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首页 *新书上架*【休谟研究】自由和道德情操:责任自然化的休谟方式

*新书上架*【休谟研究】自由和道德情操:责任自然化的休谟方式.pdf

*新书上架*【休谟研究】自由和道德情操:责任自然化的休谟方式

九月虺
2009-07-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【休谟研究】自由和道德情操:责任自然化的休谟方式pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FREEDOMANDMORALSENTIMENTThispageintentionallyleftblankFREEDOMANDMORALSENTIMENTHume'sWayofNaturalizingResponsibilityPAULRUSSELLOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSOxfordNewYorkAthensAucklandBangkokBogotaBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiFlorenceHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiParisSaoPauloShanghaiSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoWarsawandassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanCopyright©byPaulRussellFirstpublishedinbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkFirstissuedasanOxfordUniversityPresspaperback,OxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRussell,Paul,Freedomandmoralsentiment:Hume'swayofnaturalizingresponsibilityPaulRussellpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(pbk)Hume,DavidEthicsFreewillanddeterminismResponsibilityTitleBER'dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperForCatherineBell,whowasbroughtupbeneaththeslopesofCaltonHill,whereHumeliesburiedThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgmentsMygeneralinterestinHume'sphilosophyandproblemsoffreedomandresponsibilityowesmuchtomyundergraduateeducationatEdinburghUniversityinthelatesAnearlyversionofthebookwaspresentedinmyCambridgeUniversityPhDthesis("MoralSentimentandtheRationaleofResponsibility")SincethenithasbeensubstantiallyrevisedandexpandedIhavebenefitedfrommanysuggestionsandcommentsfromanumberoffriendsandcolleaguesmorethanIcanmentiononthisoccasionHowever,Iamespeciallygratefultothefollowing:PallArdal,AnnetteBaier,GACohen,JimDybikowski,DonGarrett(areaderforOxfordUniversityPress),RossHarrison,NeilMacCormick,TerryPenelhum(alsoareaderforOxford),andDavidRaphaelAboveall,IamgratefultoBernardWilliams,whosupervisedmygraduatestudiesatCambridgeIwouldalsoliketothanktheeditorialstaffatOxfordUniversityPressparticularly,AngelaBlackburn,RobertMiller,andGraceSuhforalltheirhelpinbringingthisbookintoprintAnumberofinstitutionshaveprovidedmewithgenerousfinancialsupportFromtotheScottishEducationDepartmentawardedmeaMajorScottishStudentship,whichenabledmetopursuemygraduatestudiesatCambridgeInIwaselectedtoaJuniorResearchFellowshipatSidneySussexCollege,Cambridge,whichIhelduntilDuringStanfordUniversityawardedmeaMellonPostdoctoralFellowship,andapositionasvisitingassistantprofessorTheSocialScienceandHumanitiesResearchCouncilofCanadaprovidedmewithfurtherresearchtimefor–IhavealsobenefitedasaFellowoftheInstituteforAdvancedStudyintheHumanitiesatEdinburghUniversityduringthesummerofIamdeeplygratefultoalltheseinstitutionsforthesupportthatIhavereceivedfromthemPartsofthisbookhaveappearedinthefollowingjournals:"OntheNaturalismofHume's'ReconcilingProject"',Mind,"Hume's'TwoDefinitions'ofCauseandtheOntologyof'DoubleExistence'",HumeStudies,"Hume's'ReconcilingProject':AReplytoFlew",Mind,"Causation,CompulsionandCompatibilism",AmericanPhilosophicalQuarterly,and"HumeonResponsibilityandPunishment",CanadianJournalofPhilosophy,IamgratefultotheeditorsofthesejournalsforpermissiontousethismaterialMygreatestandmostpersonaldebtisindicatedinthededicationThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsAbbreviations,xiIntroduction,PartITheNecessityofMoralSentimentLogic,"Liberty",andtheMetaphysicsofResponsibility,MindingtheMatterofNecessity:AParadoxRegardingCausation,Causation,Compulsion,andCompatibilism,TheNaturalismofHume's"ReconcilingProject",Hume'sNaturalismandStrawson'sReconcilingProject,PartIITheElementsofResponsibilityTheContentandObjectsofMoralSentiment,Action,Character,andExcuses,Will,Intention,Feeling:TheIndicationsofCharacter,TheInvoluntaryNatureofMoralCharacter,RetributiveFeelingandtheUtilityofPunishment,Pride,Fortune,andtheGodlessMan,ResponsibilityNaturalized:AQualifiedDefenceofHume,Bibliography,Index,ThispageintentionallyleftblankAbbreviationsAllreferencestothefollowingworksaretopagenumbersunlessotherwiseindicatedTDavidHume,ATreatiseofHumanNature,editedbyLASelbyBigge,ndrevedPHNidditch(Oxford:ClarendonPress,)ADavidHume,AnAbstractofaTreatiseofHumanNature,reprintedinTabove(T,–)ESYDavidHume,Essays:Moral,PoliticalandLiterary,editedbyEugeneFMiller(Indianapolis:LibertyClassics,)LGDavidHume,ALetterfromaGentlemantohisfriendinEdinburgh,editedbyECMossnerandJVPrice(Edinburgh:EdinburghUniversityPress,)EUEMDavidHume,EnquiriesconcerningHumanUnderstandingandconcerningthePrinciplesofMoralsEU=EnquiryconcerningHumanUnderstandingEM=EnquiryconcerningthePrinciplesofMorals,editedbyLASelbyBigge,rdrevedPHNidditch(Oxford:ClarendonPress,)DPDavidHume,"ADissertationonthePassions",reprintedinEssays:Moral,PoliticalandLiterary,vols,editedbyTHGreenandTHGrose(London:Longmans,Green,),vol,DDavidHume,DialoguesconcerningNaturalReligion,editedbyNKempSmith,nded(Edinburgh:Nelson,)LETDavidHume,TheLettersofDavidHume,vols,editedbyJYTGreig(Oxford:ClarendonPress,)TMSAdamSmith,TheTheoryofMoralSentiments,editedbyDDRaphaelandALMacfie(Oxford:ClarendonPress,)FRPFStrawson,"FreedomandResentment",inGWatson,ed,FreeWill(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,),SNPFStrawson,SkepticismandNaturalism:SomeVarieties(London:Metheun,)ThispageintentionallyleftblankFREEDOMANDMORALSENTIMENTthequestionoflibertyandnecessitythemostcontentiousquestionofmetaphysics,themostcontentiousscienceHume,AnEnquiryconcerningHumanUnderstandingIntroductionHappy,ifwecanunitetheboundariesofthedifferentspeciesofphilosophy,byreconcilingprofoundenquirywithclearness,andtruthwithnovelty!Hume,AnEnquiryconcerningHumanUnderstandingThenatureandconditionsofhumanfreedomandmoralresponsibilityaremattersofperennialphilosophicalimportanceandcontroversyThequestionsraisedinthissphereconcernnothinglessthanthebasisofmorallifeandourunderstandingoftheplaceofhumankindinthenaturalorderofthingsTheseareissuesthatstraddlebothmetaphysicsandmoralsThepositionsthatwetakeonsuchmattersdeeplyshapeourfundamentalphilosophicaloutlookInthisbook,IamconcernedwithDavidHume'scontributiontoourunderstandingofthesemattersInmoderntimes,problemsoffreedomandresponsibilityhavebeenconsideredwithparticularreferencetothenarrowerissueof"freewill"Thismorespecificproblemmaybeexpressedasfollows:CanhumanfreedomandmoralresponsibilitybereconciledwithcausaldeterminismorthenecessitationofallhumanthoughtandactionThephilosophicalliteratureonthissubjectisvastThereare,however,afewseminalworksthatdominatethediscussionandinterpretationofthisproblemItiswidelyacknowledgedthatamongtheseworksHumeprovidesuswithoneofthegreat"classic"statementsofthe"compatibilist"positiontheviewthathumanfreedomandmoralresponsibilityarenotthreatenedorunderminedbydeterminism(and,indeed,thattheyrequireit)Hume'sstatementofthecompatibilistpositioniscloselyidentifiedwiththecompatibilistpositionstakenupbyanumberofotherwellknownphilosophersInonedirection,forexample,HumeisgenerallythoughttohavebeengreatlyinfluencedbythecompatibiliststrategyofhispredecessorThomasHobbesIntheotherdirection,thereareahostofphilosophersintheempiricisttraditionincludingMill,Russell,Schlick,andAyerallofwhomarewidelyunderstoodtobefollowingHume'sbasiclinesofthoughtonfreewillIndeed,Humehasbecomesocloselyidentifiedwiththisgroupofthinkersthatthecompatibiliststrategythattheyaretaken(collectively)topursuehasbeenlabelledthe"HobbesHumeSchlickdoctrine",or"HumeMillSchlickAyer"position,andsoonThegeneralpointisthatintherelevantliteraturethereisnearuniversalagreementthatHumebelongstotheclassicalcompatibilisttraditionofthoughtandthathisargumentsonthissubjectshouldbeinterpretedinthislightIntroductionThestrategyoftheclassicalcompatibilisttraditionisveryfamiliarItarguesthatbecauseweconfusecausationwithforceandcompulsionwemistakenlyconcludethatfreedom(andresponsibility)requirestheabsenceofcausationandnecessityMoralfreedom,therefore,iswronglysupposedtorequirethemetaphysicsofindeterminismThecompatibilistmaintains,againstthisview,thatcausationandnecessityareactuallyrequiredforfreedomandresponsibilityAnagentisresponsibleforanactiononlyifitwashismotivesordesiresthatcauseditUncausedactioncouldneverbeattributedtoanypersonandwouldberandomandcapriciousMoreover,rewardsandpunishmentssecurevaluablesocialbenefitsonlybecausetheymotivatepeopletoactdifferentlythantheywoulddointheirabsenceInotherwords,theycausepeopletoalterorchangetheirconductindesirablewaysThisistheessenceoftheclassicalcompatibilistpositionThisstrategyisunderstoodtobeprimarilyconcernedwiththelogicoftheconceptsinquestion(iefreedom,necessity,etc)Sointerpreted,thisstrategyinvolvesakindofpureconceptualorphilosophicalanalysisthatisrequiredtoclarifytheframeworkwithinwhichanyindependentempiricalinvestigationintothenatureofmorallifemusttakeplaceItisthispositionwhichHumeiswidelyheldtobeaprincipalspokesmanforTheviewthatHumeprovidesoneoftheprincipalstatementsifnottheprincipalstatementofclassicalcompatibilismremainscurrentwithinthefieldofHumescholarshipIndeed,thisviewofHumehasbeendefendedandelaboratedonbyanumberofdistinguishedHumescholarsoverthepastthirtyyears,rightuptothepresentAlthoughtheirinterpretationsvarysomewhat,thesecommentatorsareallagreedthatHume'sgeneralstrategyfitssquarelyintotheclassicalcompatibilisttradition(Hereafter,Iwillrefersimplytothe"classicalinterpretation"ofHume'sstrategy)ThecommentatorswhomIprimarilyhaveinmindincludeinfluentialfigures,suchasFlew,MacNabb,Ayer,Stroud,Mackie,andPenelhumMoreover,IamunawareofanysubstantialefforttochallengethisgeneralaccountofHume'scompatibilistargumentsorintentionsClearly,then,theviewthatHumeisaprincipalspokesmanoftheclassicalcompatibiliststrategythatrunsfromHobbestoSchlickandAyerisnotonlythedominantviewithasgonealmostunchallengedItisofsomecontemporaryimportancethatHumecontinuestobeinterpretedinthismannerThereasonforthisisthatthereisanincreasingconsensusamongphilosophersinthefieldthattheclassicalcompatibiliststrategyhasnowbeeneffectivelydiscreditedorsurpassedbymorerecentdevelopmentsincompatibilistthinkingInsofarasHumecontinuestobereadasholdingtotheclassicalcompatibilistposition,hisviewswillinevitablybejudgedasoflessimmediatecontemporaryinterestandsignificanceInotherwords,iftheclassicalreadingofHume'scompatibilismisindeedcorrectanditisalsotruethatcompatibilistthinkinghasnowadvancedwellbeyondtheconfinesofthisgeneralstrategy,thenwemustconcludethatHume'sthinkingonthissubjectisnowsomewhatdatedandpasseThecrucialquestion,therefore,iswhetherornotHumehasbeenproperlyinterpretedbyhiscommentatorsInthisbookIarguethatHume'sviewsonthissubjectalthoughtheyhavebeenverywidelydiscussedandhugelyinfluentialhaveneverthelessbeenseriouslymisrepresentedMorespecifically,IarguethatcommentatorsandscholarshavedistortedHume'sviewsonthismatterbecausetheyhaveoverlookedakeyelementinIIIntroductionHume'sanalysisofthenatureandconditionsofmoralresponsibilityThiselementismoralsentimentOneofthekeyobjectivesofHume'sscienceofmanwastodiscoverunderwhatcircumstancespeoplearefelttoberesponsibleToholdapersonresponsibleistoregardthatpersonasanobjectofamoralsentiment,whichisacalm,indirectpassionHumebelievedthat"intheproductionandconductofthepassions,thereisacertainregularmechanism,whichissusceptibleofasaccurateadisquisition,aslawsofmotion,optics,hydrostaticsoranypartofnaturalphilosophy"(DP,)Humeisconcernedtodescribethe"regularmechanism"whichgeneratesthemoralsentimentsThisfeatureofHume'sdiscussion,Imaintain,shapeshisgeneralaccountofthenatureandconditionsofmoralresponsibilityHume'sdiscussionofthesubjectoffreewillmustbeinterpretedwithintheframeworkofthisnaturalisticaccountofresponsibilityInparticular,itisnotpossibletounderstandthegeneralstructureandsignificanceofHume'seffortto"reconcile"libertyandnecessityuntilweproperlyappreciatehowtheseargumentsdependonHume'sdescriptionofthecausalmechanismthatproducesourmoralsentimentsPartIofthisbookisespeciallyconcernedwiththesepointsIshowthatHumeintroduces"theexperimentalmethodofreasoning"intothefreewillcontroversyinordertoputanendtothis"longdisputedquestion"(EU,)Hisgeneralstrategy,therefore,isinimportantrespectsverydifferentfromthatofother(classical)compatibilistthinkers,suchasHobbesandSchlickThereare,Iargue,strikingparallelsandaffinitiesbetweenHume'sgeneralstrategyandtheviewsthathavebeenadvancedmorerecentlybyPFStrawsoninhisinfluentialpaper"FreedomandResentment"WhatHumeandStrawsonarefundamentallyagreedaboutisthatquestionsofmoralresponsibility,andhowtheyrelatetotraditionalproblemsoffreewill,canbeproperlyunderstoodandanalysedonlywithintheframeworkofmoralsentimentMoralsentiment,theyhold,mustbeconsideredasa"given"ofourhumannatureAssuch,itconstitutestheveryfabricwithinwhichissuesoffreedomandresponsibilityariseAnyefforttojustifyordescriberesponsibilityoutsidethisframeworkisboundtomisleadandperplexusInthisway,thenaturalisticavenueofinterpretationandcriticism,farfromdrainingHume'sdiscussionofitscontemporaryinterestandsignificance,makesplainwhatpreciselythatinterestandsignificanceconsistsinPartIIofthisbookbuildsonthenaturalisticthemeraisedinPartIHume'stheoryofresponsibilitydrawsfromanddependsonseveraldifferentaspectsofhismoraltheoryandhisphilosophyofmindThenatureofthesecommitments