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首页 *新书上架*理性与善

*新书上架*理性与善.pdf

*新书上架*理性与善

九月虺
2009-07-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

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RationalityandtheGoodEditedbyMarkTimmonsJohnGrecoAlfredRMeleThispageintentionallyleftblankRationalityandtheGoodCriticalEssaysontheEthicsandEpistemologyofRobertAudiEditedbyMarkTimmonsJohnGrecoAlfredRMeleOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,publishesworksthatfurtherOxfordUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamCopyright©byOxfordUniversityPress,IncPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkwwwoupcomOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSymposiumonthePhilosophyofRobertAudi(:UniversityofNotreDame)Rationalityandthegood:criticalessaysontheethicsandepistemologyofRobertAudieditedbyMarkTimmons,JohnGreco,andAlfredRMelepcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(pbk)Philosophy,ModernthcenturyCongressesAudi,Robert,CongressesEthicsCongressesKnowledge,TheoryofCongressesAct(Philosophy)CongressesActiontheoryCongressesITimmons,Mark,–IIGreco,JohnIIIMele,AlfredR,–IVTitleBSdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperPrefaceVeryBriefOverviewFormorethanthirtyyears,RobertAudihasbeenoneofthemostcreativeandinfluentialphilosophicalvoicesonabroadrangeoftopicsinthefieldsofethics,epistemology,philosophyofmindandaction,andphilosophyofreligionThisvolumefeaturesthirteenchaptersbyrenownedscholarsplusnewwritingsbyAudiEachpaperpresentsbothapositionofitsauthorandacriticaltreatmentofrelatedideasofAudi’s,andherespondstoeachoftheothercontributorsinawaythatprovidesalivelydialogueonthetopicThebookbeginswithanintroductionbyAudithatpresentsathematicoverviewofhisphilosophyandconnectshisviewsinethics,epistemology,andphilosophyofmindandactionEachofthethirteenchaptersthatfollowconcentratesononeoranotherofthesethreemainareasThechaptersarefollowedbyAudi’srepliesTheexchangesbetweenAudiandhiscriticsinanyoneoftheareasprovidesamplematerialforseminardiscussionsorresearchesinthatfieldEthicsAudiistheleadingcontemporaryproponentofmoralintuitionismHisbook,TheGoodintheRight,defendsasystematicethicaltheorythatprovidesamoderateintuitionistaccountofmoraljustificationandknowledgetogetherwithaconceptionofmoralityanditspluraliststructurethatcombineselementsfromthemoralphilosophiesofRossandKantPartofthisvolume,“ProblemsandProspectsforIntuitionistEthics,”includesessaysbyWalterSinnottArmstrong,RogerCrisp,andHughJMcCannthatchallengevariouskeyelementsinAudi’smoralintuitionism,especiallyitsepistemologySinnottArmstrongchallengesAudi’sdistinctionbetween“conclusionsofreflection”and“conclusionsofinference”adistinctionthatplaysanimportantroleinAudi’sdefenseofmoralintuitionismCrispraisesproblemsaboutthebearingofactualandhypotheticaldisagreementontheplausibilityofAudi’sintuitionismMcCann,thoughgenerallysympathetictomoralintuitionism,proposestodevelopwhatmaybedescribedasa‘conativist’versionofmoralintuitionismthathepresentsasacorrectivetothesortof‘cognitivist’viewheldbyAudiviPrefaceTheotherchaptersinpart,byBernardGert,ThomasHurka,andCandaceVogler,concentrateonAudi’sconceptionofmoralityandhisattempttointegrateRoss’smoralpluralismwithaKantianunificationofmoralityunderthecategoricalimperativeGertcontraststwoconceptionsofmoralitya‘wide’conceptionprominentinsuchphilosophersasAristotle,Kant,Ross,andnowAudi,anda‘narrower’conceptiontobefoundinthewritingsofHobbesandMill,andwhichGerthimselfdefendsOnecentralelementinAudi’snormativemoraltheoryishisattempttointegrateapluralityofRossianmoralprincipleswiththeKantiancategoricalimperativeasheinterpretsitAudicallshisviewKantianintuitionismInhispaper,Hurkaarguesthatthis“marriage”ofKantwithRossdoesnotyieldtheadvantagestoaRossstyleethicalpluralismthatAudiclaimsFinally,Vogler’spaperchallengesAudi’sKantianintuitionismbyarguingthatitfailstomakepropercontactwiththeviewsofeitherKantorRossEpistemologyAudi’sepistemologyisexperientialist,moderatelyrationalist,foundationalist,realist,andaimedatbeingthroughoutconsonantwithaplausiblephilosophyofmindPart,“Knowledge,Justification,andAcceptance,”featuresessaysbyLaurenceBonJour,ElizabethFricker,TimothyWilliamson,andWilliamAlstonAlthoughBonJoursharesAudi’sepistemologicalfoundationalism,heiscriticalofAudi’sviewthatperceptualbeliefsareamongthetypesoffoundationalbeliefAnotherimportantelementofAudi’sepistemologyishisviewaboutthesocialsourcesofjustificationandknowledge,particularlytheepistemicstatusoftestimonyThecentralepistemologicalquestionabouttestimonyishowjustificationandknowledgearisefromitFricker’spaperiscriticalofAudi’sviewonthismatteranddefendsheralternativeagainstAudi’sInternalismandexternalismaretypicallyconceivedascompetingviewsAudi,however,hasdefendedaninternalistviewofjustificationandanexternalistviewofknowledgeAudi’sblendoftheseviewsisthefocusofTimothyWilliamson’spaperinwhich,amongotherthings,hearguesthatthisparticularblendisunstableand,onsomepoints,inerrorAnotherelementofAudi’soverallepistemologyishisconceptionofrationalityinrelationtoreligiousfaithAudihasproposedaconceptionofsuchfaiththatexpandsthescopeofrationalityintherealmofcognitiveattitudestoincludewhathecalls‘nondoxasticfaith’,afiduciaryattitudethathaslessstringentrationalityconditionsthanfaithasusuallyunderstoodAlthoughAlstonagreeswithAudithatthiskindofpositiveattitudetowardreligiouspropositionsisdistinctfrombelief,AlstonarguesthatAudihasnotproperlycharacterizedtheattitudeinquestionAction,Mind,andPracticalRationalityAudihasalsodevelopedoneofthemostcomprehensiveandnuancedaccountsofrationalactionandpracticalreasoninganaccountthatincludesviewsontheconceptsofintentionandreasonsforactionthatarecrucialforethics,particularlyastheybearonmattersofmoralpsychologyThechaptersbyFrederickAdams,AlfredMele,andRaimoTuomelainparttakeupAudi’sinfluentialviewsonthetopicsofintention,selfdeception,andreasonsforactionAdams’spaperisconcernedwiththeconceptsofintendingandtrying,arguingagainstAudi’sviewthattryingisnotentailedbyintendingRelyingpartlyonpsychiatricstudies,MeleiscriticalofAudi’sviewsonselfdeceptionanddelusionFinally,Tuomeladefendsaviewofmotivatingreasonsforbothindividualsandgroups,contrastinghisviewwithsomeaspectsofAudi’stheoryofpracticalreasonsPrefaceviiInpart,“ReasonandIntuitioninThoughtandAction,”Audiengageshiscriticsbyrespondingtotheirobjectionsand,inmanycases,refiningandextendinghisownphilosophicalviewsTheresponsesarewrittentobereadeitherstraightthroughorinsectionsorsubsectionsalongwithasinglepaperorsectioninthebodyofthebookTakeninthecontextofthemanycriticalpointsAudiaddresses,theyconstitutearichsourceforcontinuingdebateThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgmentsThecontributorstothisvolumewereinvitedtopresenttheirpapersatasymposiumonthephilosophyofRobertAudiheldattheUniversityofNotreDameinAprilItspurposewastoprovideaforumforpresentingandcriticallydiscussingtheirpapersonAudi’sworkThesymposiumbeganwithaninterdisciplinarypaneldiscussingAudi’sviewsthatincludedAnnBaker(UniversityofWashington),MarioDeCaro(UniversityofRome),CathleenKaveny(NotreDameLawSchool),andOliverWilliams(NotreDameMendozaCollegeofBusiness)EachpaperhadacommentatorandreceivedlivelydiscussionCommentatorsincluded:MichaelDePaul(NotreDame),DavidDiQuattro(NotreDame),JoshuaGert(FloridaState),SanfordGoldberg(Northwestern),LynnJoy(NotreDame),JenniferLackey(IllinoisStateUniversity),CyrilleMichon(UniversityofNante),MichaelPace(BrownUniversity),RichardReilly(StBonaventure),DavidSolomon(NotreDame),WilliamTolhurst(NorthernIllinoisUniversity),andPeterTramel(USMA,WestPoint)WewanttothankallofthemforcontributingtothedevelopmentofthepapersForothercontributionstodiscussionwearegratefultomanyparticipants,includingKarlAmeriks,PatriciaBlanchette,RandolphClarke,MarianDavid,ChristopherGreen,KevinHart,BradHooker,ChristopherKulp,MarcusLammenranta,PaoloMonti,PatrickEMurphy,RebeccaStangl,SeanPatrickWalsh,and,especially,PetervanInwagen,whobothreadWilliamAlston’spaperinhisabsenceandhelpfullyansweredquestionsitraisedWewishtothankthefollowingpeoplefortheirinvaluablehelpNathanBallantyneandChrisZapertinecollaboratedinpreparingtheindexIanEvans,TheresaLopez,BillOberdick,andDanielSandermanservedasproofreadersColeMitchellcomposedchapterabstractsforOxfordScholarshipOnlineFinally,theeditorswouldliketoexpresstheirdeepappreciationofRobertAudi’smanyimportantcontributionstophilosophy,andtothankhimforhisinvaluablehelpwithstructuringthisvolumeOurhopeisthatitwillservemanyxAcknowledgmentsreadersasamodelofhighlevelintellectualexchangeandwillgeneratefurthercontributions,byAudiandmanyothers,tothecentralphilosophicaltopicsitaddressesMTJGAMContentsContributorsxiiiRationalityandtheGoodRobertAudiPARTI:ProblemsandProspectsforIntuitionistEthicsReflectionsonReflectioninRobertAudi’sMoralIntuitionismWalterSinnottArmstrongIntuitionismandDisagreementRogerCrispMetaethicalReflectionsonRobertAudi’sMoralIntuitionismHughJMcCannTwoConceptionsofMoralityBernardGertAudi’sMarriageofRossandKantThomasHurkaAccountingforDutiesCandaceVoglerxiiContentsPARTII:Knowledge,Justification,andAcceptanceArePerceptualBeliefsProperlyFoundationalLaurenceBonJourAudionTestimonyElizabethFrickerOnBeingJustifiedinOne’sHeadTimothyWilliamsonAudionNondoxasticFaithWilliamPAlstonPARTIII:Intention,SelfDeception,andReasonsforActionTryingwiththeHopeFrederickAdamsSelfDeceptionandThreePsychiatricDelusionsAlfredRMeleMotivatingReasonsforActionRaimoTuomelaPARTIV:ReasonandIntuitioninThoughtandActionIntuition,Reflection,andJustificationRobertAudiJustifyingGrounds,JustifiedBeliefs,andRationalAcceptanceRobertAudiBelief,Intention,andReasonsforActionRobertAudiIndexxiiiContributorsFrederickAdamsisprofessorofcognitivescienceandphilosophyattheUniversityofDelawareHeischairofthedepartmentoflinguisticsandcognitivescienceandisdirectorofthecognitivescienceprogramHepublishesinepistemology,philosophyoflanguage,philosophyofmind,andtheoryofactionWilliamPAlstonhasservedonthephilosophyfacultiesoftheUniversityofMichigan(–),RutgersUniversity(–),UniversityofIllinoisatUrbanaChampaign(–),andSyracuseUniversity(–)FromhehasbeenprofessoremeritusatSyracuseUniversitywherehecontinuedtoteachuntilAmonghisbooksareDivineNatureandHumanLanguage,EpistemicJustification,PerceivingGod,ARealistConceptionofTruth,IllocutionaryActsandSentenceMeaning,andBeyond“Justification”:DimensionsofEpistemicEvaluation,allfromCornellUniversityPressInaddition,hehaspublishedmanyarticlesinjournalsandbooksHeisaFellowoftheAmericanAcademyofArtsandSciencesRobertAudiisboththeprincipalsubjectofthisvolumeandauthorofchaptersandthroughRepresentativeworksofhisarelistedinthereferencesfollowingchapterHeispresentlyprofessorofphilosophyandDavidEGalloChairinEthicsattheUniversityofNotreDameLaurenceBonJourisprofessorofphilosophyattheUniversityofWashingtonHeistheauthorofTheStructureofEmpiricalKnowledge(),InDefenseofPureReason(),and(withErnestSosa)EpistemicJustification(),alongwithmanypapersinepistemologyandrelatedareasRogerCrispisUehiroFellowandTutorinPhilosophyatStAnne’sCollege,OxfordHeistheauthorofMillonUtilitarianism()andReasonsandtheGood()ElizabethFrickerisFellowandTutorinPhilosophy,MagdalenCollege,OxfordShehaspublishedextensivelyontestimony,andalsointhephilosophyofmindBernardGertisStoneProfessorofIntellectualandMoralPhilosophy,DartmouthCollege,andadjunctprofessorofpsychiatry,DartmouthMedicalSchoolHereceivedanNEH–NSFSustainedDevelopmentAward(–),Fulbrightawards(Israel,xivContributors–Argentina,Fall),andaNationalHumanitiesCenterFellowship(–)HeisauthorofCommonMorality:DecidingWhattoDo(),paperbackedition()andMorality:ItsNatureandJustification,revisededition()HeisfirstauthorofMoralityandtheNewGenetics:AGuideforStudentsandHealthCareProviders(),andBioethics:ASystematicApproach()andiseditorofManandCitizen,ThomasHobbes’sDeCiveandDeHomine(,)ThomasHurkaisChancellorHenryNRJackmanDistinguishedProfessorofPhilosophicalStudiesattheUniversityofToronto,havingtaughtpreviouslyattheUniversityofCalgaryHeisauthorofPerfectionism(OUP,),Principles:ShortEssaysonEthics(OUP,),andVirtue,Vice,andValue(OUP,),aswellasnumerousarticlesinnormativeethicaltheoryHughJMcCannisprofessorofphilosophyatTexasAMUniversityHeistheauthorofTheWorksofAgency()andofnumerouspapersinactiontheory,thephilosophyofreligion,andrelatedtopicsinmetaphysics,valuetheory,andpracticalreasoningAlfredRMeleistheWilliamHandLucyleTWerkmeisterProfessorofPhilosophyatFloridaStateUniversityHeistheauthorofIrrationality(),SpringsofAction(),AutonomousAgents(),MotivationandAgency(),FreeWillandLuck(),allpublishedbyOUP,andSelfDeceptionUnmasked()HealsoistheeditorofThePhilosophyofAction(),coeditor(withJohnHeil)ofMentalCausation(),andcoeditor(withPiersRawling)ofTheOxfordHandbookofRationality()allpublishedbyOUPWalterSinnottArmstrongisprofessorofphilosophyandHardyProfessorofLegalStudiesatDartmouthCollegeHerecentlypublishedamonographMoralSkepticisms(OUP,)andiscompletingacollectionofthreevolumesoforiginalessaysonMoralPsychology()RaimoTuomelaisprofessorofphilosophyatthedepartmentofsocialandmoralphilosophy,UniversityofHelsinki,FinlandHismainfieldofresearchisphilosophyofsocialactionHeisarecipientofseveralgrantsandawards,includingthevonHumboldtFoundationResearchAward,andisamemberoftheeditorialboardofseveraljournalsandbookseriesHisrecentbooksincludeTheImportanceofUs:APhilosophicalStudyofBasicSocialNotions(),Cooperation:APhilosophicalStudy(),andThePhilosophyofSocialPractices:ACollectiveAcceptanceView()CandaceVoglerisanassociateprofessorofphilosophyattheUniversityofChicagoSheworksinethics,actiontheory,socialandpoliticalphilosophy,feminism,sexualityandgenderstudies,andphilosophyandliteratureShehasspecialinterestsinMarx,Aquinas,Rousseau,ElizabethAnscombe,andthefatesoffoundationalistaccountsinethicsHerrecentpublicationsincludeReasonablyVicious()andJohnStuartMill’sDeliberativeLandscape()TimothyWilliamsonisWykehamChairofLogicatOxfordHeistheauthorofIdentityandDiscrimination(),Vagueness(),KnowledgeandItsLimits(OUP,),andVaguenesswithDGraff(),andofnumerousarticlesintheJournalofPhilosophy,PhilosophicalReview,Mind,Analysis,JournalofSymbolicLogic,JournalofPhilosophicalLogic,NotreDame,JournalofFormalLogic,StudiaLogica,andotherjournalsandcollectionsInhewaselectedFellowoftheBritishAcademyandoftheRoyalSocietyofEdinburghRationalityandtheGoodThispageintentionallyleftblankRationalityandtheGoodAnOverviewrobertaudiAchildisbornItisimmediatelyimmersedinsensationandgreetedwithdiscomfortItisrelievedbyfondlingandfeedingItexperiencestouchandtaste,hearingandsight,scentandmovementTheearliestsensationsaredoubtlessblurryButsoon,discriminationbeginsThisisadifferentialresponsivenesstoexperiencesThechildreachesoutformilk,smilesatMama,criesfromloudnoisesItisnotclearwhenthefirstbeliefsareformedTheirformationisfacilitatedbydiscrimination,butbeliefformationisnotentailedbydiscriminationBeliefrequiresunderstandingWhereofonecannotunderstand,thereofonecannotbelieveUnderstanding,inturn,requiresconceptsConceptsariseininterlockingformationsBeliefsdonotariseinisolationeither,onedoxasticatomatatimeLikeconcepts,theyareformed,andwork,infamiliesWeareblessednotonlywithareceptivenesstolearningfromexperiencebutalsowithacapacitytolearnfromwhatwealreadyknowOneroutetolearningisgeneralization:ifasmallyelpingdogjumpsatachild,thechildexpectsmuchthesameofabigoneAnother,overlapping,routetolearningisinferenceInference,too,appearsearlyinlifeWeinfercertainconsequencesofsomeofthethingswebelieveAchildtoldthatthefamilycannothaveanimalsneedsnologicalprowesstoinferthatthepuppyofferedbyneighborswillnotbeacceptedWealsomakeinferencestothebestexplanationThesamechildmayinferfromcaninesquealsatthedoorthatthepuppyisoutsideThepicturesofardrawnisintellectualButjustasbeliefandknowledgedevelopspontaneouslyfromtheimpactoftheworlduponachild’sexperience,conductevolvesspontaneouslyasthechildactsupontheworldHeretherewardsofsuccessandthepunishmentsoferroraregreatteachersActionenrichesthecontentoftheintellectWelearnmuchbydoingActionalsoevokesdesireandaversion,andsoshapesthewillRationalityandtheGoodI

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*新书上架*理性与善

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