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首页 【福柯】事物的秩序(词与物英文版)

【福柯】事物的秩序(词与物英文版).pdf

【福柯】事物的秩序(词与物英文版)

九月虺
2009-07-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【福柯】事物的秩序(词与物英文版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheOrderofThings‘TheOrderofThingssoldoutwithinamonthafteritfirstappeared–orsogoestheadvertisinglegendTheworknumbersamongthoseoutwardsignsofculturethetrainedeyeshouldfindonprominentdisplayineveryprivatelibraryHaveyoureaditOne’ssocialandintellectualstandingdependsontheresponseFoucaultisbrilliant(alittletoobrilliant)HiswritingsparkleswithincisiveformulationsHeisamusingStimulatingDazzlingHiseruditionconfoundsushisskillcompelsassenthisartseduces’MicheldeCerteau‘Foucault’smostimportantwork’HaydenVWhite‘Oneisleftwithasenseofrealandoriginalforce’GeorgeSteiner‘TheOrderofThingsstudiesthewaysinwhichpeopleacceptthetaxonomiesofanepochwithoutquestioningtheirarbitrarinessEvenscholarswhoareinapositiontoscoldFoucaultadmithisbrilliantingenuityandscholarlyresource’FrankKermode‘InTheOrderofThings,Foucaultinvestigatesthemodernformsofknowledge(orepistemes)thatestablishforthesciencestheirunsurpassablehorizonsofbasicconcepts’JürgenHabermasVelasquez:LasMeninas,reproducedbycourtesyoftheMuseodelPradoMichelFoucaultTheOrderofThingsAnarchaeologyofthehumansciencesLondonandNewYorkLesmotsetleschosesfirstpublishedbyEditionsGallimard,ParisEnglisheditionfirstpublishedintheUnitedKingdombyTavistockPublicationsFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeFirstpublishedinRoutledgeClassicsbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©EditionsGallimardEnglishtranslation©TavistockRoutledgeForewordtotheEnglishedition©MichelFoucaultAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN–––(hbk)ISBN–––(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorandFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ISBNXMasterebookISBNCONTENTSPublisher’sNoteviiiForewordtotheEnglishEditionixPrefacexviPARTILasMeninasTheProseoftheWorldITheFourSimilitudesIISignaturesIIITheLimitsoftheWorldIVTheWritingofThingsVTheBeingofLanguageRepresentingIDonQuixoteIIOrderIIITheRepresentationoftheSignIVDuplicatedRepresentationVTheImaginationofResemblanceVIMathesisand‘Taxinomia’SpeakingICriticismandCommentaryIIGeneralGrammarIIITheTheoryoftheVerbIVArticulationVDesignationVIDerivationVIITheQuadrilateralofLanguageClassifyingIWhattheHistoriansSayIINaturalHistoryIIIStructureIVCharacterVContinuityandCatastropheVIMonstersandFossilsVIITheDiscourseofNatureExchangingITheAnalysisofWealthIIMoneyandPricesIIIMercantilismIVThePledgeandthePriceVTheCreationofValueVIUtilityVIIGeneralTableVIIIDesireandRepresentationPARTIITheLimitsofRepresentationITheAgeofHistoryIITheMeasureofLabourIIITheOrganicStructureofBeingsIVWordInflectionVIdeologyandCriticismVIObjectiveSynthesescontentsviLabour,Life,LanguageITheNewEmpiricitiesIIRicardoIIICuvierIVBoppVLanguageBecomeObjectManandHisDoublesITheReturnofLanguageIIThePlaceoftheKingIIITheAnalyticofFinitudeIVTheEmpiricalandtheTranscendentalVThe‘Cogito’andtheUnthoughtVITheRetreatandReturnoftheOriginVIIDiscourseandMan’sBeingVIIITheAnthropologicalSleepTheHumanSciencesITheThreeFacesofKnowledgeIITheFormoftheHumanSciencesIIITheThreeModelsIVHistoryVPsychoanalysisandEthnologyVIInConclusioncontentsviiPUBLISHER’SNOTEAliteraltranslationofthetitleoftheFrencheditionofthiswork(LesMotsetleschoses)wouldhavegivenrisetoconfusionwithtwootherbooksthathavealreadyappearedunderthetitleWordsandthingsThepublisherthereforeagreedwiththeauthoronthealternativetitleTheorderofthings,whichwas,infact,MFoucault’soriginalpreferenceInviewoftherangeofliteraturereferredtointhetext,ithasnotprovedfeasibleineverycasetoundertakethebibliographicaltaskoftracingEnglishtranslationsofworksoriginatinginotherlanguagesandlocatingthepassagesquotedbyMFoucaultThepublisherhasaccordinglyretainedtheauthor’sreferencestoFrenchworksandtoFrenchtranslationsofLatinandGermanworks,forexample,buthas,asfaraspossible,citedEnglisheditionsofworksoriginallywritteninthatlanguageFOREWORDTOTHEENGLISHEDITIONThisforewordshouldperhapsbeheaded‘DirectionsforUse’NotbecauseIfeelthatthereadercannotbetrusted–heis,ofcourse,freetomakewhathewillofthebookhehasbeenkindenoughtoreadWhatrighthaveI,then,tosuggestthatitshouldbeusedinonewayratherthananotherWhenIwaswritingitthereweremanythingsthatwerenotcleartome:someoftheseseemedtooobvious,otherstooobscureSoIsaidtomyself:thisishowmyidealreaderwouldhaveapproachedmybook,ifmyintentionshadbeenclearerandmyprojectmorereadytotakeformHewouldrecognizethatitwasastudyofarelativelyneglectedfieldInFranceatleast,thehistoryofscienceandthoughtgivesprideofplacetomathematics,cosmology,andphysics–noblesciences,rigoroussciences,sciencesofthenecessary,allclosetophilosophy:onecanobserveintheirhistorythealmostuninterruptedemergenceoftruthandpurereasonTheotherdisciplines,however–those,forexample,thatconcernlivingbeings,languages,oreconomicfacts–areconsideredtootingedwithempiricalthought,tooexposedtothevagariesofchanceorimagery,toageoldtraditionsandexternalevents,forittobesupposedthattheirhistorycouldbeanythingotherthanirregularAtmost,theyareexpectedtoprovideevidenceofastateofmind,anintellectualfashion,amixtureofarchaismandboldconjecture,ofintuitionandblindnessButwhatifempiricalknowledge,atagiventimeandinagivenculture,didpossessawelldefinedregularityIftheverypossibilityofrecordingfacts,ofallowingoneselftobeconvincedbythem,ofdistortingthemintraditionsorofmakingpurelyspeculativeuseofthem,ifeventhiswasnotatthemercyofchanceIferrors(andtruths),thepracticeofoldbeliefs,includingnotonlygenuinediscoveries,butalsothemostnaïvenotions,obeyed,atagivenmoment,thelawsofacertaincodeofknowledgeIf,inshort,thehistoryofnonformalknowledgehaditselfasystemThatwasmyinitialhypothesis–thefirstriskItookThisbookmustbereadasacomparative,andnotasymptomatological,studyItwasnotmyintention,onthebasisofaparticulartypeofknowledgeorbodyofideas,todrawupapictureofaperiod,ortoreconstitutethespiritofacenturyWhatIwishedtodowastopresent,sidebyside,adefinitenumberofelements:theknowledgeoflivingbeings,theknowledgeofthelawsoflanguage,andtheknowledgeofeconomicfacts,andtorelatethemtothephilosophicaldiscoursethatwascontemporarywiththemduringaperiodextendingfromtheseventeenthtothenineteenthcenturyItwastobenotananalysisofClassicismingeneral,norasearchforaWeltanschauung,butastrictly‘regional’studyBut,amongotherthings,thiscomparativemethodproducesresultsthatareoftenstrikinglydifferentfromthosetobefoundinsingledisciplinestudies(Sothereadermustnotexpecttofindhereahistoryofbiologyjuxtaposedwithahistoryoflinguistics,ahistoryofpoliticaleconomy,andahistoryofphilosophy)Thereareshiftsofemphasis:thecalendarofsaintsandheroesissomewhataltered(LinnaeusisgivenmorespacethanBuffon,DestuttdeTracythanRousseauthePhysiocratsareopposedsinglehandedbyCantillon)Frontiersareredrawnandthingsusuallyfarapartarebroughtcloser,andviceversa:insteadofrelatingthebiologicaltaxonomiestootherknowledgeofthelivingbeing(thetheoryofgermination,orthephysiologyofanimalmovement,orthestaticsofplants),Ihavecomparedthemwithwhatmighthavebeensaidatthesametimeaboutlinguisticsigns,theformaIsometimesusetermslike‘thought’or‘Classicalscience’,buttheyreferpracticallyalwaystotheparticulardisciplineunderconsiderationforewordtotheenglisheditionxtionofgeneralideas,thelanguageofaction,thehierarchyofneeds,andtheexchangeofgoodsThishadtwoconsequences:IwasledtoabandonthegreatdivisionsthatarenowfamiliartousallIdidnotlookintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiesforthebeginningsofnineteenthcenturybiology(orphilosophyoreconomics)WhatIsawwastheappearanceoffigurespeculiartotheClassicalage:a‘taxonomy’or‘naturalhistory’thatwasrelativelyunaffectedbytheknowledgethatthenexistedinanimalorplantphysiologyan‘analysisofwealth’thattooklittleaccountoftheassumptionsofthe‘politicalarithmetic’thatwascontemporarywithitanda‘generalgrammar’thatwasquitealientothehistoricalanalysesandworksofexegesisthenbeingcarriedoutEpistemologicalfigures,thatis,thatwerenotsuperimposedonthesciencesastheywereindividualizedandnamedinthenineteenthcenturyMoreover,Isawtheemergence,betweenthesedifferentfigures,ofanetworkofanalogiesthattranscendedthetraditionalproximities:betweentheclassificationofplantsandthetheoryofcoinage,betweenthenotionofgenericcharacterandtheanalysisoftrade,onefindsintheClassicalsciencesisomorphismsthatappeartoignoretheextremediversityoftheobjectsunderconsiderationThespaceofknowledgewasthenarrangedinatotallydifferentwayfromthatsystematizedinthenineteenthcenturybyComteorSpencerThesecondriskItookwasinhavingwishedtodescribenotsomuchthegenesisofoursciencesasanepistemologicalspacespecifictoaparticularperiodIdidnotoperate,therefore,atthelevelthatisusuallythatofthehistorianofscience–IshouldsayatthetwolevelsthatareusuallyhisFor,ontheonehand,thehistoryofsciencetracestheprogressofdiscovery,theformulationofproblems,andtheclashofcontroversyitalsoanalysestheoriesintheirinternaleconomyinshort,itdescribestheprocessesandproductsofthescientificconsciousnessBut,ontheotherhand,ittriestorestorewhateludedthatconsciousness:theinfluencesthataffectedit,theimplicitphilosophiesthatweresubjacenttoit,theunformulatedthematics,theunseenobstaclesitdescribestheunconsciousofscienceThisunconsciousisalwaysthenegativesideofscience–thatwhichresistsit,deflectsit,ordisturbsitWhatIwouldliketodo,however,istorevealapositiveunconsciousofknowledge:alevelthateludestheconsciousnessofthescientistandyetispartofscientificforewordtotheenglisheditionxidiscourse,insteadofdisputingitsvalidityandseekingtodiminishitsscientificnatureWhatwascommontothenaturalhistory,theeconomics,andthegrammaroftheClassicalperiodwascertainlynotpresenttotheconsciousnessofthescientistorthatpartofitthatwasconsciouswassuperficial,limited,andalmostfanciful(Adanson,forexample,wishedtodrawupanartificialdenominationforplantsTurgotcomparedcoinagewithlanguage)but,unknowntothemselves,thenaturalists,economists,andgrammariansemployedthesamerulestodefinetheobjectspropertotheirownstudy,toformtheirconcepts,tobuildtheirtheoriesItistheserulesofformation,whichwereneverformulatedintheirownright,butaretobefoundonlyinwidelydifferingtheories,concepts,andobjectsofstudy,thatIhavetriedtoreveal,byisolating,astheirspecificlocus,alevelthatIhavecalled,somewhatarbitrarilyperhaps,archaeologicalTakingasanexampletheperiodcoveredinthisbook,Ihavetriedtodeterminethebasisorarchaeologicalsystemcommontoawholeseriesofscientific‘representations’or‘products’dispersedthroughoutthenaturalhistory,economics,andphilosophyoftheClassicalperiodIshouldlikethisworktobereadasanopensiteManyquestionsarelaidoutonitthathavenotyetfoundanswersandmanyofthegapsrefereithertoearlierworksortoothersthathavenotyetbeencompleted,orevenbegunButIshouldliketomentionthreeproblemsTheproblemofchangeIthasbeensaidthatthisworkdeniestheverypossibilityofchangeAndyetmymainconcernhasbeenwithchangesInfact,twothingsinparticularstruckme:thesuddennessandthoroughnesswithwhichcertainsciencesweresometimesreorganizedandthefactthatatthesametimesimilarchangesoccurredinapparentlyverydifferentdisciplinesWithinafewyears(around),thetraditionofgeneralgrammarwasreplacedbyanessentiallyhistoricalphilologynaturalclassificationswereorderedaccordingtotheanalysesofcomparativeanatomyandapoliticaleconomywasfoundedwhosemainthemeswerelabourandproductionConfrontedbysuchacuriouscombinationofphenomena,itoccurredtomethatthesechangesshouldbeexaminedmoreclosely,withoutbeingreduced,inthenameofcontinuity,ineitherabruptnessorscopeItforewordtotheenglisheditionxiiseemedtomeattheoutsetthatdifferentkindsofchangeweretakingplaceinscientificdiscourse–changesthatdidnotoccuratthesamelevel,proceedatthesamepace,orobeythesamelawsthewayinwhich,withinaparticularscience,newpropositionswereproduced,newfactsisolated,ornewconceptsbuiltup(theeventsthatmakeuptheeverydaylifeofascience)didnot,inallprobability,followthesamemodelastheappearanceofnewfieldsofstudy(andthefrequentlycorrespondingdisappearanceofoldones)buttheappearanceofnewfieldsofstudymustnot,inturn,beconfusedwiththoseoverallredistributionsthatalternotonlythegeneralformofascience,butalsoitsrelationswithotherareasofknowledgeItseemedtome,therefore,thatallthesechangesshouldnotbetreatedatthesamelevel,orbemadetoculminateatasinglepoint,asissometimesdone,orbeattributedtothegeniusofanindividual,oranewcollectivespirit,oreventothefecundityofasinglediscoverythatitwouldbebettertorespectsuchdifferences,andeventotrytograspthemintheirspecificityInthiswayItriedtodescribethecombinationofcorrespondingtransformationsthatcharacterizedtheappearanceofbiology,politicaleconomy,philology,anumberofhumansciences,andanewtypeofphilosophy,atthethresholdofthenineteenthcenturyTheproblemofcausalityItisnotalwayseasytodeterminewhathascausedaspecificchangeinascienceWhatmadesuchadiscoverypossibleWhydidthisnewconceptappearWheredidthisorthattheorycomefromQuestionsliketheseareoftenhighlyembarrassingbecausetherearenodefinitemethodologicalprinciplesonwhichtobasesuchananalysisTheembarrassmentismuchgreaterinthecaseofthosegeneralchangesthatalterascienceasawholeItisgreaterstillinthecaseofseveralcorrespondingchangesButitprobablyreachesitshighestpointinthecaseoftheempiricalsciences:fortheroleofinstruments,techniques,institutions,events,ideologies,andinterestsisverymuchinevidencebutonedoesnotknowhowanarticulationsocomplexandsodiverseincompositionactuallyoperatesItseemedtomethatitwouldnotbeprudentforthemomenttoforceasolutionIfeltincapable,Iadmit,ofoffering:thetraditionalexplanations–spiritofthetime,technologicalorsocialchanges,influencesofvariouskinds–struckmeforthemostpartasbeingmoremagicalthanforewordtotheenglisheditionxiiieffectiveInthiswork,then,IlefttheproblemofcausestoonesideIchoseinsteadtoconfinemyselftodescribingthetransformationsthemselves,thinkingthatthiswouldbeanindispensablestepif,oneday,atheoryofscientificchangeandepistemologicalcausalitywastobeconstructedTheproblemofthesubjectIndistinguishingbetweentheepistemologicallevelofknowledge(orscientificconsciousness)andthearchaeologicallevelofknowledge,IamawarethatIamadvancinginadirectionthatisfraughtwithdifficultyCanonespeakofscienceanditshistory(andthereforeofitsconditionsofexistence,itschanges,theerrorsithasperpetrated,thesuddenadvancesthathavesentitoffonanewcourse)withoutreferencetothescientisthimself–andIamspeakingnotmerelyoftheconcreteindividualrepresentedbyapropername,butofhisworkandtheparticularformofhisthoughtCanavalidhistoryofsciencebeattemptedthatwouldretracefrombeginningtoendthewholespontaneousmovementofananonymousbodyofknowledgeIsitlegitimate,isitevenuseful,toreplacethetraditional‘Xthoughtthat’bya‘itwasknownthat’ButthisisnotexactlywhatIsetouttodoIdonotwishtodenythevalidityofintellectualbiographies,orthepossibilityofahistoryoftheories,concepts,orthemesItissimplythatIwonderwhethersuchdescriptionsarethemselvesenough,whethertheydojusticetotheimmensedensityofscientificdiscourse,whethertheredonotexist,outsidetheircustomaryboundaries,systemsofregularitiesthathaveadecisiveroleinthehistoryofthesciencesIshouldliketoknowwhetherthesubjectsresponsibleforscientificdiscoursearenotdeterminedintheirsituation,theirfunction,theirperceptivecapacity,andtheirpracticalpossibilitiesbyconditionsthatdominateandevenoverwhelmthemInshort,Itriedtoexplorescientificdiscoursenotfromthepointofviewoftheindividualswhoarespeaking,norfromthepointofviewoftheformalstructuresofwhattheyaresaying,butfromthepointofviewoftherulesthatcomeintoplayintheveryexistenceofsuchdiscourse:whatconditionsdidLinnaeus(orPetty,orArnauld)havetofulfil,nottomakehisdiscoursecoherentandtrueingeneral,buttogiveit,attheIhadapproachedthisquestioninconnectionwithpsychiatryandclinicalmedicineintwoearlierworksforewordtotheenglisheditionxivtimewhenitwaswrittenandaccepted,valueandpracticalapplicationasscientificdiscourse–or,moreexactly,asnaturalist,economic,orgrammaticaldiscourseOnthispoint,too,IamwellawarethatIhavenotmademuchprogressButIshouldnotliketheeffortIhavemadeinonedirectiontobetakenasarejectionofanyotherpossibleapproachDiscourseingeneral,andscientificdiscourseinparticular,issocomplexarealitythatwenotonlycan,butshould,approachitatdifferentlevelsandwithdifferen

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【福柯】事物的秩序(词与物英文版)

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