,andtheirrelationswithoneanother,aretheparticularconcernofPartIIInthisregard,Idiscussarangeofissues,suchasHume'sviewsaboutthenatureandcontentofmoralsentimenttherelevanceofcharactertoascriptionsofresponsibilitytheroleofintention,will,andfeelinginarousingmoralsentimenttheextenttowhichwehavecontroloverour(moral)characterand,finally,thequestionofthejustificationofpunishmentBeyondthis,Hume'sviewsonthesubjectofresponsibilityareconsideredinrelationtohiswideranddeeperphilosophicalconcernwithproblemsofreligionIwillshowthatthenaturalistictheoryofresponsibilityisanespeciallyimportantaspectofHume'smorebasicantiChristianphilosophicalobjectivesandconcernsInthefinalchapter,IdrawsomegeneralconclusionsaboutthestrengthsandweaknessesofHume'snaturalistictheoryInthiscontext,IamespeciallyconIntroductioncernedtoemphasizethesignificanceofHume'saccountoftherelationshipbetweenissuesoffreedomandissuesofresponsibilityOntheclassicalaccount,HumeunderstandstheproblemofresponsibilitysimplyintermsoftheconditionsoffreeactionHume'saccountoftherelationshipbetweenresponsibilityandfreedom,Iexplain,ismorecomplexthanthisForHume,theissueofresponsibilityisnotreducibletotheproblemoffreewillThescopeofmoralevaluationextendswellbeyondthesphereofintentionalactionApersonmaybeheldresponsibleforaspectsofcharacterthataremanifestneitherintheirwillnorthroughtheirintentionsIngeneral,itisHume'sviewthatwemustnotexaggeratetheimportanceofvoluntarinessandcontrolformoralresponsibilityHume's(complex)accountoftherelationshipbetweenfreedomandresponsibility,Imaintain,constitutesaparticularlyimportantandilluminatingaspectofhiswidernaturalisticstrategyMydiscussion,asthesummaryaccountaboveindicates,isstructuredaroundafewbasicthemesThesearethemeswhicharefundamentalforaproperunderstandingofHume'sintentionsinthissphere,butwhichare,nevertheless,neglectedoroverlookedbytheclassicalreadingThefirstthemeisHume'snaturalismThisreferstoHume'sobjectivetodescribeandexplain,inempiricalandscientificterms,theworkingsofthehumanpassions(iemoralsentiments)inaccountingforthenatureandconditionsofmoralresponsibilityThesecondthemethatIemphasizeisHume'srejectionofvoluntarismWhatImeanbythisisthat(contrarytotheclassicalinterpretation)HumerejectstheviewthatresponsibilityissimplyamatterofactingfreelyHume'spositionisthattherelationshipbetweenfreedomandresponsibilityismorecomplexthanthisInparticular,accordingtoHumeitisnotthecasethatweareresponsibleonlyforthatwhichwecontrolordovoluntarilyFinally,IamalsoconcernedtoplaceappropriateemphasisonHume'ssecularism,consideredinrelationtohisviewsonfreedomandresponsibilityWhatHumehastosayonthesemattersisdeeplymotivatedbyhismorefundamentalphilosophicalobjectivetodiscreditChristianmetaphysicsandmoralsandtodevelopinitsplaceasecular,scientificaccountofmoralandpoliticallifeAproperunderstandingofthesefeaturesofHume'sphilosophicalsystem,Iargue,isessentialforanyadequateappreciationandcriticalassessmentofHume'smoralphilosophyand,indeed,hisphilosophyasawholeIarguethatinbothmattersofdetailandmattersofgeneralstrategythesignificanceandinterestofwhatHumesaysonthissubjectisobscuredbytheclassicalinterpretationThisisinnowaytodenythatHume'sviewshaveseriousshortcomingsordi

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*新书上架*【休谟研究】自由和道德情操:责任自然化的休谟方式

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