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首页 【德勒兹研究】生命萌芽:德勒兹的差异与重复

【德勒兹研究】生命萌芽:德勒兹的差异与重复.doc

【德勒兹研究】生命萌芽:德勒兹的差异与重复

九月虺
2009-07-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【德勒兹研究】生命萌芽:德勒兹的差异与重复doc》,可适用于人文社科领域

GERMINALLIFEThedifferenceandrepetitionofDeleuzeKeithAnsellPearsonLondonandNewYorkiiiFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NY©KeithAnsellPearsonTypesetinTimesbyRoutledgePrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyMPGBooksLtd,BodminAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAnsellPearson,Keith,GerminalLife:ThedifferenceandrepetitionofDeleuzeKeithAnsellPearsonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexDeleuze,GillesBergson,Henri,InfluenceITitleBDAdcCIPISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ivImmanencecanbesaidtobetheburningissueofallphilosophybecauseittakesonallthedangersthatphilosophymustconfront,allthecondemnations,persecutions,andrepudiationsthatitundergoes(GDeleuzeandFGuattari,WhatisPhilosophy,)Thisisanancientandeternalstory:whatformerlyhappenedwiththeStoicsstillhappenstoday,assoonasanyphilosophybeginstobelieveinitselfItalwayscreatestheworldinitsownimageitcannotdootherwisePhilosophyisthetyrannicaldriveitself,themostspiritualwilltopower,tothe‘creationoftheworld’,tothecausaprima(FNietzsche,BeyondGoodandEvil,)viiCONTENTSAcknowledgementsxiAnoteontranslationsxiiIntroduction:repeatingthedifferenceofDeleuzeThedifferenceofBergson:durationandcreativeevolutionIntroductionThemethodofintuitionIntuitionanddurationWhatisdurationBergson’sCreativeEvolutionDeleuzeandtheélanvitalConclusion:DeleuzebeyondBergsonandtowardsanethicsofcreativeevolutionDifferenceandrepetition:thegerminallifeoftheeventIntroductionTranscendentalencountersIndividuation:SimondonandthedifferenceofDarwinEthicsafterindividuationThephenomenonofrepetitionandthethreesynthesesoftimeThedeathdrive:Freud’sreworkingofWeismannTheheredityofthecrackandNietzsche’ssuperiorreturnStagingtheeventConclusion:DeleuzebeyondWeismannandtheproblemoftheeventixThememoriesofaBergsonian:fromcreativeevolutiontocreativeethologyIntroductionComplexityandtheorganismThebodywithoutorgansandtheorganismWhatisamultiplicityBergsonismandneoDarwinismNatureasaplaneofconsistencyCreativeinvolutionAutopoiesisandmachinicheterogenesisFromanethologyofbehaviourtoanethologyofassemblagesBecomingsanimalofthehumanOntheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofDeleuze’sreadingofUexküllBecomingsbeyondmemoryConclusion:philosophyasabsolutedeterritorializationConclusion:foldandsuperfoldDeleuze’sreturntothefoldBeyondthehumanNotesBibliographyIndexxACKNOWLEDGEMENTSForhelpingthisbooktomovealongandgerminate,Iamindebtedtothefollowingpeople:GregoryAdamson,JustineBaillie,RichardBeardsworth,CatherineDale,RobynFerrell,ElisabethGrosz,BrianMassumi,JohnMullarkey,JohnProtevi,RobertSpaven,JamesWilliams,andTonyBruceatRoutledgeFortheirgeneralsupportandencouragementoverthepastfewyears,aswellastheinspirationprovidedbytheirownwork,IextendmythankstocolleaguesandgraduatesatWarwickandtothefollowing:EricAlliez,GaryBanham,SebastianBarker,ConstantinBoundas,HowardCaygill,DanielWConway,DavidECooper,SimonCritchley,MichaelDillon,DianeMorgan,DavidMusselwhite,DavidOwen,LiamO’Sullivan,NoelO’Sullivan,andDavidWoodxiANOTEONTRANSLATIONSReadersshouldnotethatinmanyinstancestranslationsfromtheFrenchandGermanhavebeenmodified(onmostoccasionsonlyslightly)andthisisindicatedinthetextonlynowandagainFulldetailsofmyreferencesandsourcescanbefoundintheextensivebibliographyprovidedattheendofthebookIamgratefultoMelissaMcMahonforallowingmetofreelyuseherunpublishedtranslationofDeleuze’sessayonBergsonanddifference,anewversionofwhichistobepublishedinJohnMullarkey’scollectionofessaysTheNewBergson(ManchesterUniversityPress,forthcoming)xiiINTRODUCTIONRepeatingthedifferenceofDeleuzeInnosmallmeasure,theintellectuallineageisstraightfromWeismanntotoday(Kauffman:)Putbluntly,closedsystemsareboundtobefinished(Adorno::)ITheaimofthisbookistoilluminatethecharacterofDeleuze’sphilosophybysituatingitinthecontextofaneglectedmoderntradition,thatofmodernbiophilosophy,whichrunsfromDarwinandWeismannthroughtoBergsonandFreud,andwhichalsoencompassestheworkofadiverseandlittleknowngroupofthinkerssuchasRaymondRuyer,GilbertSimondon,andJacobvonUexküllThefactthatthistrajectoryofthoughtgoingbacktotheneoDarwinismofWeismann,andexertingadecisiveinfluenceonthethoughtofDeleuze,hasbeensoneglectedmightexplainwhytodatetherehasbeensolittleinthewayofanincisivephilosophicalencounterwithDeleuze’sworkDeleuzeisdifficulttoplaceinthephilosophicaldiscourseofmodernitylargely,Isuspect,becauseofthepeculiarcharacterofhisphilosophicalthought,withitsinvestmentsinbiologyandethologyDeleuze’sturntoaconceptionofdifferenceinthesentailedahighlydistinctiveandnovelBergsonismsincetowriteaboutBergsonatthistime,andfromtheperspectiveofaconcernwith‘difference’,wasnotataskthatwouldhavebeeneitherfashionableorpredictableBergsonhasbeenanundulyneglectedfigurewithinrecentcontinentalphilosophyItispartofthebrillianceofDeleuze’sreadingstoshowthevitalimportanceandcontinuingrelevanceofhisgreattextsontime,creativeevolution,andmemory,forthestagingofphilosophicalproblemsIbelievethatthecharacterofDeleuze’s‘Bergsonism’hasbeenlittleunderstood,andyetIwanttoshowthatitplaysthecrucialroleintheunfoldingofhisphilosophyasaphilosophyof‘germinallife’InthisstudythefocusisonBergson’sconceptionof‘creativeevolution’andonthewayinwhichanencounterwithitcanbeshowntobeofcrucialimportanceforanyattempttocomprehendandworkthroughsomeofthecentralproblemsofphilosophicmodernityItisthroughBergsonismthatDeleuzeseekstoreinventthismodernityandtoarticulatearadicalprojectforphilosophyPhilosophyisahighlyautonomouspracticeforDeleuzeandthedistinctivetaskheprescribesforit,fromhisearlyworkonBergsontohislastmajorwork,coauthoredwithGuattari,WhatisPhilosophy(),amountstothecomplexandparadoxicaloneofthinking‘beyond’thehumanconditionInthecourseofthisinquiryweshallhavethechancetotrackthedifferingstressesDeleuzegivestothemeaningofthis‘beyond’ashisworkunfoldsanddevelopsThecriticalquestiontoask,andwhichIsimplyposehere,isthis:doesthinkingbeyondthehumanconditionservetoexpandthehorizonsbywhichwethinkthatconditionandsodeepenitspossibleexperience,oristhe‘changeofconcept’,inregardtotheoverhuman,sodramaticthatitrequiresthedissolutionofthehumanformandtheendof‘thehumancondition’Suchaquestiontakesus,Ibelieve,totheheartofDeleuze’sprojectandbringsusintoaconfrontationwithitspeculiarchallenge,aswellasitsmostinnovativeanddemandingaspectsEachoneofthethreechaptersinthisbookoffersatreatmentofwhatitmeanstothinkbeyondthehumanconditionTheyareunitedbytheattempttoexamine,andtosubjecttocriticalbutinformedscrutiny,thecharacterofDeleuze’s‘Bergsonism’InthefirstchapterIexamineDeleuze’searlyengagementwithBergsoninthemajorstudyhewroteinIalsoutilizetheneglectedandlargelyunknownessayonBergsonThefocusisonBergson’snotionofdurationandhowthisnotioninformshisconceptionofacreativeevolution,especiallyhowphilosophyisable,inspiteofthenaturalbentofthehumanintellect,whichproducesamechanisticandspatialaccountofthereal,tothinkthecharacterofthisevolutioninbothspeculativeandvitaltermsInseekingtothink‘beyond’thehumanconditionthetaskofthisphilosophyofcreativeevolutioncanbeshowntobean‘ethical’one,concernedwithopeningupthehumanexperiencetoafieldofalterityInthesecondchaptermyattentionshiftstoDeleuze’sfirstmajorattemptat‘independent’philosophyinDifferenceandRepetition(),inwhichhenolongerreliedonthehistoryofphilosophybutsoughttoarticulate,stillutilizingtheresourcesofthetraditionfromDunsScotusthroughtoHeideggerandNietzsche,aspecificallymodernprojectofthinkingdifference‘and’repetitionHeproducedintheprocessaunique‘schizoscholasticism’Myattentionisfocusedonceagainonthebiophilosophicalaspectsofthework,whichobviouslymeansthatkeyaspectsofthisimmenselyfertileandcomplextextareneglectedNevertheless,inadoptingsuchaconcentratedfocusIhopetoyieldnovelandincisiveinsightsintoDeleuze’sthinkingofdifferenceandrepetition,especiallyinrelationtoanumberofthekeytheoreticalfiguresofthemodernperiodsuchasDarwin,Freud,andNietzscheThereasonsinformingthisparticularselectionofthinkerswillbecomeclearerlaterintheIntroductionThereadingofDifferenceandRepetitionissupplemented,intermsofthetaskofbringingouttheethicsoftheproject,byareadingofthenotionofthe‘event’thatismoreexplicitlyarticulatedinitssisterworkTheLogicofSense()InChapterImoveforwardsomeconsiderabledistanceinthetrajectoryofDeleuze’sworktoatreatmentoftheessentialbiophilosophicaldimensionsofthetexthecoproducedwithGuattariin,AThousandPlateausIexaminekeyaspectsofthisworkintermsofitsengagementwithmodernevolutionarytheoryandmodernethology,aimingtodemonstratetheinnovationsmadeinthetextwithregardtoa‘machinic’approachtoquestionsof‘evolution’andtoanethologywhichfocusesnotonbehaviourbutonassemblagesIalsopayspecialattentiontotheconfigurationof‘Bergsonism’inthiswork,inparticularthe‘meaning’ofits‘MemoriesofaBergsonian’Deleuzenowapproaches‘creativeevolution’intermsof‘becomings’thatareheldtobepeculiartomodesofcreativeinvolution(amoveanticipated,inpart,inDifferenceandRepetition:‘onlytheinvolutedevolves’)Itisinthecontextoftheseanomalousbecomingsthatonecan,Ibelieve,bestdemonstratetheexperimentalcharacter,andilluminatethetensions,ofanethologicalethicsinrespectof‘nonhuman’becomingsofthehumanThischapterconcludeswithsomespeculationsonDeleuze’slastwork,coauthoredwithGuattari,WhatisPhilosophy(),especiallyinregardtoitsconstructionofphilosophyasaformof‘absolutedeterritorialization’anditsinvocationofanewearthandanewpeopleIntheconclusionItakealookatDeleuze’sreturntothequestionofthefoldasitisarticulatedintwotextsofthesecondhalfofthes,thestudiesofLeibniz()andFoucault(),andrelatethemovementsofthoughttakingplaceinthemtothefundamentalaimofDeleuze’sphilosophicalprojecttothink,withtheaidofaSpinozismandaBergsonism,beyondthehumanconditionEachchapterconcludeswithanappraisalofthemovesmadebyDeleuzewithregardtothinking‘beyond’thehumanconditionInordertoopenoutDeleuze’stextstoaphilosophicalencounterIhavefoundithelpfultobringhisthinkingintoconfrontationwithothermajorcontemporaryfigures,notablyMerleauPontyinChapterandAdornointhedenouementtoChapterWhatisatstakeinthisdemandinganddifficultattempttodevelopanethicsofgerminallifeandtoproduceaphilosophyoftheEventwhetheritrests,assomehavecontended,onadisavowalofthehumancondition,orwhetheritsucceedsinshowingthataradicalphilosophymustnecessarilythinktransoroverhumanlywill,Ihope,unfolddramaticallyinallitsimplicationandcomplicationintheattentiveexplicationthatfollowsAlthoughthereadingofDeleuzethatiscultivatedhereispeculiartomyself,anddoesnotpretendtoeitherdefineorexhaustthe‘meaning’ofhiseventonceandforall,itisareadingIhopethatwillservetoprovokeandchallenge,inallsortsofunpredictableandincalculableways,thosewhohaveaconcernwithhisworkanditslegacyThisbookamountstoanaffirmationofDeleuze’sevent,butitisnottheaffirmationofabrayingassIILetmenowsaysomethingatoncemoregeneralandmorespecificaboutthisbookThereisarealdangerintherecentupsurgeofinterestinhistextsthatstudieswillproliferatewhichaddressandconstrueDeleuzeasaphilosopheroflifeasavitalistthinkerinanalltoocasualandcavaliermannerwithoutanyseriouscomprehensionof,orprobinginsightinto,thebiophilosophicaldimensionsofhisprojectItistheaimofthisstudytocounterthistendencyThebiophilosophicalaspectsofDeleuze’sthoughthavetobetakenseriously,contextualized,andthestakesofhisworkingoutofaphilosophyofgerminallifeneedtobecarefullyunfoldedItwouldbeinadequate,however,torestrictDeleuze’sprojecttothemerelybiologicalandtoclaimitsolelyorexclusivelyforanovel‘philosophicalbiology’TounderstandwhythisissowillrequirenavigatingintricateandinterweavinglinesofthoughtDeleuzeconceivedathinkingofdifferenceandrepetitionashistoricallyspecifictocapitalistmodernityThephilosophyofdifferenceemergesatthat‘moment’inhistorywhenthemoststereotypicalandmechanicalrepetitionsappeartohavetakenovertheforcesoflifecompletelyandsubjectedittoalawofentropyItisthis,whichmotivateshisengagementwithbiology,withethology,withethics,andwithliterature,asheseekstoarticulateacriticalmodernitythatexposesaseriesofthetranscendentalillusionsencompassingbothscientificandphilosophicalthoughtTheseillusionsconcernthenatureoftime,consciousness,death,subjectivity,andsoon,andaremanifestinourmodelsofcapitalandofentropy,togivetwoofthemostimportantexamplesThecriticalquestionsIposeofDeleuze’sphilosophyconcernhisattempttothinkofBeingasimmanenceandintermsofthe‘event’WeneedtodeterminehowDeleuzeenvisagesthe‘overcoming’ofnihilismthroughthepraxisofacriticalmodernityBeforereturningtothisquestionIwanttoprovidesomeinsightintothetheoreticalcontextwhichwill,Ibelieve,enableustostageaninstructiveandnovelencounterwithDeleuzeThereis,Ibelieve,aquitespecificintellectualcontextwithinwhichtoilluminateDeleuze’sworkanditsengagementwithbiophilosophy,andthisisthetraditionofneoDarwinismthatstemsfromtherevolutionaryworkofAugustWeismanncarriedoutattheendofthenineteenthcenturyTheideaof‘germinallife’pursuedinthisbookresonateswithanumberofsourcesandthinkersInadditiontoDeleuzetheseincludethinkerssuchasBergsonandFreud,andnovelistssuchasDHLawrence,ThomasHardy,andEmileZolaThekeyfigureinthislineageisWeismann(),thefoundingfigureintheemergenceofmodernneoDarwinismAnengagementwithWeismannrunsthroughoutDeleuze’swritings,anappreciationofwhichprovides,Iwanttodemonstrate,valuableinsightsintothecharacterofhisphilosophyofgerminallifeWeismannisanimmenselycomplicatedfigurewhoseworkcombineselementsofnineteenthcenturybiologythatweretobediscreditedinthetwentiethcentury,suchastherecapitulationthesis(tobeencounteredinChapter),aswellasaspectsofthenewscienceofgeneticsthatweretoprovesoseminalintermsoftheconsolidationofneoDarwinismwiththemodernsynthesisofthesandthediscoveriesofmolecularbiologyinthesHewantedascientificallyaccurateaccountofheredityandbeganbyquestioningDarwin’sconfusedtheoryofpangenesis(theideathateverycellofthebodycontributesminuteparticles,the‘gemmules’,tothegermcellsandsoparticipatesinthetransmissionofacquiredcharacteristics)HethenmadeanassaultonLamarck’saccountofevolution,whichreliedonthedoctrineoftheinheritanceofacquiredcharacteristicsandspeculationregardingtheuseanddisuseoforgansTheeffectofhisrevolutionaryworkinbiologywastoseverDarwinismfromitsentanglementinLamarckiandogma,somakingwayfortheestablishmentofastrictlymechanisticandnonvitalisttheoryofevolutionbyplacingalltheemphasisonnaturalselectionastheblindmachinethatguaranteesthereproductionoflifefromgenerationtogenerationintermsofanunbrokendescentForWeismannlifeisabletoreplicateandreproduceitselfowingtothepowersofaspecialhereditarysubstance,thegermplasm(whattodayiscalledDNA),whichcontrolsandprogrammesinadvance,andwithouttheinterventionofexternalfactors,thedevelopmentofthepartsofanorganismandwhichgetstransmittedfromonegenerationtothenextinacontinuouspassageofdescentThegermcellsdifferintheirfunctionandstructurefromthesomaticcells,andmakingthisdistinctionbetweenthetwoledWeismanntointroducinghisfamous‘barrier’bywhichchangesinthephenotypecanhavenoeffectonthegenotypeWeismannisinsistentthatthehereditarysubstance‘canneverbeformedanew’,but‘canonlygrow,multiply,andbetransmittedfromonegenerationtoanother’(Weismann:xiii)HisthesiswasupdatedinthesbyworkinmolecularbiologythatsoughttodemonstratethatnoinformationinthepropertiesofsomaticproteinscanbetransferredtothenucleicacidsofDNAWeismann’sworkgrewoutofdevelopmentsincytologyinthemidnineteenthcenturyTheideathatorganismsaremadeofcellsdatesfromthes,whileinthesthecellnucleuswasrevealedforthefirsttimebyenhancedmicroscopicpowerand,ashortwhileafter,thechromosomesinthatnucleusweredemonstratedtobethebirthplaceofnewcellsIntheearlysthecrucialdiscoverywasmadethatthesexcellsdividedifferentlyfromthecellsthatmakeuptherestofthebodyWeismanninterpretedthis‘difference’intermsofadivisionoflabourbetweengermandsomaplasmsThegermcellsarerestrictedtojusttheonetaskandfunction,thatofmakingneworganismsthroughtheinterminglingofinheritedinformationfromtheparentcellsWeis

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【德勒兹研究】生命萌芽:德勒兹的差异与重复

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