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首页 *新书上架*死亡、希望和性

*新书上架*死亡、希望和性.pdf

*新书上架*死亡、希望和性

九月虺
2009-07-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*死亡、希望和性pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankDeath,HopeandSexStepstoanEvolutionaryEcologyofMindandMoralityByshowinghowandwhyhumannatureiswhatisis,evolutionarytheorycanhelpusseebetterwhatweneedtodotoimprovethehumanconditionFollowingevolutionarytheorytoitslogicalconclusion,Death,Hope,andSexuseslifehistorytheoryandattachmenttheorytoconstructamodelofhumannatureinwhichcriticalfeaturesareunderstoodintermsofthedevelopmentofalternativereproductivestrategiescontingentonenvironmentalriskanduncertaintyJamesChisholmexaminestheimplicationofthismodelforperspectivesonconcernsassociatedwithhumanreproduction,includingteenpregnancy,andyoungmaleviolenceHethusdevelopsnewapproachesforthornyissuessuchasthenature–nurtureandmind–bodydichotomiesBridgingthegapbetweenthesocialandbiologicalsciences,thisfarreachingvolumewillbeasourceofinspiration,debate,anddiscussionforallthoseinterestedintheevolutionofhumannatureandthepotentialforanevolutionaryhumanismjamesschisholmisAssociateProfessorintheDepartmentofAnatomyandHumanBiologyattheUniversityofWesternAustraliainPerth,AustraliaHispreviouspublicationsincludeNavajoInfancy:AnEthologicalStudyofChildDevelopment()Death,HopeandSexStepstoanEvolutionaryEcologyofMindandMoralityJamesSChisholmThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKWestthStreet,NewYork,NY,USAWilliamstownRoad,PortMelbourne,VIC,AustraliaRuizdeAlarcón,Madrid,SpainDockHouse,TheWaterfront,CapeTown,SouthAfricahttp:wwwcambridgeorgFirstpublishedinprintedformatISBNXhardbackISBNpaperbackISBNeBookJamesSChisholm(AdobeReader)©Formymotherandfather,mysistersandbrother,mywifeandmysonContentsPrefaceixAcknowledgmentsxiiiEvolutionandexplanationHumannatureandpracticalreasonScienceandwisdomEvolutionaryepistemologyEvolutionanddevelopmentThemissingphenoptypeLifehistorytheory:developmentalevolutionaryecologyDevelopmentalsystems:adaptationsforreducinguncertaintyThenatureofvalueOptimalontogeny:whatisdevelopmentforAttachmenttheoryRepresentingvalueDetectingthefutureEvaluatingthefutureSexanduncertaintyEarlystressTheAbsentFatherSyndromeTheYoungMaleSyndrome:coercionTheYoungFemaleSyndrome:singlemotheringAttachmentandreproductionThecostofcontinuingEvolutionandwellbeingFunctions,freedom,andfitnessReferencesIndexPrefaceIfthemiseryofourpoorbecausednotbythelawsofnature,butbyourinstitutions,greatisoursinCharlesDarwin,VoyageoftheBeagle(:)Thisbookisaboutsuffering,healing,andevolvedhumannatureItisaboutthemundanesufferingthatiswroughtbyourverynature,andwhyknowledgeofthisnatureisourbesthopeforhealingthesufferingthatitsooftenbringsTheshapeofmyargumentisthis:()whatournatureis,()whyitisthisway,and()whyknowledgeofwhyitisthiswayhastherapeuticimplicationsIbelievethatmyoverallargumentfollowslogicallyfrommymostbasicassumption,whichisthathumanbeingshaveanatureTherearetworeasonwhyIamhappywiththisassumptionFirst,Ibelievethatwearepartofnature,partoflifeTherefore,becauseevolutionarytheoryisouronlyscientifictheoryoflife,forme,literallyeverythingaboutlifeisultimatelyexplainableintermsofevolutionarytheoryortermscompatibletherewithSecond,notonlydoIbelievethathumannatureisafactofnature,Ialsobelievethatvalueexistsasafactofnatureandthatknowledgeofthevaluethatisinlife,includingourselves,wouldconstituteanextremelyvaluablesetoffactsIndeed,sincethecontinuationofourspecies(ourdescendants)maydependonknowingandacceptingournature,IcannotimagineanymorevaluablesetoffactsThisbookisaboutusingevolutionarytheorytounderstandhumannatureinordertherebytohealandpreservehumanlifeandlifeingeneralItisthereforeanessayinevolutionarymedicineItisanessayontheuseofevolutionarytheoryasarationalbasisforhumanproblemsolvingItisthereforealsoanexerciseinwhatJulianHuxley()called“evolutionaryhumanism”HumannatureisthatwhichwehaveincommondespiteourdifferencesItisthatwhichtransformsusfromlocalpartisanswithcrampedloyaltiesintokosmoupolite¯s,“citizensoftheuniverse,”withallegiancestowhatweundeniablyshare:thequalitiesoflifeInthecomingpagesIwillpaintapictureofhumannaturethatisemergingfromrecentthinkingattheinterfaceofevolutionarytheoryandhumandevelopmentabouttheevolvednatureandcontingentdevelopmentofhumanreproductivestrategiesIwilldescribethisthinkingandwhatweknowaboutreproductivestrategiesinconsiderabledetailinsucceedingchaptersFornow,however,itisenoughtodefineareproductivestrategylooselyasthesumofalltheadaptations–anatomical,physiological,psychological,anddevelopmental–thatenabledallofthe(direct)ancestorsofallorganismsthateverlivedtosolvetheproblemsthathadtobesolvedinorderforthemtohaveleftdescendantsTheseadaptationsarethequalitiesoflifeTosetthestageforwhatfollowsImustemphasizeattheoutsetthat,whileevolutionarybiologistsbelievethatorganismsactuallydopossess–indeedare–suchadaptations(andtheirbyproducts),andthatmanycanbeconvincinglydemonstrated,theconceptofreproductivestrategyisfundamentallyanassumption,whichmeansthatitisaworkinghypothesis,amentalmodel,animageorawayofseeing,ratherthananempiricallyestablishedentityAnassumptionistheifthatcomesbeforeathenIntheactofdeterminingwhethersomethenthatwepredictactuallyexists,wehaveassumedthattheifthatprecedesitistrueOr,asPierreRyckmansputitrecently,“Thesaying‘toseeistobelieve’mustbereversed:tobelievetoassumeistosee”(:)DarwinwasgettingatthesameideawhenhewrotetoAlfredRusselWallacein,“Iamafirmbelieverthatwithoutspeculationthereisnogoodandoriginalobservation”(Burkhardt:)InevolutionarytheorythishasprovedtobeanextraordinarilypowerfulandproductiveproblemsolvinggambitToassumethathumannatureisfundamentally,essentiallyaboutreproductionistoadoptwhatDennett(,seealsoFodor)callsthe“intentionalstance,”whichistoassumethatthequalitiesoflife–adaptations–areforsomething,thattheywereintendedbysomeimaginaryagent(say,ablindwatchmakerDawkins)tosolvesomeproblemWedonotreallybelievethis,ofcourse,anymorethanwebelievethateachandeverybiologicaltraitactuallyisanadaptation(moreonthislater)However,thefundamentallogicoftheprocessofadaptationbynaturalselectionthatisembodiedintheintentionalstanceallowsustomakepredictionsaboutthenatureoftheproblemsthatorganismsinparticularecologicalorpolitical–economiccircumstanceswillface,which,inturn,oftengiveshintsaboutthekindsofsolutions(adaptations)thatwemightlookforThisiswhatevolutionaryecologyisallaboutThiswhyIbelievethattheconceptofreproductivestrategycancontributesubstantiallytonewperspectivesonhumannature:becauseithelpsustounderstandtheadapxPrefacetiveproblemsthateachandeveryoneofour(direct)ancestorslogicallyhadtohavesolvedbeforeeachandeveryoneofuscouldexistKnowingwhattheseproblemsare,Ibelieve,willhelpusunderstandhowtheirsolutionsarerepresentedphenotypically–thatis,howsolutionstoadaptiveproblems(theproblemsoflife)aremateriallyinstantiated,literallyembodiedinflesh,blood,bone,neuralnetworks,andotherphysicochemicalstructuresandprocessesKnowingwhattheseproblemsare,inotherwords,mayhelpusunderstandhowtheifsofhumanreproductiongiverisetotheirvariousthensKnowingtheseifsandthenswouldconstituteasupremelyvaluablesetoffactsFromthesebasicassumptions,Iworktowardtheconclusionthatitisnotonlypossible,butindeedvaluabletoviewhumannatureasamanifestationofourreproductivestrategiesandthusasanatural,biologicalphenomenonImaintain,however,thatthiscanbeonlycoldcomforttooutdated“greedy”reductionistswhobelieveinsomefixed,universalhumannatureThisisbecauseanessentialpartofhumannatureisthewaythatitevolvedtobereliably,adaptivelyaffectedduringdevelopmentbycertainkindsofinformationaboutyounghumanbeings’localsocioecologyFrommycombinedevolutionarydevelopmentalperspective,infact,humannaturecomestobeseenasessentially,biologically,adaptivelylocal,contingent,andemergentNotonlydoestheviewofhumannatureasamanifestationofourreproductivestrategiesincreaseourunderstandingofhumannature,suchaviewalsoprovidesarational,scientificbasisforatheoryofvalueandanethicalstancethatcombinesreasonandcompassion,thatsaysitisrationaltobecompassionate,andthatcanhelpusameliorateouralltoohumanconditionFromassumptionsabouttheessentialreproductivefunctionofhumannature–thathumannatureisultimatelyforreproduction–Ideveloparational,evolutionarytheoreticalfoundationforanethicalstancethataimstobetherapeuticbyincreasingourpracticalreasonIndeed,insomewaysthisbookamountstoonelongargumentagainstGEMoore’s()naturalisticfallacy–theideathatitiswrongtoarguefromfactstovaluesThestructureofmytherapeuticargumentisthepropositionthatifhumannatureisamanifestationofourreproductivestrategies,andifourreproductivestrategiesevolvedtobereliablyaffectedbycertainfeaturesoftheenvironmentsinwhichwedevelop,thentheessenceofhumannature,PrefacexiEmergentintheliteralsenseofcomingintoview,notnecessarilyinthetechnicalsenseofarisingunpredictablyfromwhatcomesbefore(Dennett:)thepartwecareaboutmost,ourmindsandmoralsentiments,mustbeatleastpartlycontingentonthesesameenvironmentalfeaturesAndwhatenvironmentalfeaturesaretheseWhatareourmindsandmoralsentimentsforWhatparticularproblemsdidtheyevolvetosolveAsIwillshowinthecomingchapters,evolutionarytheoryandhumandevelopmentare(fordifferentreasons)comingtoconceiveoftheseproblemsintermsofenvironmentalriskanduncertainty,whichishowevolutionaryecologistsreferabstractlytothreatstoanorganism’ssurvivaloritspotentialforleavingdescendantsIbelievethatwhenhumannatureisviewedfromaconjoinedevolutionarydevelopmentalperspective,ourmindsandmoralsentimentsemergeasessentiallyadaptationsforpredictingthefuturePredictingthefuturereducesenvironmentalriskanduncertainty,therebyreducingthechanceofdeath,nurturinggrowthanddevelopment,andprovidinghopeforfuturegenerationsForevolutionists,futuregenerationsarewhatreproductivestrategies–sex–aremeanttoachieveInshort,predictingthefuturemaximizesthechanceofreachingthefutureThis,Ishallargue,istheoriginofvalueitselfAnd,becauseinequalityisamajorsourceofriskanduncertainty,itisalsoareasonforvaluingequalityandhumanrightsxiiPrefaceAcknowledgmentsThisbookhasmanybeginningsOnewasinGregoryBateson’sfamousseminarattheUniversityofHawai’iThiswasaheadyaffair,forIwasjustafirstyeargraduatestudent,anddoublyluckytobeenrolledwhilehewaswritingStepstoanEcologyofMind()HismarkonmythinkingaboutmindandnaturehasbeenenduringIamalsoplainlyindebtedtohimformysubtitle,whichIhaveappropriatedasawayofhonoringhisvisionoftheimportanceofecologyforunderstandingthemindPartsofthebookbeganaspaperspresentedatconferencesPortionsofchapters,andwerepresentedinNovember,,inTeresópolis,Brazil,attheWennerGrenFoundationforAnthropologicalResearchInternationalSymposium,“ThePoliticsofReproduction,”organizedbyRaynaRappandFayeGinsburg(thispaperisnowChisholm)InDecember,Ipresentedanotherversionoftheseideasinthesymposium,“TheAnthropologyofRomanticPassion,”thatBillJankowiakorganizedfortheannualmeetingoftheAmericanAnthropologicalAssociationinSanFrancisco(nowChisholma)In,ImadetwopreliminaryattemptstosketchthewholeargumentOnewas“Stepstoanevolutionaryecologyofmind,”whichIpresentedinAprilattheconference“BioculturalApproachestotheMindandHumanDevelopment,”whichwasorganizedbytheCognitiveStudiesGroupoftheInstituteforBehavioralResearchattheUniversityofGeorgia(nowpublishedinBeyondNature–Nurture:BioculturalApproachestotheEmotions,editedbyAlexHintonandDHarperJonesCambridgeUniversityPress)TheotherwasinDecember,inthesymposium“EthnicityandHealth,”organizedbyLincSchmittandLenFreedmanfortheannualmeetingoftheAustralasianSocietyforHumanBiologyinPerth(nowChisholmb)Portionsofchapterwerepresentedinthesymposium,“Nature,Culture,andtheQuestion,‘Why’”organizedbyLutzEckensbergerandMichaelLambforthebiennialmeetingoftheInternationalSocietyfortheStudyofBehavioralDevelopmentinQuebecCityinAugust,Portionsofchapterwerepresentedinthesymposium,“ChildhoodinLifeHistoryPerspective,”organizedbyGildaMorelliandPaulaIveyfortheannualmeetingofSocietyforCrossCulturalResearchinSantaFeinFebruary,(nowChisholma)Finally,portionsofchapterwerepresentedatthesymposium,“TheEvolutionoftheOntogenyofEnculturation,”organizedbyKeithMcNealandJohnBingfortheAnnualMeetingoftheAmericanAnthropologicalAssociationinSanFranciscoinNovemberMuchofthisbookbeganinthemindsofteachers,students,colleagues,andfriendswhoovertheyearshavesharedtheirideaswithmeandencouragedmebytheirexampletoforageforideasandinsightsacrosstraditionaldisciplinaryboundariesManyofthemalsoreadandcommentedonvariousearlysectionsandversionsofthebookIwanttoacknowledgeinparticulartheinspirationandadviceofJayBelsky,NickBlurtonJones,BerryBrazelton,RicCharnov,DavidCoall,EllenDissanayake,PatDraper,RobinFox,LenFreedman,SaraHarkness,HenryHarpending,MurrayHead,SarahHrdy,MelKonner,MichaelLamb,JaneLancaster,JimMcKenna,NeilPelkey,ScottRushforth,BarbSmuts,CharlieSuper,RossThompson,LionelTiger,NoelWescombe,andCarolWorthmanIamfortunatetohavehadsuchacollectionofmentorsThebookalsobeganwithsupportfromtheAustralianResearchCouncilandtheUniversityofWesternAustraliaAgrantfromtheARCrelievedmeofmyotheracademicreponsibilitiesforaterm,resultingintheblissfulbutaltogethernecessaryluxuryofwritingfulltimeUWA,throughitsDeputyViceChancellor,ProfessorAlanRobson,providedanadditionaltermofleaveThissecondconsecutivesemesterofleavemorethandoubledthevalueofthefirst,andIamgratefultoAlanforhissupportandvisionAsmightbeexpectedofadevelopmentalist,IalsodiscernbeginningsforthisbookinmypastMyfatherwasanengineerandmymotherapoet,soformeSnow’stwoculturesweresofamiliarandwarmastobecomeoneMybrotherDougbecameanengineeraswell,andfromhimandmyfatherIlearnedlongagothatthingscanbe“reverseengineered”FrommysisterJeanIlearnedmoreaboutengineering(managing)socialrelationsIamespeciallygratefultoherforherconcept,andpractice,ofthe“ideologyofconcern”Finally,thisbookhadanumberofimportantbeginningsallinoneperson,mywife,VictoriaKatherineBurbankIamenormouslygratefulforherinspiration,guidance,grace,andinsightShewastheonewhoshowedmethat,althoughinequalityisasocialfact,ithascriticalbiologicalimplicationsandmightthereforeserveasanotherbasisforaunifiedbiosocialsciencexivAcknowledgmentsEvolutionandexplanationEmptyisthatphilosopher’sargumentbywhichnohumansufferingistherapeuticallytreatedForjustasthereisnouseinamedicalartthatdoesnotcastoutthesicknessesofbodies,sotoothereisnouseinphilosophy,unlessitcastsoutthesufferingofthesoulEpicurus(–BCE)Explanationisnotachievedbydescriptionofthepatternsofregularity,nomatterhowmeticulousandadequate,norbyreplacingthisdescriptionbyotherabstractionscongruentwithit,butbyexhibitingwhatmakesthepattern,ie,certainprocessesFredrikBarth(:)AllorganismsareallofthetimeproblemsolvingKarlPopper(:)Clarityaboutwhatitmeanstobehumanconstitutesnotonlythehighestpoliticalandtherapeuticvision,butalsotheheightofpracticalreasonThisisbecauseitisfromconceptionsofhumannaturethataccesstoallsocialresourcesflowsAristotlearguedthathumansbecomeawareoftheirpoliticalidealsonlythroughtheirunderstandingofsharedhumannatureTakinghislead,EpicurusandtheHellenisticphilosophersdevelopedtheideathatbothphilosophy(knowledge)andpoliticsweremedicine(ie,healing,therapy)carriedonbyothermeans(Nussbaum)Atsomepoint,everythinghumanhasphilosophicalandpoliticalimplications,but,asWesternphilosophershaveknownatleastsinceAristotle,inordereventoseetheseimplicationsitisnecessaryfirsttohaveknowledgeofhumannature–otherwise,whatwouldtheimplicationsbeforForAristotleandtheHellenisticphilosophers,knowledgeofhumannaturecouldonlyleadtoeudaimonia–ie,“humanflourishing”Theybelievedthatitwasonlythroughknowledgeofsharedhumannaturethatwebecomeawareofwherewewanttogo,theidealsatwhichweshouldaimAsAristotleputitintheNichomacheanEthics,illustratingthepracticalvalueoftherapeuticarguments,“Won’tknowledgeofitie,thegoodtheconditionsforeudaimoniamakeagreatshiftinthebalancewherelifeisconcerned,andwon’twe,likearcherswithatargetbeforeus,bemorelikelytohitonwhatisappropriate”(quotedinNussbaum:)Knowledgeofsharedhumannaturewouldestablishwhatisappropriateforachievinghumanflourishing–thetargetwhichoughttoguideouraimwheneverwedecidehowbesttomakeourwayintheworldHumannatureandpracticalreasonKnowinghowtomakeourwayintheworldispracticalreasonIamgratefulforCharlesTaylor’s()conceptionofpracticalreasonforitshowsthatrationalandmoralargumentssharecommonfeatures(ItalsofitsnicelywiththeevolutionaryepistemologicalapproachtoknowledgethatIshallexamineshortly)Ifweaccepthumanflourishingasourtarget,Taylorwrites,thentheactivityofexplainingwhythingsareastheyare(whatwethinkofasscience)isintrinsicallylinked

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