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首页 【德勒兹研究】反俄狄浦斯导读

【德勒兹研究】反俄狄浦斯导读.pdf

【德勒兹研究】反俄狄浦斯导读

九月虺
2009-07-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【德勒兹研究】反俄狄浦斯导读pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

DELEUZEANDGUATTARI’SANTIOEDIPUSAntiOedipusisoneofthemostimportanttextsinphilosophytohaveappearedinthelastthirtyyearsThefirstcollaborativeworkofGillesDeleuzeandFélixGuattari,itpresentsabrilliantanddevastatingcritiqueoftheFreudianOedipuscomplexbycondemningitasareactionary,guiltinducingproductofcapitalistinstitutionsAtrulyremarkableandvastlycomplicatedtext,AntiOedipusrevolutionizedpoststructuralismandContinentalphilosophyInDeleuzeandGuattari’sAntiOedipus:IntroductiontoschizoanalysisEugeneWHollandprovidesacomprehensiveyetaccessibleguidetothiscomplexandnotoriouslydifficulttextHeinvestigatesthemannerinwhichDeleuzeandGuattarinegotiatetheinteractionsbetweenthethreemainmaterialistthinkersofmodernity,Freud,Marx,andNietzche,andlucidlyexaminestheroleofschizoanalysisinDeleuzeandGuattari’sradicalmaterialistpsychiatryAnindispensableguidetoAntiOedipus,thisbookisaperfectintroductiontotheearlythoughtofDeleuzeandGuattari,celebratingnotonlytheimportanceandrigoroftheirworkbuthighlightingitslastingimplicationsforthecontinuingdebatesonMarxism,environmentalismandfeminismEugeneWHollandisAssociateProfessorofFrenchandComparativeLiteratureattheOhioStateUniversityDELEUZEANDGUATTARI’SANTIOEDIPUSIntroductiontoschizoanalysisEugeneWHollandLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,©EugeneWHollandAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataHolland,EugeneWDeleuzeandGuattari’sAntiOedipus:introductiontoschizoanalysisEugeneWHollandpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexSocialpsychiatryPsychoanalysisSocialaspectsOedipuscomplexSocialaspectsCapitalismSchizophreniaSocialaspectsIGuattari,FélixIIHolland,EugeneWIIITitleRCDdcCIPISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(GlassbookFormat)vCONTENTSPrefaceviiIntroductionHowitworks():thematerialismsofFreud,Marx,andNietzscheHowitworks():thecriticaloperatorsdrawnfromKant,Marx,andFreudOperator:KantandcritiqueOperator:MarxandrevolutionaryautocritiqueOperator:FreudandthetendentiousjokeDesiringproductionandtheinternalcritiqueofOedipusThethreesynthesesoftheunconsciousTheconnectivesynthesisofproductionThedisjunctivesynthesisofrecordingTheconjunctivesynthesisofconsumption–consummationThefiveparalogismsofpsychoanalysisTheparalogismofdisplacementandthecritiqueofrepresentation()TheparalogismofapplicationandillegitimateuseoftheconjunctivesynthesisTheparalogismofthedoublebindandillegitimateuseofthedisjunctivesynthesisTheparalogismofextrapolationandillegitimateuseoftheconnectivesynthesisTheparalogismoftheafterwardandthecritiqueofrepresentation()viSocialproductionandtheexternalcritiqueofOedipusSocialproductioningeneralFormsofsurplusvalueandcodingTherelationsofantiproductionandsystemsofinscriptionSavagery():therelationsofantiproductionSavagery():territorialinscriptionDespotism():therelationsofantiproductionDespotism():imperialinscriptionCapitalistrelationsofantiproductionCapitalistinscriptionSchizoanalysisandFreudSchizoanalysisandLacanBeyondcritique:schizoanalysisanduniversalhistoryThetwomodesofinvestment:paranoiaandschizophreniaTherapeutictransformationRevolutionarytransformationIntersectionsMarxismEnvironmentalismFeminismandgenderRecapitulationNotesBibliographyIndexCONTENTSviiPREFACEThisbookisintendedasanintroductiontoreadingDeleuzeandGuattari’sAntiOedipus,notasasubstituteforitIfthisintroductionencouragespeopletoread–orreread–theoriginal,itsaimwillhavebeenfulfilledanyonewhoreadsthisbookwillbewellpreparedtoreadandenjoyAntiOedipusitselfAnyonewhoreadsthisbookinsteadoftheoriginal,however,willbemakingasorrymistake,fortheywillmissthechancetoencounterfirsthandoneofthemostfascinatingandcompellingexperimentsinrecentFrenchthought,anexperimentthatDeleuzeandGuattaricalled“schizoanalysis”Theexperimentisbothintricateandfarreaching,andtheresultingbookisquitedifficult–albeitforspecificreasonsthatIwillexplaininwhatfollowsIndeed,thosewellversedinDeleuzeandGuattari’sworksappeartohavehadasmuchdifficultywithitashavethoseforwhomAntiOedipusrepresentstheinitialencounterwithDeleuzeandGuattari:despitethetitle’snotoriety,littlesustainedscholarlyattentionhasbeenfocusedonthebookinitsownrightExperiencedreadersofDeleuzeandGuattarimaystandtobenefitasmuchasdoneophytes,then,fromanintroductiontoschizoanalysisAntiOedipusisthefirstfruitofaremarkable(andlonglasting)collaborationbetweenphilosopherGillesDeleuzeandantipsychiatristFélixGuattariGuattaricanbeconsideredtheroughequivalentinFranceofRDLaingorDavidCooperinEngland,ThomasSzazorErnestBeckerintheUnitedStates–exceptthatGuattari,inadditiontobeingaleadingtheoreticianoftheinnovativeLaBordepsychiatricclinic,wasalsoamilitantpoliticalactivistwhoalwayssoughttolinkhis(anti)psychiatricreformsandtheorizationtoworkingclassandcommunitybasedrevolutionarypoliticsGillesDeleuze,meanwhile,wasanapparentlyquitestrictlyacademicphilosopher,bestknowninitiallyforstudiesoftheWesterntradition’smaverickphilosophers(suchasBergsonandSpinoza,withKantbeingtheimportantexception),untilhismajorcontributionstoFrenchpoststructuralismandits“philosophiesofdifference”appearedinthelatesIndeed,itmaybethattheeventsofbroughtthesetwootherwisequiteunlikelycollaboratorstogetherinawaythatwouldbeunthinkableoutsidethecontextofthattumultuousandfertilemoment,andthattheirthoughtexperimentwasconductedinanefforttoPREFACEviiirespondtoitButthefruitofthatcollaborationis,inanycase,quiteunlikeeithertheAngloAmericanantipsychiatry,towhichGuattari’sworkbearscertainaffinities,ortheFrankfurtSchool’ssynthesisofMarxandFreud(particularlythe“negativedialectics”ofTheodorAdorno),towhichDeleuze’spoststructuralistphilosophyofdifferencecouldusefullybecomparedWithoutattemptingtheimpossible(andinanycasepointless)taskoftryingtodetermineexactlywhatinAntiOedipuscomesfromtheoneandwhatfromtheother,itcouldbesaidthatwhileDeleuzedramaticallydeepensGuattari’santipsychiatricstancebygroundingitinanalternativephilosophicaltraditionfeaturingNietzsche,Spinoza,andBergsonratherthanPlato,Descartes,andHegel,GuattariatthesametimedramaticallysharpensDeleuze’sphilosophicalperspectivebybringingitintocontactwiththeoreticalandinstitutionalstrugglesinFrenchpsychoanalysisandpsychiatry,andwiththepoliticalturmoilsurroundingstudents’andworkers’movementsinFranceandthroughoutEurope(particularlyItaly)Asmuchbecauseofthemomentinwhichitemergedasbecauseofthequitedisparatefiguresthatwereitsauthors,schizoanalysisis,tosaytheleast,aquiteextraordinaryventureinexperimentalthinkingandwritingMyfirstbookBaudelaireandSchizoanalysisaimedtoshowwhatschizoanalysiscancontributetothefieldofliteraryandculturalhistoryItcombinedintensivereadingofBaudelaire’spoetictextsandessayswithextensivesociohistoricalcontextualizationoftheemergenceofmodernisminmidnineteenthcenturyFranceThepresentbook,insomewaysasequeltothefirst,isbothlessambitiousandmoreso:itisnotasspecializedanddetailed,butatthesametimeitaimstobebothcomprehensiveandaccessibleinitspresentationofschizoanalysisComprehensiveyetaccessible:thatisnoeasilyaccomplishedtaskForAntiOedipusisanextremelycomplicatedworkthatdrawsonaprodigiousrangeofsources,notallofwhichcanbetreatedadequatelyinabookofthisscopeIndeed,tofollowupallorevenmostofDeleuzeandGuattari’sreferencestoartandliterature,anthropologyandethnography,economics,psychology,physics,aesthetics,biology,philosophy,mathematics,andsoon,wouldrequireabookseveraltimesthesizeofAntiOedipusitselfSoashortintroductiontoschizoanalysis,suchasthisis,willnecessarilybeveryselective,leavingoutmuchthatcouldhavebeenincludedForthepurposesofthisintroduction,Iconsiderschizoanalysistodrawprincipallyonthethreegreatmaterialistsofthelastcentury–Freud,Marx,andNietzsche–anditisonschizoanalysisasarevolutionary“materialistpsychiatry”thatIconcentratehereImusttherebyforgotreatingindetailDeleuzeandGuattari’sdebtstoSpinozaandBergson,forexample,ortochaostheoryandmolecularbiologyTheformerareexplainedwithadmirableluciditybyMichaelHardt(inGillesDeleuze:anApprenticeshipinPhilosophy),whilethelatterfiguresignificantlyinBrianMassumi’sextraordinarybook(AUser’sGuidetoCapitalismandSchizophrenia)Thisintroductiontoschizoanalysisliessquarelyinbetweenthesetwoequallyvaluablebutquitedifferentworks:Hardt’sbookexaminestherelationofDeleuze’sPREFACEixearlyworktoBergson,Spinoza,andNietzschelaterencounterswithGuattari,Marx,andFreudliebeyonditsscopeMassumi,meanwhile,treatsthetwovolumesofCapitalismandSchizophreniaasawhole,buttendstoemphasizethetopicsandperspectivesofthesecondvolume,AThousandPlateaus,overthoseofAntiOedipus(RelativelylittlementionismadeofFreudandLacan,forexample,ineitherAThousandPlateausorMassumi’sUser’sGuide,whereastheyarefundamentalreferencepoints,obviously,forAntiOedipus)Atthesametime,itmustbesaidthatthesecondvolumeofCapitalismandSchizophreniahasprovenmoredurableorpopularthanthefirstInonesenseitisthemoreaccessible:whereasAntiOedipusmountsonelongcomplexargument(appearancestothecontrarynotwithstanding),AThousandPlateausoperatesonmanyfrontsatonceonereallycan,astheauthorsrecommend,exploreanyoftheplateausinitsownright,andpickandchoosewhichtoreadandwhichtoskimorskipoverMoretelling,however,isthemorecautiousandsobertoneofthesecondvolumetherevolutionaryenthusiasmofAntiOedipusappearstobedampenedifnotsilencedinAThousandPlateausAndthisfordeterminatehistoricalreasons,nodoubt:asIarguedinBaudelaireandSchizoanalysis,theperiodsucceedingtherevolutionaryoutburstofinFrance–muchliketheperiodsucceedingtheshortlivedrevolutionof,twoeconomiclongwavesbefore–isatimeofretrenchmentAntiOedipus()waspublishedintheafterglowoftheeventsofMay,beforethefirst“oilshock”ofputanendtohopesforwidespreadsocialtransformationinFrance(andelsewhere)AThousandPlateaus()–publishedinthethickoftheoilcrisis(–)–isbothlessengagedwithpressingsociohistoricaleventsandfarricherandbroaderinscopeAntiOedipusshouldthereforebeunderstoodpartlyasaninspirationandareflectionofMay:becauseofitsrevolutionaryenthusiasm,tobesure,anditsrationaleforthekindofdecentralized,smallscale,andimprovisational“micropolitical”strugglethattookplaceinParisandthenthroughoutFranceinthespringofthatyearbutalsobecauseofitscritiqueofpartypowerstructures(andimplicitly,therefore,oftheFrenchCommunistPartyanditsbetrayalofstudentsandworkersinsidingwiththeGaullistforcesoflawandorder)Yetthebookshouldalsobeunderstood,asMichelFoucaultinsistsinhisPrefacetotheEnglishedition,inalesstimeboundfashionasanethicsorpoliticsofwhathecalls“antifascism,”bywhichhemeansoppositionto“notonlyhistoricalfascism…butalsothefascisminusall,inourheadsandinoureverydaybehavior,thefascismthatcausesustolovepower,todesiretheverythingthatdominatesandexploitsus”(xiii)Inthisrespect,itispreciselybecausewehavepassedfromaperiodofrevolutionaryenthusiasmforsocialchangetooneofretrenchmentandquiescencethatthelessonsofAntiOedipusremainsovitallyimportant:historicallyshortsightedasitmaybesotodo,peopleareallthemorelikelytobecomeenamoredofpowerandeverydayfascismwhentheseforcesseemtohavewonthedayandtorepresenttheonlygameintownWhetherswimmingagainstorwiththehistoricaltide,schizoanalysiscarriesthefightagainstfascismandpowerwellbeyondbattleswiththeFrenchPREFACExCommunistPartyorwiththestate,extendingitintoethical,cultural,familial,personal,andlibidinaldomains,inadditiontotheeconomicandthepoliticalAndanyway,thisperiodofquiescence,too,willpassAsFoucault’sallusiontotheschizoanalyticdiagnosisof“fascisminourheads”suggests,DeleuzeandGuattariworkattheintersectionofpoliticsandpsychiatry,nottomentionaesthetics,economics,semiotics,andmanyotherfieldsFascismisnotjustapoliticalorhistoricalterm,forexample,butalsoapsychologicalone–andmuchthesamecouldbesaidconverselyoftermslikeschizophreniaandparanoia,whichbecomepoliticalandhistoricaltermsratherthanmerelypsychologicalonesAntiOedipusisinthissenseanexerciseintheinventionorreinventionofconcepts(whichDeleuzeandGuattariinsistintheirlastcollaborativework,WhatIsPhilosophy,istheverypurposeofphilosophy)Thepropensitytocreatenewconceptsandradicallyadaptandtransfigureoldonesundoubtedlycontributestotheterminologicaldifficultiesofreadingtheirwork(PhilipGoodchildhasevenincludedaglossaryoftermsinhissurvey,DeleuzeandGuattari:anIntroductiontothePoliticsofDesire)Here,Ihavedroppedsomespecializedtermsandretainonlythemoreimportantones,suchasdesiringmachines,desiringproduction,bodywithoutorgans,deterritorialization,andaxiomatizationevenwhentheyareunwieldy,theyplayacrucialroleintheargument,asweshallseeIneverycase,IhavetriedtoshowhowthespecializedtermsorneologismsarederivedfromorrelatetoexistingandbetterknownterminologyButIhavealsoprovided,inthenotestothetext,extensivequotationsfromtheoriginal,soastoletDeleuzeandGuattarispeakforthemselves–andasawayofleadingreadersbacktoAntiOedipusitselfVikingPenguinhaskindlygranteditspermissionforsuchextensivequotationMuchmisunderstandinghasarisenaboutDeleuzeandGuattari’sparticularuseoftheterm“schizophrenia”inparticularBorrowedinitiallyfrompsychiatry,