecondEditionInthelasttenyearsnegotiationasafieldforacademicandprofessionalconcernhasgrowndramaticallyNewtheoreticalworkshavebeenpublished,casestudieshavebeenproduced,andempiricalresearchundertakenTenyearsagoalmostnoprofessionalschoolofferedcoursesonnegotiationnowtheyareallbutuniversalUniversitiesarebeginningtoappointfacultywhospecializeinnegotiationConsultingfirmsnowdothesameinthecorporateworldAgainstthischangingintellectuallandscape,theideasinGettingtoYeshavestoodupwellTheyhavegainedconsiderableattentionandacceptancefromabroadaudience,andarefrequentlycitedasstartingpointsforotherworkHappily,theyremainpersuasivetotheauthorsaswellMostquestionsandcommentshavefocusedonplaceswherethebookhasprovenambiguous,orwherereadershavewantedmorespecificadviceWehavetriedtoaddressthemostimportantofthesetopicsinthisrevisionRatherthantamperingwiththetext(andaskingreaderswhoknowittosearchforchanges),wehavechosentoaddnewmaterialinaseparatesectionattheendofthissecondeditionThemaintextremainsinfullandunchangedfromtheoriginal,exceptforupdatingthefiguresinexamplestokeeppacewithinflationandrephrasinginafewplacestoclarifymeaningandeliminatesexistlanguageWehopethatouranswersto"TenQuestionsPeopleAskAboutGettingtoYES"provehelpfulandmeetsomeoftheinterestsreadershaveexpressedWeaddressquestionsabout()themeaningandlimitsof"principled"negotiation(itrepresentspractical,notmoraladvice)()dealingwithsomeonewhoseemstobeirrationalorwhohasadifferentvaluesystem,outlook,ornegotiatingstyle()practicalquestions,suchaswheretomeet,whoshouldmakethefirstoffer,andhowtomovefrominventingoptionstomakingcommitmentsand()theroleofpowerinnegotiationMoreextensivetreatmentofsometopicswillhavetoawaitotherbooksReadersinterestedinmoredetailabouthandling"peopleissues"innegotiationinwaysthattendtoestablishaneffectiveworkingrelationshipmightenjoyGettingTogether:BuildingRelationshipsasWeNegotiatebyRogerFisherandScottBrown,alsoavailablefromBusinessBooksIfdealingwithdifficultpeopleandsituationsismoreyourconcern,lookforGettingPastNo:NegotiatingwithDifficultPeoplebyWilliamUry,publishedbyBusinessBooksNodoubtotherbookswillfollowThereiscertainlymuchmoretosayaboutpower,multilateralnegotiations,crossculturaltransactions,personalstyles,andmanyothertopicsOnceagainwethankMartyLinsky,thistimefortakingacarefuleyeandasharppenciltoournewmaterialOurspecialthankstoDougStoneforhisdiscerningcritique,editing,andoccasionalrewritingofsuccessivedraftsofthatmaterialHehasanuncannyknackforcatchingusinanunclearthoughtorparagraphFormorethanadozenyears,BrucePattonhasworkedwithusinformulatingandexplainingalloftheideasinthisbookThispastyearhehaspulledthelaboringoarinconvertingourjointthinkingintoanagreedtextItisapleasuretowelcomeBruce,editorofthefirstedition,asafullcoauthorofthisrevisededitionRogerFisherWilliamUryIntroductionLikeitornot,youareanegotiatorNegotiationisafactoflifeYoudiscussaraisewithyourbossYoutrytoagreewithastrangeronapriceforhishouseTwolawyerstrytosettlealawsuitarisingfromacaraccidentAgroupofoilcompaniesplanajointventureexploringforoffshoreoilAcityofficialmeetswithunionleaderstoavertatransitstrikeTheUnitedStatesSecretaryofStatesitsdownwithhisSovietcounterparttoseekanagreementlimitingnucleararmsAllthesearenegotiationsEveryonenegotiatessomethingeverydayLikeMoliere'sMonsieurJourdain,whowasdelightedtolearnthathehadbeenspeakingproseallhislife,peoplenegotiateevenwhentheydon'tthinkofthemselvesasdoingsoApersonnegotiateswithhisspouseaboutwheretogofordinnerandwithhischildaboutwhenthelightsgooutNegotiationisabasicmeansofgettingwhatyouwantfromothersItisbackandforthcommunicationdesignedtoreachanagreementwhenyouandtheothersidehavesomeintereststhataresharedandothersthatareopposedMoreandmoreoccasionsrequirenegotiationconflictisagrowthindustryEveryonewantstoparticipateindecisionsthataffectthemfewerandfewerpeoplewillacceptdecisionsdictatedbysomeoneelsePeoplediffer,andtheyusenegotiationtohandletheirdifferencesWhetherinbusiness,government,orthefamily,peoplereachmostdecisionsthroughnegotiationEvenwhentheygotocourt,theyalmostalwaysnegotiateasettlementbeforetrialAlthoughnegotiationtakesplaceeveryday,itisnoteasytodowellStandardstrategiesfornegotiationoftenleavepeopledissatisfied,wornout,oralienatedandfrequentlyallthreePeoplefindthemselvesinadilemmaTheyseetwowaystonegotiate:softorhardThesoftnegotiatorwantstoavoidpersonalconflictandsomakesconcessionsreadilyinordertoreachagreementHewantsanamicableresolutionyetheoftenendsupexploitedandfeelingbitterThehardnegotiatorseesanysituationasacontestofwillsinwhichthesidethattakesthemoreextremepositionsandholdsoutlongerfaresbetterHewantstowinyetheoftenendsupproducinganequallyhardresponsewhichexhaustshimandhisresourcesandharmshisrelationshipwiththeothersideOtherstandardnegotiatingstrategiesfallbetweenhardandsoft,buteachinvolvesanattemptedtradeoffbetweengettingwhatyouwantandgettingalongwithpeopleThereisathirdwaytonegotiate,awayneitherhardnorsoft,butratherbothhardandsoftThemethodofprinciplednegotiationdevelopedattheHarvardNegotiationProjectistodecideissuesontheirmeritsratherthanthroughahagglingprocessfocusedonwhateachsidesaysitwillandwon'tdoItsuggeststhatyoulookformutualgainswhereverpossible,andthatwhereyourinterestsconflict,youshouldinsistthattheresultbebasedonsomefairstandardsindependentofthewillofeithersideThemethodofprinciplednegotiationishardonthemerits,softonthepeopleItemploysnotricks'andnoposturingPrinciplednegotiationshowsyouhowtoobtainwhatyouareentitledtoandstillbedecentItenablesyoutobefairwhileprotectingyouagainstthosewhowouldtakeadvantageofyourfairnessThisbookisaboutthemethodofprinciplednegotiationThefirstchapterdescribesproblemsthatariseinusingthestandardstrategiesofpositionalbargainingThenextfourchapterslayoutthefourprinciplesofthemethodThelastthreechaptersanswerthequestionsmostcommonlyaskedaboutthemethod:WhatiftheothersideismorepowerfulWhatiftheywillnotplayalongAndwhatiftheyusedirtytricksPrinciplednegotiationcanbeusedbyUnitedStatesdiplomatsinarmscontroltalkswiththeSovietUnion,byWallStreetlawyersrepresentingFortunecompaniesinantitrustcases,andbycouplesindecidingeverythingfromwheretogoforvacationtohowtodividetheirpropertyiftheygetdivorcedAnyonecanusethismethodEverynegotiationisdifferent,butthebasicelementsdonotchangePrinciplednegotiationcanbeusedwhetherthereisoneissueorseveraltwopartiesormanywhetherthereisaprescribedritual,asincollectivebargaining,oranimpromptufreeforall,asintalkingwithhijackersThemethodapplieswhethertheothersideismoreexperiencedorless,ahardbargainerorafriendlyonePrinciplednegotiationisanallpurposestrategyUnlikealmostallotherstrategies,iftheothersidelearnsthisone,itdoesnotbecomemoredifficulttouseitbecomeseasierIftheyreadthisbook,allthebetterITheProblemDon'tBargainOverPositionsWhetheranegotiationconcernsacontract,afamilyquarrel,orapeacesettlementamongnations,peopleroutinelyengageinpositionalbargainingEachsidetakesaposition,arguesforit,andmakesconcessionstoreachacompromiseTheclassicexampleofthisnegotiatingminuetisthehagglingthattakesplacebetweenacustomerandtheproprietorofasecondhandstore:CUSTOMERSHOPKEEPERHowmuchdoyouwantforthisbrassdishThatisabeautifulantique,isn'titIguessIcouldletitgofor$Ohcomeon,it'sdentedI'llgiveyou$Really!Imightconsideraseriousoffer,but$certainlyisn'tseriousWell,Icouldgoto$,butIwouldneverpayanythinglik

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Getting to Yes (英) - 《谈判力》无需让步的说服艺术

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