加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 *新书上架*讲了三遍的故事:女性主义、后现代主义和民族志的责任

*新书上架*讲了三遍的故事:女性主义、后现代主义和民族志的责任.pdf

*新书上架*讲了三遍的故事:女性主义、后现代主义和民族志的责任

九月虺
2009-07-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*讲了三遍的故事:女性主义、后现代主义和民族志的责任pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

,,oruIoCOII""I~:::roCOIol~~~~~~~,III!ATHRICETOLDTALEFeminism,Postmodernism,andEthnographieResponsihilityMargeryWolfSTANFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSSTANFORD,CALIFORNIAStanfordUniversityPressStanford,California©bytheBoardofTrusteesoftheLelandStanfordJuniorUniversityPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCIPdataappearattheendofthebookOriginalprintingLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprinting:StanfordUniversityPresspublicationsaredistributedexclusivelybyStanfordUniversityPresswithintheUnitedStates,Canada,andMexicotheyaredistributedexclusivelybyCambridgeUniversityPressthroughouttherestoftheworldForMacPrefaceMypreviousbookswerewrittenastheproductsofparticularfieldprojectsThisbookcameoutofacasualconversationwithCarolASmithandMurielBellwhiledrivinginthehighlandsofGuatemalaThatconversationledmetosetasidethesomewhatpedestrianbookIhadbeengivenasemester'sleavetocompleteandtopursueanideaIlearnedmuchmorethanIhadexpectedasaresultofthatpursuitaboutmyownperspectiveonethnographyaswellasaboutthatofothersDiscussionsofthepostmodernistcritiquesofethnographyandthefeministcritiquesofanthropologyandpostmodernismalwaysseemabittestyIdon'twanttoaddtothattone,butIhavestatedmyopinionsandbiasesfranklyWhetherornotreadersagreewithmythoughtsonsomeofthesedebates,IhopetheywillfindthethreetextsaroundwhichtheyareorganizedusefulpedagogicaltoolsIhavebeenblessedwithgoodfriendsandkindreaderswhohavepointedoutwhereIhadgonetoofarandyetencouragedmetogoalittlefurtherIamgratefultoFlorenceBabb,whocritiquedashakyfirstdraftDavidArkush,whoasahistorianwithphilosophicaltendenciesgavemeaninvaluablereadingRobertSmith,whoreadthemanuscriptwiththesharpeyeofagoodcriticandthecharitablewordsofanoldanddearfriendKathleenNewman,whoexaminedthemanuscriptfromtheperspectiveofadifferentbreedofpostmodernistandgavemeinvaluableadvicethat,hadIincorporateditall,wouldhaveVPrefacedoubledthesizeofthebookandAnnetteWeiner,my"anonymous"reviewer,whoprovidedbothencouragingwordsandexcellentsuggestionsMygratitudetothemallAndfinally,mythankstoMacMarshall,whotookonmorethanhisshareofourdomesticchores,readbitsandpieces,draftsandreviseddrafts,andremindedmeatjusttherighttimewhomthebookwasfor:anthropologistsandtheirstudents,whomayalsobewonderingiftherereallyisacrisisinethnographyandifethnographywillsurviveitIfIhavelearnednothingelseinwritingthisbook,itisthatethnographyremainsandwillremainformanyyearstocomeavibrantsourceofinformationaboutthewondrousdiversityofhumanexperiencesMWContentsONERuminationswithaView(point)TWOTheHotSpellCommentaryTHREEFieldnotesCommentaryFOURTheWomanWhoDidn'tBecomeaShamanCommentaryIIFIVEWritingEthnography:ThePoeticsandPoliticsofCultureReferencesCitedIndexIJP'"CHAPTERONERuminationswithaView(point)THISISNOTabookforpostmodernists,norisitabookfortheircritics*Thisisabookforanthropologistsandothersocialscientistswho,likeme,havereadandlistenedwithinteresttotheprotagonists'oftenheatedexchangesoverpolyvocality,reflexivity,colonialistdiscourse,audience,thenatureoftherelationshipbetweenanthropologistandinformants,andthelikeandstillarejustalittlemoreinterestedinthecontentoftheethnographieswereadandwritethanintheethnographers'epistemologiesIdonotintendbythiscommenttosuggestdisdainfortheworkofpostmodernistslikeJamesClifford,MichaelMJFischer,GeorgeEMarcus,andStephenTylerOnthecontrary,Ifindtheiranalysesofethnographicfrailtiesandfailingsusefulonthewhole,andIthinkthattheircriticismsofethnographersandtheirhabitscannotbutimprovetheproductofthosewhogivetheirargumentsafairreadingBut,likemostanthropologists,IremainmoreinterestedinwhyChinesepeasantsdowhattheydo,and,asGrahamWatson(:)putsit,in"gettingthenewsout"Iseemuchinthepostmodernistruminationsthathelpsmetowardthatgoalbutmuchalsothatdoesnotseemtomeinthebestinterestsofanthropologyatall*IrecognizethatpostmodernistsareasdiverseasfeministsintheirpositionsonmanyoftheissuesIwillberaisinghereIusethelabelsinsimilarways,theonetoidentifyacademicswhoarecurrentlymorepreoccupiedwiththewayethnographyiswrittenthanwiththewayresearchiscarriedout,andtheothertoidentifyscholarswhoseektounderstandanddismantlegenderhierarchiesintheirintellectualaswellaspersonalworldsII'RuminationswithaView(point)Thisisalsoabookforfeministsocialscientistswhohavelongbeenconcernedaboutsomeoftheissuesonlynowtroubling(some)ethnographers,suchaswhetherbystudyingoursubjectswearealsoexploitingthemandwhetherbyattemptingtoimprovewomen'slivingsituationsweareimpnsinganother(powerful)society'svaluesWhatmayatfirstseemanethicalinterventionintermsoffeministprinciples,forexample,canseemdecidedlylessethicalwhenoneobservestheeffectofaparticularchangeonotheractorsinthedramaofvillagelifeWhoistodecideAlthoughfeministtheoryhasbeenignoredbythenewcriticsofethnography(atopicIwillreturntoinmoredetailbelow),postmodernismishavingapowerfulinfluenceonsomefeministsandagrowinginfluenceonfeministsocialscientistsTomythinking,therearesomegoodthingscomingoutofthisintellectualencounter,butagain,aswithanthropologyandpostmodernismtherearesomedangers,boththeoreticallyandpoliticallyThisbookisapersonalexplorationofsomeoftheseissuesItcameaboutbecause,afewyearsago,IdiscoveredinmyfilesashortstoryIhadwrittennearlythirtyyearsagowhilelivinginasmallvillageinnorthernTaiwanIhadforgottenwritingthestory,butafterasearchthroughfieldnotesandareadingofmyjournalsforthatperiod,theeventsthatprecipitatedthestorybegantocomebackinalmostunwelcomedetailsounds,smells,visualimages,andemotionalstatesButwhatsurprisedmeasIreadandrereadthevariouswrittenrecordswasthatthefieldnotes,thejournals,andtheshortstoryrepresentedquitedifferentversionsofwhathadhappenedMoreover,asIthoughtaboutwhathadoccurred,IrealizedthatIwasthinkingaboutthoselongagoeventsinaverydifferentwaythanIdidwhentheyweredutifullyrecordedinmynotesand,lessdutifully,inthestoryAtthattime,Ithoughtofmyselfasthewifeandassistantofananthropologistwhowasonhisfirstfieldtripnow,IthinkofmyselfasananthroRuminationswithaView(point)pologistAtthattime,theywerenotesononemoreexcitingeventintheexotic~nvironmentinwhichIfoundmyselflivingnow,theyareanintriguingrecordoftheideologyandsocialcontextthatledresidentsofasmallvillagetoreachoneconclusionaboutamemberoftheircommunityratherthananotherTheyhavebecomedata,interestingdatathatshouldbeanalyzedandsharedwithmyintellectualcommunityintheusualacademicformat,abookorajournalarticle,ratherthaninthefictionalizedformatIhadusedsomanyyearsearlierThiscouldhavebeenasimpleproject,butasIreviewedtheoldfieldnotesandmusedovertheshortstorythatcontradictedbothsomeofthe"facts"andsomeoftheanthropologicalattitudesrecordedthere,IwasalsocatchinguponmygeneralreadingIfoundmyselfenmeshedinthedebatessetoffbythecollectionofarticleseditedbyJamesCliffordandGeorgeMarcus(WritingCulture,)andinthepostmodernistcritiquesofethnographygenerally,andthefeministcritiquesofpostmodernismspecificallyReflexivitylwasnotatopicofmuchinterestwhenArthurWolfandIfirstdidfieldresearchinthelateSandearlysWestruggledtounderstandthecultureswestudied,tobeethicalinourinteractionswithourinformants,andtostayoutoftroublewiththerulingpartyWhenweanalyzedourdataandwrotethemup,wefeltaresponsibilityto"our"villageto"getitright,"buttheywere"our"data,nottheirs,andweassumedonlyourreputationsasscholarswouldbeaffectedbynot"gettingitright"Ouracademicmentorsstressedobjectivityandminimaldisruptionofourinformants'dailylivesThose"'ofuswhowereonourfirstfieldtripswereusuallytryingtoliveonashoestringand,inTaiwan,atleast,wereoftentreatedbyourhostswithaslightlypatronizingindulgenceofour"barbarianignorance"Wewouldhavehadtothinkawhilebeforewecouldrecognizetheenormityofthepowerdifferentialbetweenusand,forexample,thedomineefing,nagging,andmuchbelovedcookwehiredWhenweRuminationswithaView(point)finallysatdowntowriteupourdata,beingexperimentalwithformoranalysiswasnotencouragedIfwewantedtobetakenseriouslyasscholarsandtohaveourinterpretationofSocietyXaccepted,weknewthattherewasastyleofpresentationwithinwhichwehadtoworkSo,somethirtyyearslater,whenIturnedtoreconstructcertaineventsthatoccurredintheearlyspringofinthelittlevillageofPeihotien,Iapproachedthefieldnotesandmypersonaljournalsnotonlyasaverydifferentperson(afeministanthropologist)butalsoinaverydifferentanthropologicalclimate,oneinwhichthedisciplineisbeingbuffetedbycriticismfromwithoutandfromwithinaboutthevalue,indeed,theveryintegrityofitsproduct,theethnography"WhereonceIwassatisfiedtodescribewhatIthoughtIsawandheardasaccuratelyaspossible,tothepointoftryingtoresolvedifferencesofopinionamongmyinformants,Ihavecometorealizetheimportanceofretainingthese"contestedmeanings"Butonlytoapoint,andthatpointiswheremypathdivergesfromthatofthepostmodernistcriticsofethnographyMyviewofChinadoesnot,byalongshot,reflecttheviewsofallthepeoplewithwhomIhavetalkedMyethnographicworkrepresentsmyunderstandingofChinaasaresultofconversationsheldandconversationsoverheardSomeoftheseconversationswerefoolishandillinformed,andafewweredesignedtomisleadotherconversationswerewithorbetweenpeoplewhohadonlyasuperficialunderstandingofatopicnomatterhowdeeptheirunderstandingofotherareasoflifemightbe(SometimeaskyourUncleNedwhoworksforAcmeHardwareandknowsallthereistoknowaboutwrencheswhatconsciousnessraisingis)Eventhemostardentcriticofoldfashionedethnographywouldsurelygrantanauthoriallicensetoeditsomeoftheseflawedperspectives,butthereareotherdifferencesinlocalunderstandingsthatperhapsoughtnottohavebeenresolvedLikemostscholarswhohappentorereadsomeoftheirearlywork(notrecomRuminationswithaView(point)mended),therearesomethingsIwishIcouldrevise,butingeneral,IstillseemyethnographicresponsibilityasincludinganefforttomakesenseoutofwhatIsaw,wastold,orreadfirstformyselfandthenformyreadersSomepostmoderncriticsquestiontheverypossibilityofethnographersrepresentingtheexperienceofanotherculture,andothersquestiontheethicsofevenattemptingtodoso,seeingtheprocessitselfasanexerciseincolonialism(domination)Thequestioningisimportant,theanswerslesssoObviously(orsoitseemstome),anthropologistscanonlyconveytheirownunderstandingsoftheirobservationsinanothercultureintheirethnographiesThebettertheobserver,themorelikelysheistocatchherinformants'understandingofthemeaningoftheirexperiencesthebetterthewriter,themorelikelysheistobeabletoconveythatmeaningtoaninterestedreaderfromanothercultureSomekindsofculturalmeaningsmayonlybeaccuratelyunderstoodandreportedbyonewhohaslearnedthemwithoutrealizingit,butmuchoftheculturalonionmaybeaseasilyorevenmoreeasilypickedapartbyacarefulanalystwhoisnotoftheculture*Itwouldbeasgreatalosstohavefirstworldanthropologistsconfinetheirresearchtothefirstworldasitis(currently)tohavethirdworldanthropologistsconfinetheirstothethirdworldEdwardSaid()andthosewhoaccepthis"orientalism"critiqueassertthatethnographicresearchisbutanotherformofwhitedomination,anethicalconcernthatissharedbymanyanthropologistsLabelingfieldworkanactofcolonialismisanobviousoverstatement,designedtodrawourattentiontothewaysinwhichwhiteprivilegeaffectsanthropologicalfieldworkCertainly,wehaveplentyofhistoricalevidenceofcareful,sensitiveethnographiesbeingusedbyco*DavidArkushpointedouttomethatthebestliterarytranslationsarethoseinwhichoneistranslatingintoone'snativelanguageAlthoughapplyingthistotheinterpretationofcultureisappealingasametaphor,itisdifficulttosupportempiricallyfortheobviousreasonthatculturalinterpretationisimpreciseandopentoequallyvalidalternativereadingsRuminationswithaView(point)lonialregimestotightentheircontrolover"thenatives"Thatkindofobviousculturaldominationislesscommonnow,butthesubtlerkindsofdominationthesortthatwomenhaveexperiencedintheirownculturesandrecognizewithdismayintheirresearchandthatoftheirmalecolleaguesstillhauntsusPowerdifferentialswithinthissocietyandbetweenusandthosewestudyexistand,alas,willcontinuetoexistfortheforeseeablefutureAnthropologistsmustbeconstantlyawareofhowthesedifferencesinpowercandistorttheirperceptionsandskewtheirinterpretationsObviously,theymustalsobecarefulnottotakeadvantageoftheir(usually)considerablygreaterpowerinwaysthatwilldisadvantagethepeopletheyarestudyingButthesedangersshouldnotrequireabandoningcrossnationalresearchSucharenunciationhardlyseemsethicalwhenoneconsidershowoftenauthoritarianregimescontrolinformationcominginandgoingout,informationaboutlivingconditions,forexample,thatmightberelevanttothesurvivalofsomegroupsandsomeideasThereisacuriouspostmodernistpoliticsthatcondemnsusforourindividualcolonialistattitudesbutremainsalooffromtheoftenbloodyresultsofoppressivegovernments,oftheleftandtherightFeministanthropologists,ontheotherhand,oftenfindthemselvescaughtbetweentheirowncommitmenttoimprovingthelivesofwomeneverywhereandtheirdiscipline'sconcernaboutinterferenceinlocalpoliticsThepowerthataccruestobeingfirstworldinathirdworldcountrycannotbedeniedandyetcannotbeusedwithoutalienatingsomebodyPostmodernismgivesuslittleguidancehereForanthropologists,CliffordandMarcushavebecomethesymbolsofthepostmodernistcritiqueofethnography,andtheirWritingCulturethefocaltextalthoughthereareagoodmanyotherswholineuponthepostmodernistsideofthebarricadesOnbothsidesofthedebate,aswellasinthespectators'gallery,onecanfindfeministsocialscientistswhoareindignantandatthesametimewrylyamusedtoheartheRuminationswithaView(point