thetermwillintheirhandsdesignateonepoleoftheeconomic,cultural,andlibidinaldynamicsofcapital(theotherpolebeingdesignatedbytheterm“paranoia”)Tobemoreprecise,DeleuzeandGuattariuseschizophreniatorefertoaspecificmodeofpsychicandsocialfunctioningthatischaracteristicallybothproducedandrepressedbythecapitalisteconomyIntheworstcases–whencapitalismisunabletocountenancetheprocessofschizophreniaithasitselfproduced–theresultis“madness”:schizophreniaasprocesssuccumbstoarepressionthatgenerates“theschizophrenic”asentityandthemiseriesofthepsychiatricpatientButinthebestcasestheprocessofschizophreniatakestheformofviablesocialpracticesandthejoysofunbridled,freeformhumaninteractionThebestconcreteillustrationoftheprocessofschizophreniaIknowofisimprovisationaljazzWheneverreferencesaremadehere(asinAntiOedipus)toschizophreniaastheprincipleoffreedomortherealizationofuniversalhistory,readersshouldthinkofjazz,whichrepresentsafulfillmentoftheprocessofschizophrenia,ratherthanthinkingofmentalillness,whichrepresentsthedefeatofthatprocessbytheforcesofpowerandrepressionInmuchthesamewaythatPREFACExiwecanplaceajazzbandatoneendofacontinuumwhichhasasymphonyorchestraattheother,wecancontrastthegameofsoccerwiththegameof(NorthAmerican)footballFootballteamsandsymphonyorchestrasshareacertainmodeoforganizationandoperation:bothrequireanintensiveandrigidspecializationofrolesinboth,orderisimposedfromaboveonthegroup’sactivitybyspeciallydesignatedmembers,whetherascomposerorcoach,conductororquarterbackInsoccerandjazz,bycontrast,grouporganizationislessrigidlystructured,andinteractionwithinthegroupismorespontaneousandfreeformSoccerplayersrarelyfollowsetplaysthereisnoquarterback,andsoccercoachesplayarelativelyminorroleJazzmusicians,likewise,rarelyuseascore,andcontinuallydepartfromwellknownmelodiesintheirimprovisedsolos:thepointisnottoslavishlyreproduceor“interpret”anexistingpieceofmusic,buttoproducesomethingnewandunique–somethingunheardofwhichneverthelessstill“makessense”tofellowmusiciansandaudiencealikeTheidealistotakejustenoughofwhatisalreadyknown–amelody,achordsequence,aharmonicmodeortonesystem–asapointofdepartureforthesharedproductionandenjoymentofwhatisradicallynewInTheEighteenthBrumaireofLouisNapoleonMarxdescribesbourgeoisrevolutionasanoccasiononwhichrealsocialrelationscouldnotliveuptotheexpectationscreatedbyitsownrhetoric(“liberty,equality,fraternity”),asanoccasiononwhich“thephrasewentbeyondthecontent”andhedoessoinordertocontrastthatsituationwiththerevolutiontocome,where“thecontentwouldgobeyondthephrase”Inasimilarway,symphonyorchestrascanonlyhopetheirperformancesrisetothegeniusofthecomposerwhoseworktheyareperforming:theyhopetheircontentlivesuptothepreexistingphrase(Herethepast,asMarxputit,weighslikeadeadhandupontheliving)Injazz,bycontrast,thepastenablesratherthanconstrainsthepresent:theimprovisedperformancealwaysexceedsthepreexistingmusicalcompositionorstructureincomplexity,nuance,andoriginality:thewholepointisthatthecontentgobeyondthephraseAsanillustrationoftheprocessofschizophrenia,then,jazznotonlypresentstomymindanidealinstanceofhumanrelationsandinterpersonaldynamicsbutactuallysuggestsasocial

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【德勒兹研究】反俄狄浦斯导读

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