)critiquestheyhaveleveledforyearsnowbeingtranslatedintopostmodernistterminologyandtakenveryseriouslyIfthereisanypageJamesCliffordhaswrittenthathemaywishhehadn't,IsuspectitisthesectioninhisIntroductiontoWritingCulturewherehelamelyexplainstheabsenceofafeministpaperinthecollectionCliffordinparticularandpostmodernistsingeneralhavebeenroundlycriticizedfortheirmalebias(eg,Caplan:Gordon:MasciaLeesetal:II)Ihaveafewthingstoaddtothiscriticism,butIwillalsotakeissueinthepagesandchaptersthatfollowwithsomeofthefeministpositionsondoingethnographyBeforeIgetfurtherintotheseissues,letmeexplainwhatfollowsBecauseIdidanalyzeandpublishthematerialthatledtothewritingoftheshortstorymentionedabove(Wolfa),InowhavethreetextsdescribingindifferentwayswhathappenedinthelittlevillageofPeihotiensomethirtyyearsagoOneisapieceoffictionwrittenbymealoneanotherconsistsofunanalyzedfieldnotesrecordinginterviewsandobservationscollectedbyanyoftheseveralmembersofthefieldstaffandthethirdisentirelyinmyvoice,writteninastyleacceptabletorefereeschosenbytheAmericanEthnologistEachtexttakesadifferentperspective,iswritteninadifferentstyle,andhasdifferent"outcomes,"yetallthreeinvolvethesamesetofeventsNotsurprisingly,ineachcanbefoundexamplesoftheattitudes,methods,andideasthatourpostmoderncriticsbothhateandloveThethreetextsarepresentedhereasChaptersTwo,Three,andFourwithminimaleditorialinterventionsEachchapterisfollowedbyaCommentary,inwhichIusethetexttoillustrateandarguewithsomeoftheproblemsandpromisesthisnewperiodofreflexivityhasbroughttotheforeBecauseintherestofthischapterIwanttodrawontheethnographicmaterialthatformsthebackboneofthisbook,ImustriskcreatinghereafourthversionofwhatoccurredinPeihotieninAyoungmotherofthreechildrenbeganto"RuminationswithaView(point)behaveinadecidedlyaberrant,perhapssuicidal,mannerOveraperiodofaboutamonth,shedisplayedsymptomsofmentalillness,spiritloss,possessionbyagod,andshamanismAnyonewhohaslivedinasmallvillagewillunderstandthatthisbehaviorwouldnotlonggounnoticedbyherneighborsandwouldquicklybecomethemajortopicofconversationwhenevertwopeoplemetEventually,peoplefromnearbycommunitiesbecameinvolved,andattimestherewereliterallycrowdssurroundingherhouseandfillinghercourtyardMrsTanwasan"outsider"asfarasthelocalpeoplewereconcerned,becausesheandherfamilyhadonlylivedinthevillagefortenyearstobea"real"memberofthecommunity,onehadtobeassociatedwithafamilythathadbeenthereatleastageneration,preferablytwoFollowingMrsTan'sfirstpublicoutburst,shewasquicklyhustledofftoa"hospital"inthenearbymarkettown,whereshewaskeptunderphysicalrestraints(tiedtoabed)andpsychologicalrestraints(drugged)Afterafewdays,shereturnedtothevillage,andbeforeshewasfinallytakenawayfromtheareatohermother'shouse,shewasconsideredbysomemembersofthecommunitytobeatangki,orshaman,throughwhomagodwasspeaking*Throughoutthisperiod,thevillagersdebatedamongthemselvesandwithritualspecialistsofteninherpresenceaboutwhethershewas"crazy,"hadsimplylosthersoul(afairlycommonoccurrence),hadbeenchosenasavehicleforagodwhowisheddirectaccesstobelievers(arecognizedstatus),orwasbeingexploitedbyherne'erdowellhusband,whothoughthecouldmakemoneyoffherroleasatangkiIsuspectforsomevillagersthisdebatewasnevertrulyresolvedforothers,itwassettledwhen

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/15

*新书上架*讲了三遍的故事:女性主义、后现代主义和民族志的责任

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利